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Founded 1791 


VOL. 71 

Committee of Publication 








John Singleton Copley 


Henry Pelham 


The Massachusetts Historical Society 



Published November 1Q14 



Illustrations xix 

Prefatory Note xxi 


September 12. Peter Pelham, Sr. to Peter Pelham, Jr 3 

Learns of his marriage. Feels slighted and forsaken by his children. Is not 
unforgiving. Has seen Captain Woodside. Family news and messages. 


July 4. Peter Pelham, Sr. to Peter Pelham, Jr 6 

Has written more than once. Peter in Carolina. Lady Deloraine. Sister Mes- 
senger unable to assist. A box not shipped as intended by Helena. His own 
health and necessities. 

September 1. Helena Pelham to Peter Pelham, Jr 9 

Has been much unsettled. Family intelligence. The overlooked gifts. Good 
accounts of young Peter. 


February 19. Peter Pelham, Sr. to William Pelham II 

Thanks for his letter. 

February 19. Helena Pelham to Peter Pelham, Jr 12 

Gifts sent by Rello. Her position. 

February 19. Helena Pelham to Penelope Pelham 14 

Letter with gifts. 

October 12. Peter Pelham, Sr., to Peter Pelham, Jr 14 

Death of sister Baker. Peter's good behavior in Carolina. 

July 20. Peter Pelham, Sr. to Peter Pelham, Jr 16 

Letters probably intercepted. Family news and wishes. 


October 3. Helena Pelham to Peter Pelham, Jr 16 

Wishes to hear often. Messages. 

vi Contents 


November 30. Peter Pelham, Sr. to Peter Pelham, Jr 18 

Difficulty of writing. His residence and good wishes. 

September 10. Charles Pelham to Peter Pelham, Jr 19 

Is at Newport. Some matters of business. 

June 30. Will of Peter Pelham, Sr 20 

October 8. Thomas Ainslie to Copley 23 

Picture gives satisfaction. Can find occupation at Halifax. 


February 15. Helena Pelham to Charles Pelham 23 

Has not heard from him for a long time. Her picture considered. Writing not 
the agreeablest thing for her. Burial of General Whitmore. 

September 30. Copley to Jean Etienne Liotard 26 

Wishes to obtain some Swiss crayons. Art in New England. 


January 7. Samuel Fayerweather to Copley 27 

Judge Leigh's picture. 

April 24. Peter Traille to Copley 28 

Directions for sending picture. 


January 24. Copley to Charles Pelham 29 

Smallpox in the town. 

November 12. Thomas Ainslie to Copley 30 

A child's recognition of portrait. Offers hospitality. 

January 25. Copley to a Mezzotinter 31 

On making a print of Dr. Sewall. Proposals. 

February 25. Copley to Thomas Ainslie 32 

Will not be able to visit Quebec. Love for his art. Human and Nature's 


Contents vii 

March 7. Peter Traille to Copley 34 

Loss of crayon drawings. 

March 25. Bill for a Portrait 35 

September 10. Copley to R. G. Bruce 35 

Sends "Boy with the Squirrel" for exhibition. Disturbances caused by the 

October 18. J. Powell to Copley 37 

Case of artists' materials. 


April 28. Peter Pelham to Copley 37 

Parting. Messages to family. Situation in Barbados. Prospects for a painter. 

August 4. R. G. Bruce to Copley 41 

Opinions of West and Reynolds on picture. Suggests a visit to Europe. Friend- 
liness of West. 

August 4. Benjamin West to Copley 43 

Criticism and praise for picture. Advises another exhibition piece. Oil painting 

September 3. Francis M. Newton to Copley 45 

His election to the Society of Artists of Great Britain. 

September 5. James Scott to Copley 46 

Portrait delivered. Time of return. 

September 12. Copley to Peter Pelham 47 

On invitation to Barbados. Intends to visit Europe. Opinions favorable to his 

October 13. Copley to Benjamin West 49 

Appreciates his praise. Wishes a correspondence. 

November 12. Copley to Benjamin West 50 

Conscious of shortcomings. Will try to complete something for next exhibition. 
Difficulties to be met. As to visiting Europe. Painting in Italy. A mezzotinto of 


June 11. R. G. Bruce to Copley 52 

Arrival of the portrait. Opinions of West and Reynolds. Suggestions on 
method. Messages. 

June 20. Benjamin West to Copley 56 

Demands on his time. Various opinions on his picture. Mezzotinto scrapers. 

June 25. R. G. Bruce to Copley 58 

His portrait and the impression made. A more pleasing subj'ect wanted. A 
visit to Europe. 

viii Contents 

September 3. George Livius to Copley 60 

Copies of two portraits by Kelberg. 

September 14. George Livius to Copley 61 

Prices for making copies. Sends the portraits. Directions and a suggested 

November 23. Copley to Francis M. Newton 63 

Acknowledging notice of election to Society of Artists of Great Britain. 


February — . Copley to R. G. Bruce 64 

On the proposed visit to Europe. Wishes his counsel. 

February — . Copley to R. G. Bruce 65 

Difficulties in finding proper subjects of picture. Art in America at a low mark. 


January 17. Copley to Benjamin West 66 

Sends pieces for exhibition. Want of advantages. No copy to be permitted. 
His visit to Europe. Differences in pictures. 

January 17. Copley to R. G. Bruce 69 

Has sent pictures for the exhibition. Rogers' portrait. 

August 5. Myles Cooper to Copley 70 

Sends money and properties for portrait. Offers to buy the Nun with the 

. Copley to Myles Cooper 71 

Properties received. Will sell Nun. 

September 20. Benjamin West to Copley 72 

Favors his visit to England. Should make it before determining where to 

October 24. Myles Cooper to Copley 73 

Directions for sending pictures. As to the finish of the portrait. 


January 9. Myles Cooper to Copley 74 

Wishes pictures and gown sent to him. 

January 31. Edward Holyoke to Copley 75 

Copy of the portrait of Hollis and disposing of the original. 

August 21. Myles Cooper to Copley 75 

He would do well to paint in New York. 

September 24. Copley to Myles Cooper 76 

Cannot come to New York at this time. 

Contents ix 

October 18. G. W. Schilling to Copley 76 

Is pleased with the portrait. 

October 29. John Small to Copley 77 

Portraits give satisfaction. Introduces Mr. Taylor. Directions for changes in 

. Eliot to Copley 79 

Harvard College will not part with the Hollis original. 


January 17. Henry Pelham to Charles Pelham 79 

Advises that a letter be advertised. Reported death of John Dickinson. 

January 27. Charles Pelham to Henry Pelham 80 

The letter and its contents. 

March 23. John Greenwood to Copley 81 

Praises his exhibit. Wishes a portrait of his mother. His own activity in col- 
lecting pictures. West's fine compositions. 

March 29. Henry Pelham to Paul Revere 83 

Charge of stealing his plate of the Boston massacre. 

March — . Receipt for Money 84 

March — . Bill for Printing 84 

April 17. John Hurd to Copley 84 

Pictures sent for repair. Frames. An invitation. , 

May 1. Henry Pelham to Charles Pelham 85 

Failure to meet Barnard. 

May 1. Henry Pelham to Charles Pelham 86 

Barnard's account. Newspaper with interesting matter. Tea disturbances. 
Remonstrance made in London. 

May 4. John Hurd to Copley 87 

Is pleased with the portraits. Sends exchange on London. 

May 4. William Johnston to Copley 88 

A coat of arms. On boiling of oil. Asks for a miniature of his sister. Congratu- 
lations on marriage. 

May 15. John Small to Copley 93 

Picture received. His marriage. His visit to New York. Gage's portrait. 

September 21. John Wilkes to Nathaniel Barber 95 

Has received portrait of Wilkes Barber. American liberty. 

November 12. Henry Pelham to Charles Pelham 96 

Sends the printed laws. Deaths and sickness. A poem by Phyllis Wheatley. 

x Contents 

November 24. Copley to Benjamin West 97 

Reasons for not sending something for exhibition. Possible subjects in Mrs. 
Greenwood and Wilkes Barber. Art and politics. 

December 4. Charles Pelham to Henry Pelham 99 

Copley's daughter, Elizabeth. Family of Thomas Pelham. An invitation for 

December 17. Copley to Charles Willson Peale 100 

Praises his mezzotinto of Pitt. 

. Circular on Peale's Pitt, and a Comment 101 


January 25. Copley to John Greenwood 105 

Portrait of his mother. Would enjoy an opportunity to see the works of the 


January 29. Petition on Powder House, Boston 106 

March 28. Charles Pelham to Henry Pelham 107 

Complaint against Betty Pelham. 

March 29. Henry Pelham to Charles Pelham no 

On the conduct of Betty Pelham. 

April — . Stephen Kemble to Copley 112 

His visit to New York and prices. 

. Copley to Stephen Kemble 112 

Prices for portraits and sizes. 

April 17. Stephen Kemble to Copley 113 

Has obtained orders for portraits. List enclosed. 

June 6. Henry Pelham to Henry and Thomas Bromfield . . . .115 
An order for artist's materials. 

June 16. Benjamin West to Copley 116 

Is happy to learn of his intention to visit Europe. Portrait of Mrs. Greenwood. 

June 16. Copley to Henry Pelham 116 

His situation in New York. Some features of the place. His mare. 

June 18. Benjamin West to Shrimpton Hutchinson 118 

On taking his son as a student in painting. Mechanical side of art. Recom- 
mends Copley. 

June 20. Copley to Henry Pelham 120 

Is hard at work. Harmonside. Family messages. 

June 23. Henry Pelham to Copley 120 

Family matters. Birth in the Pelham family. Sale of the mare. Otis and the 
law suit. Progress on his house. 

Contents xi 

July 7. Henry Pelham to Copley 123 

Hears he was invited to Philadelphia. Powder House bill. Lucy and the Pep- 
perells. Trouble with Mrs. Dawson. Green's lines on Checkley's portrait. 

July 11. Henry Pelham to Copley 126 

Family items, and the lawsuit. 

July 14. Copley to Henry Pelham 127 

Manner of spending his time. Has many visitors. Social pleasures. Otis and 
the lawsuit. Details for the house. 

July 16. Henry Pelham to James Putnam 131 

The lawsuit. 

July 24. Copley to Henry Pelham 132 

Otis and the suit. Is much occupied. 

July 28. Henry Pelham to Copley 134 

Progress on the house. Fees in the lawsuit. Family news. Robinson's assault 
on Otis. 

August 3. Copley to Henry Pelham 136 

Has many commissions. Piazza defined. Alterations in the house. 

August 15. Henry Pelham to Copley 138 

Putnam on the lawsuit. Asks for definite instructions. 

August 17. Invoice of Merchandise 140 

August 17. Copley to Henry Pelham 141 

Directions on the house. 

August 24. Shrimpton Hutchinson to Copley 143 

Incloses West's letter. Asks his advice. 

August 25. Copley to Henry Pelham 144 

Is disappointed on the progress of the lawsuit. 

August 25. Henry Pelham to Copley 145 

As to letter writing. The house and its finish. Message from Snap. Plan of the 
house. Illness of Captain Joy. 

September 2. Henry Pelham to Copley 150 

Postponement of the trial of the suit. The health of Otis. 

September 9. Copley to Henry Pelham 151 

Regrets postponing of lawsuit. The house and its occupation. Money obtain- 

September 10. Henry Pelham to Copley 154 

A box of frames. The lawsuit. Suggestions on the houses. Trees for the walk. 
Remonstrance to king in London. Spriggs' offer of trees. 

September 20. Copley to Henry Pelham 159 

Directions in the lawsuit. The house and trees. 

xii Contents 

September 21. Mrs. Syme to Copley 161 

As to her father's picture. 

September 24. Henry Pelham to Copley 161 

His return to Boston. Elevation of the house. Monies to be received. 

September 29. Copley to Henry Pelham 163 

A visit to Philadelphia. Pictures seen in that place. Van Dyck's coloring. 

October 12. Copley to Henry Pelham 165 

Money on demand, if needed. 

October 2. Henry Pelham to James Putnam .......... 167 

As to the lawsuit. 

. Henry Pelham to Miss Barrett 167 

A return for her portrait. 

October 17. Copley and Susanna Copley to Henry Pelham . . . 168 
Desires a gown to be sent on. 

October 22. Henry Pelham to Copley 169 

The lawsuit and the house. Van Dyck's visit to England. Complaints against 
Mrs. Dawson. Explosion in the town. Oil wanted. 

November 6. Copley to Henry Pelham 173 

Exchange of letters. Portrait of Mrs. Gage. Quincy and the lawsuit. The piazza. 

November 24. Copley to Henry Pelham 175 

As to the fees in the lawsuit. 

November 28. Henry Pelham to Copley 177 

The Governor and the Massachusetts Spy. Death of Sheaffe. Visit from Lord 
William Campbell. 

December 15. Copley to Henry Pelham 179 

Sends some wild laurel. Has finished thirty-seven busts. Time of his return. 


January 2. John Hancock to Copley 180 

Delay in sittings for portraits. 

January — . to Montresor 180 

Lottery tickets. Livery and hats. An error in picture frame. Praise of Copley's 
painting. Colonel Montresor's American lands. Scandal about the Queen of 

March 1. Henry Pelham to Miss McIlvaine 183 

Friendly letter. Return of Copley to Boston. The lawsuit won. Hancock's lottery 
prize and contribution towards rebuilding Dr. Cooper's meeting-house. 

. Isaac Smith, Jr., to Copley 185 

On range of the human voice. 

Contents xiii 

. James Bowdoin to Copley 185 

Plans for church too expensive. Record of the committee on rebuilding. 

August 16. William Carson to Copley 187 

Commendation of Copley's work. Suggests a subject. 

September 14. Mrs. Mascarene to Henry Pelham 189 

Miniature of her father. 

December 20. Jonathan Clarke to Copley 190 

West approves his plans for visiting Europe. Expenses of living abroad. Mrs. 
Copley may come later. 

January 6. Benjamin West to Copley 194 

His journey and studies in Italy. Mrs. Gage's portrait pleased. 

March — . Benjamin Andrews to Henry Pelham 197 

Wishes his portrait to be finished. 

August 3. Henry Pelham to John Singleton 198 

Renews his correspondence. Copley about to visit Europe. 

September 9. Henry Pelham to Stephen Hooper 199 

His miniature finished. 

September 19. Stephen Hooper to Henry Pelham 200 

The miniature and Copley's portrait of Mrs. Hooper. 

November 5. Henry Pelham to Charles Pelham 200 

Disturbances in Boston. Proceedings of the Sons of Liberty. 

November — . Thomas Palmer to Copley 202 

Sends letters of introduction. 

November 10. Thomas Palmer to James Byers 204 

Introducing Copley. 

November — . Thomas Palmer to Sir William Hamilton .... 204 
Recommending Copley and his work. 

November 24. Dr. John Morgan to Copley 205 

Sends a few letters for Italy. Characterises the persons to whom written. Let- 
ters to Rutherford, Byers, Abbe Grant and Isaac Jamineau. 

December 1. Copley to Jonathan and Isaac Winslow Clarke . .211 

Efforts to modify action of the meeting on tea. Results and action recom- 


February 15. Copley to Richard Clarke 213 

On a memorial to the General Court. Newspaper calumnies. Colonel Lee's 

xiv Contents 

January 27. John Singleton to Henry Pelham 215 

Family congratulations and happenings. Marriages of his daughters. A cor- 
rupt Parliament and America. 

April 26. Copley to Isaac Clarke 217 

A hostile visit to his house in search of Watson. 

June 3. Joseph Webb to Henry Pelham 219 

The picture and payment. 

June 8. Henry Pelham to Helena Pelham 220 

A letter by the hands of Copley. Family greetings. 

June 9. John Small to Copley 221 

Sends a letter of introduction to his brother, Alexander Small. 

June — . A Bill for Portraits 223 

July 9. Copley to his Wife 223 

Is about to leave for London. His sea experiences. Anxiety about Boston. 
Family messages. A bill of exchange. 

July n. Copley to Henry Pelham 225 

Manner of getting to London. Has seen West and Reynolds. Objects of inter- 
est. A companion for his Italian tour. Advice from West. Jonathan Clarke's dis- 
tant residence. 

July 17. Henry Pelham to Copley 228 

Home news. Ill conduct of Green. Dispute over rents. Offers for the house. 
Difficulties of settling with Hancock. Congress of the Colonies. Situation in 
Boston with troops. League and Covenant. 

August 5. Copley to Henry Pelham 234 

Plan of a fence. Civilities from Lord Gage, West and Rook. A dinner with 
Governor Hutchinson. 

August 15. Nathaniel Hatch to Henry Pelham 238 

Asks for plan of Sewall street. 

August 17. Copley to Henry Pelham 238 

Social pleasures of London. English politeness. Reynolds and Whitehall. Sug- 
gestions on painting. Has not seen Aunt Singleton. Advice to study incessantly 
and practise continually. 

August 25. Copley to Henry Pelham 242 

Order for Hutchinson's portrait. Is about to leave for France. 

September 2. Copley to Henry Pelham 242 

Account of his journey in France. Rouen and comforts. Meals and lodgings. 
Impressions of Paris. Advice on painting. A sketch book. The study of the 
masters. Poussin and his methods. 

September 5. Robert Hooper to P. Thomas 247 

Order for picture. 

Contents xv 

September 7. Copley to Henry Pelham 247 

The church of Notre Dame and College for Surgeons. The Luxemburg gallery. 
Manner of Rubens' painting. His color scheme. 

September 8. Copley to his Mother 253 

His passage from England. The buildings of Paris. Manner of living and its 
cheapness. His delight with his excursion. 

September 15. Copley to his Wife 256 

Will be in England next summer. No dangers in travelling. Journey from 
Paris to Lyons. River voyaging. Wishes to know of his family. 

September 25. Copley to Henry Pelham 261 

Dispatch in travelling. Service at the dining places. Avignon and Marseilles. 
The languages. 

October 5. Charles Reak and Samuel Okey to Henry Pelham . . 264 
Plans for mezzotintos. 

November 2. Henry Pelham to Copley 265 

Has enjoyed his letters. Is at Philadelphia for health. Some painting commis- 
sions. Disturbances in Boston. An entire stoppage of business. Green's conduct. 
What he has seen in New York and Philadelphia. Copley's fame. 

November 10. Henry Pelham to John Singleton 269 

A family letter. 

November 18. Henry Pelham to his Mother 272 

Art seen in Philadelphia. Social attentions and commissions. 

November 21. Henry Pelham to Charles Startin 273 

Acknowledgments of pleasures received. Quiet in Boston. The Congress and 
export of rice. Newport and the slave trade. Smallpox among the troops. 

December 3. Charles Startin to Henry Pelham 276 


December 4. Henry Pelham to John Morgan 277 

Information wanted on portrait of Angelica Kauffmann. Labelling of pictures. 

December 12. Henry Pelham to Charles Startin 278 

Appreciation of courtesies. Wishes to make portrait of Richard Clarke. A 
sketch for a picture frame. 

December 24. Adam Babcock to Henry Pelham 281 

Proceedings of a town meeting. Tiles and wallpaper wanted. 

December 27. John Morgan to Henry Pelham 282 

History of the portrait of Angelica Kauffmann, and of herself. 


January 27. Henry Pelham to Copley . 284 

Birth of a son. The baptism. Politics in the family. 

xvi Contents 

January 31. Henry Pelham to Charles Startin 287 

Portrait of Richard Clarke. A pamphlet controversy. 

February 13. Henry Pelham to Benjamin West . . 288 

Something for the exhibition. Praise of his ability. 

February 16. Henry Pelham to Copley 289 

Boston more peaceable. Account of his journey to Philadelphia. Experience of 
a country mob. What he has seen in New York and Philadelphia. 

March 10. Henry Pelham to Charles Rear and Samuel Okey . . 293 

Making plates from portraits. Suggests one of Professor Winthrop. 
March 14. Copley to Henry Pelham 294 

Picture of the Izards. Manner of making an historical composition. Exam- 
ples and experiments. Compassion for Boston. A study of Raphael and Titian. 
Colors and treatment. 

March 16. Charles Rear and Samuel Orey to Henry Pelham . . 308 
Plates of Samuel Adams and John Hancock. One of Winthrop. 

April 3. Henry Pelham to Copley 310 

Enjoyment of his letters. Deaths of Mrs. Oliver, Chardon and Winslow. 
Quiet in Boston. 

April 7. Joshua Wentworth to Henry Pelham 313 

Copley and his portraits. 

May 3. Henry Pelham to Charles Startin 313 

Wishes letters for England. Mrs. Copley about to sail. Sally Bromfield and 
the battle of Lexington. Portrait of Richard Clarke. 

May 4. Henry Pelham to Copley 316 

Hostility to Jones. The battle of Lexington and his experiences. 

May 16. Henry Pelham to John Singleton 318 

Disturbed condition of Boston. The affair at Lexington and Concord. Dis- 
tressed situation of the town. Thinks of going to Europe. 

May 16. Henry Pelham to Copley 322 

Disorder and distress in Boston. The Concord expedition and its conse- 
quences. Gage fortifying the town. Business at a standstill. His illness. 

June 5. Henry Pelham to Charles Pelham 325 

Sailing of Mrs. Copley. His mother unwilling to leave Boston. 

June 25. Copley to his Mother 328 

Anxiety for her welfare. Is copying a Correggio. Ease of travel. Some of the 
sights of Italy. Izard and Boylston. Thoughts for his brother. His commissions. 
Has heard of the Lexington affair. 

June 25. Copley to Henry Pelham 333 

Further study of Titian. Conjecture on his method of coloring. Receipts for 
varnishes. Recommends the study of anatomy. Painting history essential. 
Opinions of his work. 

Contents xvii 

July 15. Copley to Henry Pelham 343 

Urges him not to take up arms, even if ordered to do so. 

July 23. Henry Pelham to Susanna Copley 344 

The siege of Boston and military operation*. Battle of Bunker Hill. Affair of 
Long Island. Family news. Is making a survey of Charlestown. Appointment 
of generals by the Congress. 

August 6. Copley to Henry Pelham 348 

Civil war in America. Result will be independence. Urges his mother to leave 

. Johnson to Henry Pelham 350 

Draughts of the enemy's works. g 

August 19. Henry Pelham to Copley 350 

Reasons for not sending the survey of Charlestown. General Howe's dinner. 
Political considerations. Departure of Judge Sewall. 

August 22. Copley to Henry Pelham 352 

Hopes to meet him on arriving in England. Results of his tour. His copy of 
Correggio. Prospects in England. Boston not capable of withstanding a siege. 

August — . A Plan of Charlestown 356 

With a dedication to Howe. 

September 18. Mrs. Copley to Henry Pelham 357 

Letters from Copley. Distress for her friends in Boston. Expects to hear of his 
coming. Social relations in England. Messages. 

October 10. Henry Pelham to Copley 360 

Distressing circumstances of the country. Deaths of friends. Disappointments. 
His liking for Sarah Bromfield. Irregularity of letters. 


January 27. Henry Pelham to Copley 364 

Death of his son, Clarke Copley. Caution as to letters. Military conditions in 
and around Boston unchanged. His mother. Changes in the country and city. 
Purchase of some prints. 

February — . Henry Pelham to Henry Bromfield, Jr 369 

Wishes a meeting at the lines. 

February 25. Henry Bromfield, Jr. to Henry Pelham 370 

Reflections on the changed situation. Accounts. 

. Henry Caner to Copley 372 

A picture attributed to Da Vinci. 

. Copley to Henry Pelham 373 

Portrait of Taylor. 

Index " 375 


John Singleton Copley Frontispiece 

From the self-painted portrait in the New York Historical Society. 

Peter Pelham, Jr 5 

From a portrait by Copley in the possession of Charles Pelham Curtis. 

Receipt of Peter Pelham, Jr., 1728 5 

Letter of Mary (Copley) Pelham 16 

The original was in the possession of Denison R. Slade. 

Receipt of Copley, 1758 27 

"Boy with the Squirrel" (Henry Pelham) 35 

From the painting by Copley in the possession of Frederic Amory. 

Receipt of Copley, 1769 78 

Letter of Charles Pelham 80 

The original was in the possession of Denison R. Slade. 

Circular of Charles Willson Peale's Picture of William Pitt . 102 
The original is in the Library of Congress. 

John Singleton Copley 117 

From a self-painted miniature in the possession of Henry Copley Greene. 

Plan of Copley's House on Mt. Vernon 137 

From his own sketch in the Public Record Office, London. 

Letter of Henry Pelham 145 

The original is in the Public Record Office, London. 

Letter of Susanna Copley ' 169 

The original was in the possession of Denison R. Slade. 

Signature of Jonathan Clarke 193 

The original was in the possession of Denison R. Slade. 

Letter of Benjamin West 195 

The original is. in the Adams Papers. 

Tradesmen's Protest against the Proceedings of the Merchants, 
1773 20 3 

The original is in the Massachusetts Historical Society. 

xx Illustrations 

Signature of Isaac W. Clarke 211 

The original was in the possession of Denison R. Slade. 

Letter of Richard Clarke 213 

The original was in the possession of Denison R. Slade. 

Copley's drawing of a Fence 232 

The original is in the Public Record Office, London. 

Elizabeth and John Singleton Copley, Jr 271 

From a sketch by Benjamin West in the possession of Lord Aberdare. j 

Signature of Sarah Startin 277 

The original was in the possession of Denison R. Slade. 

Richard Clarke , . 279 

From the family group painted by Copley in the possession of Copley Amory. 

One of Copley's Children [Mary?] 300 

From a sketch by Benjamin West in the possession of Lord Aberdare. t . 

The Redoubt on Bunker Hill 327 

From Pelham's sketch in the Public Record Office, London. 

Permission to make Plan of Boston 346 

From Pelham's sketch in the Public Record Office, London. 

Letter of John Singleton Copley 348 

The original is in the Public Record Office, London. 

Power of Attorney, 1776 372 

The original was in the possession of Denison R. Slade. 

Receipt of Copley, 1783 374 

The original is in the Adams Papers. 

Receipt of Gilbert Stuart, 1800 374 

The original is in the Adams Papers. 

Prefatory Note 

The letters and documents printed in this volume are in the Public 
Record Office, London. 1 They appear to have been drawn in part from 
the Domestic State Papers, but no note shows the history of the papers 
and how or when they reached the Record Office. For a long period of 
time they were among the papers intercepted by the British Government 
during the first months of the American rebellion; but they could hardly 
have actually been intercepted, as so many never passed through the 
English post-office or even crossed the ocean. Mr. Paul Leicester Ford, 
to whom one bundle of the papers was known, and who printed a few of 
the papers in the Atlantic Monthly, lxxi. 499, states, but without giving 
his authority, that Copley and Pelham fell under the suspicion of the 
Government. "To what extent suspicion was attached to them it is now 
impossible to say; but it certainly went so far as to lead these two men to 
turn over their private papers to the government; and these, instead of 
being returned, drifted into this great depository of manuscripts." 

Since Mr. Ford wrote, the collection has been much increased by newly 
discovered material, and in a rearrangement it had been assorted into 
four bundles. Three of those were discovered quite by accident by 
Professor Guernsey Jones, of the University of Nebraska. Becoming in- 
terested, he began to make copies, and while thus engaged, his attention 
was called by Professor Charles M. Andrews, whose Guide had not then 
been printed, to a fourth bundle, containing the earliest Pelham letters. 
The transcripts and the notes upon them 2 were offered by Professor 
Jones to this Society for publication. Of the collection he writes : 

"All of Pelham's letters and all of Copley's, except those to Pelham and 
his mother (and the one to his wife from the Chamberlain Collection), are 
in the form of rough drafts, sometimes in duplicate or even in triplicate 
with slight variations. The others are the letters actually received, with 

1 Designated in Andrews's Guide as C. O. 5/38, 39. The arrangement in two bundles 
was made at the suggestion of Professor Jones. 

2 It has not been thought necessary to locate the portraits by Copley mentioned in these 
letters, as Mr. Frank W. Bayley, of Boston, is preparing an exhaustive list of Copley's 

xxii Prefatory Note 

trifling exceptions, which may be readily inferred from the letters them- 
selves. The entire correspondence was once carefully sorted and ar- 
ranged by Pelham, but is now in the utmost confusion. The less import- 
ant letters, together with Pelham's memoranda and household bills, are 
omitted in this volume. 

"It has been impossible to discover how these private letters of a 
provincial family came to be incorporated into the great collection of 
British State Papers. When Copley started on his Italian tour in the 
summer of 1774, he left his letters and papers with Pelham, who kept 
them with his own. In less than two years, Pelham in turn left Boston — 
a Tory refugee upon the British evacuation of that place. He presumably 
took his papers with him, for upon one of the wrappers he has written, 
'Letters from Mr. Copley, rec'd at Halifax.' On May 12, 1776, more than 
eleven hundred New England refugees embarked at Halifax for England. 
Among them was Pelham on the Brigantine Unity, Captain Hill. 1 He 
reached Dover after a short passage on June 5- 2 What happened to his 
papers is a matter of conjecture. We only know that, fortunately for us, 
they are now preserved in the British archives." 

The correspondence concerns Massachusetts before the date of Inde- 
pendence, and throws valuable light upon Copley and his early paintings. 
Mention is made of a number of his portraits, hitherto unknown, and his 
impressions of the work of other painters and methods of painting are 
detailed in his letters from France and Italy. The papers are thus both 
historical and technical. 

Professor Jones makes acknowledgment to Lord Aberdare, the Hon- 
orable Lady Du Cane, and the officials of the Public Record Office for 
courtesies received. The Society adds its acknowledgment for assistance 
to Mr. Frederic Amory, Mr. Charles Pelham Curtis, Mr. Henry Copley 
Greene, Mr. Copley Amory, the late Mr. Denison R. Slade, and the New 

York Historical Society. 

Charles Francis Adams. 
Guernsey Jones. 

Boston, September 15, 1914. 

1 C. O. 5/93, p. 333- Pelham, known to be an artist, was listed as a "reputable 
tradesman." See Copley's objection to the word "trade" as applied to art (p. 65, infra). 

2 Morning Post, June 8, 1776. Governor Hutchinson heard of Pelham's arrival on 
June 7. Diary and Letters, 11. 61. 



John Singleton Copley 


Henry Pelham 

I 739" I 77 6 

The Copley- Pelham Letters 

1739- 1776 

Peter Pelham, Sr. to Peter Pelham, Jr. 

I was indeed somthing surpris : d on the 6th of May last on 
the Receiveing a Letter from an almost an unknown Person 
which Referd me to Captain woodside for a Pirtickuler ac- 
count of you and your affairs, who gave me but a short and 
unsatisfactory Relation as I found in your Letter which was 
that you was married to a second wife l with a Prospect of an 
Increase of your famely without any fortune which makes me 
Concernd at your being too near Re[l]ated to me by being forst 
to labour under Deficultys as I my self am and have been many 
years; but of all afflictions being slighted and forsaken by my 
owne flesh and Blood gives me more trouble and vexation than 
all other Crosses and Disapointments ; but as their is a time for 
all things and when are at a Crises it is sure that a turne is to 
be Expected, and as it is my nature to putt the best Construc- 
tions in most things Relating to my self from my Children, 
Espesialy for your so long silence and neglect of me. but since 
you make me beleive you are sorry for what is Past I Cannot be 
of that stuborn and unforgiveing Disposition as not to Pardon 
and wipe of all Misdemeaners, and do heartily forgive what 
Ever has been amiss in you on my account, and never for the 
future I hope shall have any more Cause of Complaint. 

I had another Letter on the 12th of June last Dated April the 
5 th by Mr. Hilhouse who Pleasd me by saying you Lin : d very 
1 Margaret Lowrey, whom he married, October 15, 1734. 

4 Copley -Pelham Letters 1739 

well and in a handsome manner which I am heartily Glad of. 
I Prest him very much to lett me know where he Lodg'd that 
I might waite on him, but Could not Prevail, so have not seen 
him since. I was at Chelsea to see Captain woodside once, who 
was att his fathers house, a Decenting Minester but was not 
at home at that time, he has been to see me severall times 
since, but the last time he was with me is above two months, 
and what is become of him I know nott, whether in England 
still or gone. I am but latly Recoverd of a feavor since then 
but am very well at this time; your sister Messenger, thank 
god, is very well and shed tears of Joy at my haveing a letter 
from you, and sends her kind Love and servis to you, and her 
sister in law, and Blessing to all your great and litle ones, your 
sister heley x is in the Country and was very well when the 
other day I had a letter from her. She writt to you some time 
ago but haveing no answer soposd might miscarry, and now 
once more my Dear son since the Ice is Broake Between us, I 
hope for a great deale of Pleasure by Renewing our Corispond- 
ence, and shall heartily Prey god to Bless and Prosper you in 
all your honest undertakeing has been my Constant and Daly 
Prayers; and were I in any Circumstance of shewing my love 
to you other than my hearty wishes for you, you should soon 
find how sincearly my Dear son I am Intirely your Most Af- 
fectionate father p . p ELHAM> 

Pray give my Blessing and servis to my Daughter in law, and 
I wish all health and happyness to attend her and hers. I was 
mightily Pleas :d with Charles: s 2 Prety Letter towhome I send 

1 Helena. 

2 Charles Pelham, born in London, and baptized at St. Paul's, December 9, 
1722, became a schoolmaster at Medford and elsewhere, and married Mary 
Tyler, niece of Sir William Pepperell. 


1739 Copley -Pelham Letters 5 

my Blessing and thankes for the same and when you write to 
Poor Peter 1 my Blessing to him and am heartily glad he is like 
to do so well, your sister Messenger gos to see Mr. and Mrs. 
Simons some times but I have not been so farr this half year for 
I very seldom go abroad so have not seen them but they are 
very well. 

Pray Derect your next to me att the Right Honble the Lady 
Isabella Scotts, in Grosvenor Street, Grosvenor Square London, 
my Blessing to all the Rest of your famely and God Bless you 

good night 

[L]ondon, September the 12th, 1739. 

[Addressed:] To Mr. Pelham att his house att Boston in New 
England. 2 

BOftOM^^^ the M 172; 

Ecelved of Mr./^^^^^^«--the J: 
^ otei&Atn^ being the fjrft' Payment 
or the Subicription for^A^^, >Wj>«°of the 
late Rev. Dr* COttOtl $$U\$tt A by which 
the Bearer is Entitled to the faid Y^l^A^D 
Paying <2 d&JkUf* at the Delivery of the feme, 
By me 9*te> 9c£L^_^_j 


1 The brother of Charles, born in England, and baptized at St. Paul's, De- 
cember 17, 1 72 1, later removed to South Carolina, and thence to Virginia. 

2 In February, 1738, Pelham occupied a house on Summer Street, next to 
that of Philip Dumaresque, and taught " Dancing, Writing, Reading, painting 
upon Glass, and all kinds of needle work." Boston Gazette, February 6, 1738. 

6 Copley -Pelham Letters 1741 

Peter Pelham, Sr. to Peter Pelham, Jr. 

My Dear Son, 

I will assure you that I have not faild answering all the Let- 
ters I had the Joy and Pleasure of Receiveing from you in an- 
swer to one Dated April the 5th, 1739 and Reed June 12th, An- 
swerd September 12th following: another I had Dated October 
30th, Reed November 26th, 1739, and likewise Answerd Feb- 
ruary 19th, 1739-40 so that I hope my Dear Son will not Imput 
any thing wanting in me or Neglect ingiveingyou all the satis- 
faction you so Earnestly Desire in hearing from me as I am the 
same of you. but as the times are at Present it Cannot be much 
wonderd at our Letters being intercepted when it is so haserdus 
for all English ships to go any where abroad, who are very fre- 
quently taken by the Spaniards, however I have the Pleasure 
of Receiveing your Last Dated March 14th I had the 1st of July 
by the Boston Trader who says [he] is to Return very soon, so 
[I] would not lose the opertunity of Writeing by him. tho you 
Referd me to the Britania Captaine Fores, 1 I have venturd to 
send this answer by the same hands that Brought me your Let- 
ter. I am heartily Pleasd to hear, by Lady D : Lorain 2 that 
Came from Charlestowne in Carolina about a year ago, that my 
Grandson Peter was a very Genteel Clever young man being 
very well acquainted with him by teaching Miss Fenwick her 
sister to play on the Harpsicord which he Performs very well. 

1 A Captain Fones cleared from Boston to London before March 17. New 
England Weekly Journal, March 17, 1741. 

2 Elizabeth, daughter of John Fenwick, of South Carolina, married Henry Scott, 
a son of Henry Scott, Earl of Deloraine. Captain Scott was grandson of James 
Scott, Duke of Monmouth, and Anne, Duchess of Buccleugh. Fenwick re- 
moved to England, and died there in 1747. His will is printed in South Carolina 
Historical and Genealogical Magazine, vn. 27. 

I74 1 Copley -Pelharn Letters 7 

Lady D : Lorain was Married to Mr. Scott Captain of a man 
of Warr that was stationd att Carrolina whose Brother 1 died a 
litle before he left that Contry with out Children so he Came 
to the title and he died that very night he Came to London, so 
she is now a widdow has one son about four years old now Lord 
D: Loraine, and another younger with her father and mother 
in Charlestowne. I Pray god give you Comfort and happyness 
with all your Children. I am heartily Pleasd at the Charicter 
you give of Dear Charles and I hope he will Continue to be a 
Blessing to you. I hope you will make my Blessing and kind 
affections Acceptable to your Dear Spoues and I wish all health 
and happyness to attend you all. Dear Son as to your Sister 
Messengers sending Cloaths that was the Dutchess of Mon- 
mouths, 2 it is now about Nine years since she Died and Left the 
Poorest Wardrobe that Ever Dutchess did that had twenty 
thousand Pounds a year, and those Devided amongst three 
Women, and your Poor sister has been out of Place Ever since, 
so that you may Imagin she Cannott have where with to assist 
you. and your sister heley is as much Concernd. she has not 
any thing worth sending at Present her Lady has Lived in the 
Country alltogather, till now very Lately she is Come to towne, 
and has taken a house very near me, which will give me oper- 
tunitys to see her oftener than I have done these 14 years, your 
sister heley did in your first wives time gave a Captain of a ship 
a litle Box with a few things for her, which he Promist to deliver, 
who gave his man a great Charge to Put them up but the Cap- 
tain saild and his man forgott the Box that he Put in the Clos- 

1 Francis Scott, second Earl of Deloraine. 

s Charles Mordaunt (1658-1735), third Earl of Peterborough, took the title of 
Duke of Monmouth in 1689. His wife was Carey, or Carry, daughter of Sir 
Alexander Fraser, of Durris in Kincardineshire. She is said to have survived 
her husband, so "about nine years since" may be an error. 

8 Copley -Pelham Letters 1741 

sett, so she never had another opertunity of sending it. but she 
hopes in some time to have some little matter to send they 
both Desires their Best kindest Love and Affections and kind 
Rispect to you both and Blessing to all the Rest. 
' I hope my Dear son will Consider my near Aproach to 70 and 
Excuse the failing of my Eyes and a shakeing hand, which I 
fear will give you some troble to Read. I have no Ailment on 
me at Present but a Thorough Concern I am not in a Condition 
to assist my Dear Children according to my unfined love and 
affections which I Ever bore for them. I am very much putt to 
it to find my self in nesesarys in outward apparrell, for which I 
Cannot free my self from Debt theirfore [am] farr from assist- 
ing those I have so much att heart and I Can find no other 
Remedy but to Consider that all Events are from god and as 
his Providence orders all things according to his will and Plea- 
sure, who shall say why is it so; I fear you will be out of Pa- 
tiance with this Dull subject, but I beg you will take the sin- 
cearity of my good meaning, and with my Blessing to you your 
spoues and all the Litle ones, I will give you now no further 
troble, but my Desire and beg I may hear from you as soon and 
as offten as you Can, and that you will beleive me to be my 
Dear Son your most Intire and Ever Most Affectionate father 

Peter Pelham. 

London, July 4th, 1741. 

I so seldom go abroad that I have nott seen Mr. or Mrs. Si- 
mons above these twelve months, so Can give no account of 
them but by your sisters who gos to see them some times, so 
god bless you. 

[Addressed:] To Mr. Pelham att his house att Boston in 
New England. 

1 74i Copley -Pelham Letters 

Helena Pelham x to Peter Pelham, Jr. 

Maby my Dear Brother will be a little surprise! at haveing a 
letter from me, but I do asure you I have greate pleasure in 
wrighting to you and in hearing of your wellfair. but I have 
not allway the opportunity for some times I am in Irland and 
sometimes in England, and have been settled noware tell now, 
and now I hope I am, for my lady 2 has taken a house in lon- 
don. my Dear brother I have been four times in Irland, and 
the sickest sole all ways at sea that ever was. I hope to god I 
have dun going to sea now. I live with the same lady that I 
went over to. o my Dear Brother I long to see you but I am 
sure I never shall, since you are marrid a gaine to be sure you 
will not leave that place, poor mrs Guy is verey olde and 
verey poor, wee are, all kind to her, or I dont know what she 
would have dun. she desierd when I wrote, her blessing to the 
children and kind love to you. thanke god my Dear father is 
verey well and looks most charmingly, my sister has been ill a 
long time and is but in diferant. now boath my father and she 
desiers to be kindley remembert to you. I must tell you that a 
long time a go when Patty 3 was a live, hear was some gentleman 
in town who came from ware you are and was takeing his f am- 
iley over to settle thare. I heard this at mr Simons so I de- 
sierd that he would take a small parcel and a letter to you from 
me and he promisd he would. So I left at mr Simons, for the 
gentle man would send thare for it, a letter and a short apron 
and a fann for dear Patty, accordingly the gentle man sent his 

1 She was living in Chichester, England, in 1774. 

* Henrietta, Lady Conway, daughter of Lord Conway and Lady Mary 
Hyde. Edward Solly in 4 Notes and Queries, xn. 179. 

1 Martha, Pelham's first wife, whom he married in England. By her he 
had three sons, Peter, Charles and William. 


io Copley -Pelham Letters 1741 

man for them and had them and be holde the man never packd 
them up but left them on a shelf in his masters closet, so some 
days after I had them a gaine which I was verey sorey for. I 
now in tend makeing the second trial, the gentle man who 
brings this is one I have some little knowledge of. he lived with 
a lady and gentlejman] who my lady made a viset to in the 
countrey. wee was thare six weeks. I heard he was going to 
leave his place and go to new England, so I asked the favour 
of him to carrey a letter for me to you, and when he Calls for 
my letter I will aske him to take a little parcel for me, which is 
a drest cap I send your little girl, who you say is a charming 
girl and her name Penelope. 1 poor thing, I shall never see her, 
nor my Dear old acquiantence Petter and Charls, who I hope 
is verey well, a lady hear told my father she knew Petter, for 
that he taught her sister on the harpsycord at South Carrolina, 
and that he was a verey agreable entertaining young man. you 
may be sure that account of him pleasd my father as well as 
me. I send my love and blessing to them all. I have sent your 
wife a preasent of a fann and a short apron, with my service and 
respects to her. I am glad since you marrid againe you have so 
prudend and good a wife as you say she is, and I have sent a 
pair of glove tops for penny as well as a cap. mr and mrs 
Simons was hear to see me the other day, when I was a wright- 
ing to you in the beginning of this letter, thay desierd thare 
Service to you. I have been three or four times at this letter 
and hope now I shall finish, my father has wrote ofen to you, 
and you complain that you sildom hear from him. so he fanceys 
thay must miscarrey. my dear brother I hop you will write to 
me by the first opportunity, and let me know if you have re- 

1 Penelope (1735-1756). She is said to have died, unmarried, at Boothbay, 

1 74 1 Copley -Pelham Letters n 

ceved my small poor present. I shall be rejoyced at a letter 
from you. I would have sent petter and charls each of them a 
little bit of gold but am a fraid to venture, if you git these safe 
and when ever you send me a letter by aney ship, if you know 
aney one in it that I may trust, I will not forgit my two dear 
boys. I now conclude with wishing my Dear Brother health 
and prosperity, my prayers and best wishes allways atend you 
and yours, so god bless you my Dear Brother and beleave me 
to be your ever loveing sister 

H. Pelham. 

Diret for me at the Honble mrs Conways in Green Street 
by Grosvenor Square 

Sept. the I, 1 741. 

[Endorsed:] Boston Deer, the 9th: 1741. Rec:d this with the 
Banbox, with the Cap, fan, Apron, and knott, by the hands 
of Mr. Rello. 

[Addressed :] To Mr. Petter Pelham at Boston in New Eng- 

Peter Pelham, Sr. to William Pelham 1 

My Dear William, 

I Return you my hearty thankes for your kind and Prety 
Letter which gave me a great deale of Pleasure and satisfaction 
at your tender years to Perform so good and Dutifull a Letter 
to me, your Poor old Grandfather, which I hope you will Con- 
tinue to do as offten as you have an opertunity. for their Can 
be nothing so Pleaseing to me as to hear of the wellfair of my 
Dear Children, which you all are, and shall all Pertake of my 

1 Son of Peter Pelham, Jr., by his first wife, Martha. He was born in Boston, 
February 22, 1729, and buried January 28, 1761. 

12 Copley -Pelham Letters 1742 

Blessing and hearty Prayers to god that you may live to be a 

Comfort to your Dear father and mother, which will indearme 

to value so obeideant a son, and I hope a good man as well as a 

good Christian, which will be the greatest happyness to your 

Parent yourself, but more Espsilarly to your Ever Tender and 

Affectionate Grandfather 

P: Pelham. 

My kind Blessing to Thomas and thank him for his Remem- 
berance of me in your Letter. 

London, February the 19th, 1741:2 

Helena Pelham to Peter Pelham, Jr. 

London, febury:the: 19:1741 [1742.] 
My Dear Brother, 

you may be sure it gives us a greate pleasure to hear from 
you. I never was more pleasd with aney thing then with your 
little girls letter. I dare say she is a charming childe, and I was 
glad to hear from my own dear boy charls, who I hope is still 
handsome, he was the preteyest boy when he went over that 
ever was. my father heard that Petter was a sencable young 
man, and verey chomical and entertaining. Lady Delleraine 
knows him. he teaches her sister at South carrolina. She came 
from thence, my father intends wrighting to him when her 
Ladyship writs to her father, and she will send it. I am sorrey 
you never got those things I sent over to penny [Penelope], it 
was a cap I drest her up and pink and silver ribbon in it and a 
pair of silver glove tops and a tippet I thinke. I sent the ban- 
box by one mr Rello, a swiss. he sayde he went to boston to be 
gunner of a ship thare at boston, so pray in quire for him and 
aske him what he did with a little banbox which I gave him 

1742 Copley -Pelham Letters 13 

directed for you at Boston. I hope the poor childe will git her 
cap yet. it is a verey pretey one. I thinke it is riming a hased 
[hazard] to send things so far of. I knew this mr Rello. he 
lived with a familey ware my lady visets, and tolde me he was 
going a broad. I asked ware he sayde to boston, so I tolde him 
I had a brother thare, if he would be so good as to Carrey a let- 
ter and a little parcel for me. he sayde aney thing he would 
take care of it. so I got these things dun up for the childe, and 
gave the box into his own hand, and desierd him to deliver it 
to you. he promisde me he would I made no Doubt but thay 
would have [reached] you Safe. I hope these will git Safe to you 
how ever that the poor child ma not loos all her fine things. I 
sopose my father tolde you my sister was married a gaine. 1 She 
was mamd last michelmus, and lives in the countreyby Barnet. 
She is verey ill. I question if she can live long, she is in so bad 
a way. my Dear Brother I am still with the same good Lady 
that I went over to Irland to. I have been three times since, 
so in all I have crost the Irish seas eight times, and allways the 
sickest sole at sea that ever was. I wonder if ever you will cross 
the sea to come to olde England a gaine. I fear not. I shall never 
be so happey as [to] see you mor or aney of yours, all the plea- 
sure I can expect is to hear from you, which I hope you will 
never fail of doing as ofen as opportunity will sarve. I live Just 
by my father, which is to me agreate happeyness, for I have pf en 
the pleasure of seeing him. my Lady has taken a leas of her 
house for five year, so I thinke now I am settled, pray let me 
hear from you as soon as you can. Direct for mrs Pelham at 
the Honble Mrs Conways in Green Stre[et] by Grosvenor 
Square, poor mrs Guy is yet a live but verey poor, wee are 
all kind to her, or I dont know what she would do. I tolde you 

1 The name of her husband, Baker, is given on p. 15, infra. 

14 Copley -Pelham Letters 1742 

this in my letter you never got, and that she desierd her ser- 
vice to you and blessing to the children. I now must conclude 
my Dearest Brother your ever f aithf ull f rind and Loveing Sister. 

H. Pelham. 

Pray make my compleyments to your Wife 

Helena Pelham to Penelope Pelham 1 

febury the 19: 1741 [1742.] 

Dear little unknown Penelope, 

I must love you childe for your name, you are the preteyest 
little wrighter I ever knew. I hope to convirce with you by letter 
as ofen as you have an opportunity, that I may see how 
finley you improve, you have all your requests granted. See 
what it is to be a pretey little begger. a baby a red trunke and 
a lock and key. and I my little childe have sent you a blue 
Ring and a necklace, and a Pelerin to wair a bought you neck, 
such a one as your baby has on. I should be mightley pleasd 
to see you at the opening of the trunke, for I am sure you will 
be in greate Joy. pray let me hear how you like all your things 
and give my service to your mama, so a Due my little unknown 
girl I shall be allways your loveing Aunt 

H. Pelham. 

Peter Pelham, Sr. to Peter Pelham, Jr. 

My Dear Son, 

- haveing no Answer of mine to you since I Writt, which was 
Dated February 19th 1741:2, which was an Answer to yours I 
Reed February 4th, Dated November 30th 1741, and haveing 

1 Her niece. 

1742 Copley -Pelham Letters 15 

Reed the inclosd from Mr. Lowrey Directed in a Blank Paper 
to me Directed, tooke the first opertunity to send it, and withall 
to Acquaint you that your Poor Sister Baker Dyde on Sunday 
the 29th of August Last after a Long and tedious Illness, your 
Sister Heley Desires her kindest Love Affections Blessing and 
Servis to you and all yours, and is much Concernd to know if 
you Ever Reed her Litle Presents to her Dear Neice Penelope, 
she sent by Mr. Cahill, who Promist to take great Care to De- 
liver them with his owne hands ; I had the Pleasure of a Letter 
from Dear Peter from Charlestowne, Carolina, the 15th of May 
last, which I Designe to Answer very soone. it Reioices me 
Extreamly to hear by the Countess of Deloraine that Came 
from thence that he is Extreamly Likd, and behaves himself 
mighty well, and teaches her sister to play on the spinett and 
has a very good Charicter which is a great Comfort to me to 

I Cannot give you any Account by what Ship or Captain 
this Comes to you, not being able to go so f arr as the new Eng- 
land CofFee house 1 to putt my letter in myself; but am forst to 
send it to a friend to put it in for me, who lives Just by and hope 
it will Come safe to you, and shall be Extream Glad to hear 
from you. this with my Blessing to you, my Daughter Pel- 
ham, William, Charles I should have said first, Tho: and my 
Little Dear Penelope, and Chiefly to your Self, who am in Con- 
tinuall Prayers to god to send his Blessing on [you] and all 
yours from a sincear Most Affectionate and Ever Indulgent 

Peter Pelham. 

London, October 12th, 1742. 

1 This was in Threadneedle Street, behind the Royal Exchange, and facing 
the favorite Coffee House known as "Grigsby's." 

1 6 Copley -Pelham Letters 1748 

Peter Pelham, Sr. to Peter Pelham, Jr. 

My Dear Son, 

I take this opertunity of a Gentleman that is Designd for 
Boston, who is to Call in me this morning, theirfore am very 
scanty of time, and to acquaint you that I have not heard from 
you since October the 12 Dated November 30th 1741. but as 
my grandson has writ severall to me I Impute the miscarridge 
by the Spaniards Intersepting them, which I hope is the Case 
with you, which makes me very Ready to Judge it not want of 
Duty or Love and affections, which you so much Exprest in 
your Last to me. your Poor sister Baker Died Last August on 
the 29th after a very Tedious indisposition, your sister Helena 
thank god is very well. I hope in the Lord this will find you all 
the same, my kind Rispects to my Daughter Pelham. with my 
hearty Blessing to her to you and to all my Dear Grand Chil- 
dren I am in great hast. Expect the Gentleman and my Ladys 
Call, and am my Dear son your Ever Most Affectionate father 

P: Pelham. 

London, July 20th, 1743. 

[Endorsed] Rec'd this Letter Octo'r the 14, 1743, per Mr. 
Wakefield l 

Helena Pelham to Peter Pelham, Jr. 2 

Oct. 3, 1748. 
My dear Brother, 

I begin writing to you without knowing whether it will ever 

come to your hands or not, but I am determined to write, and 

hope you will get some of my letters if not all. This is the third 

1 Pelham married for his third wife, Mary Copley, widow of Richard Copley 
and daughter of John Singleton, of Quinville Abbey, County Clare. The marriage 
took place in Boston, in 1748. a From Mass. Hist. Soc. Proceedings, ix. 202. 


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1748 Copley -Pelham Letters 17 

time I have wrote since February; in my last I told you that 

my father was very well, and so he is now, thank God Almighty 

for it. I am in the country, but hear frequently from my dear 

father. We have been out of town ever since the second of May. 

I long to have a letter from you to know how you and all your 

family does. In your last you were so good as to tell my father 

how your sons was disposed of. I hope Peter is happily married. 

As Charles is brought up a merchant I flatter myself that some 

time or an other he will come to England. O my dear soul how 

glad I shall be to see him; if please God I should be alive then. 

I shall here send you a direction how to write to me, which I 

did in my two last letters, but till I hear from you I am not sure 

you got them. I hope you will never fail to write when any 

ships come to London, for it is the greatest pleasure in the world 

to my dear father and me to hear of your welfare. I am sure 

my letters must be very stupid to my dear brother, as I have 

nothing entertaining to tell you, for as you know none of my 

acquaintance, nor I any of yours, must make my letters very 

stupid ; for after I have inquired how you, your wife, and the 

dear children are, and tell you my father and self are well, I 

have nothing more to say. As for news I can never write of that 

you have in a better manner than what I can express it. So will 

conclude with my best wishes and love to your self and to your 

wife, and to all your family and hope you will believe me to be, 

Your ever loving sister 

Helena Pelham. 

I send this to town to my father & get him to send it to the 
New England Coffee house. 

Direct for me at the Honble Mrs. Conways in Green St, 
near Grosvenor Square. 

To Mr Peter Pelham, Sr at Boston in New England. 

1 8 Copley -Pelham Letters 1749 

Peter Pelham, Sr. to Peter Pelham, Jr. 

My Dear Son, 

I had the Pleasure and happiness to see your Letter to your 
sister, which she Reed on Monday the 23 d of October, Dated 
August 10th last Past, where in I find you are Concernd in not 
hearing from me. But Could you but Imagin what a fateague 
it is to me in makeing so many Pott hooks and hangers you 
would be good Enough to Excuse me. since I have the Blessing 
of a Most Dutifull Daughter to do that office for me, I Cannot 
speake half her worth in Duty love and Affections she dos and 
has show'd to me for many years, in assisting me many times 
with Money Cloaths and linin in which I was Reduc : d in the 
later Part of my Poor Dear Ladys life; you seem to take it ill 
of your sister for not Letting you know the Place of my aboade, 
which is at one Mr. Comptons a grocer in South Audley Street 
Grocevenor Square: I am Extreamly well Pleasd that god has 
blest you with so Choice[?] a Companion, which is the greatest 
Pleasure and Comfort of life. I Pray god Bless you all with 
health and Prosperity and grant you Patiance till I am calljed] 
home, at which time I shall not forgett my Dearest son, and 
asure you all that I am blest with at Present shall not go from 
you or yours, your sister is to inclose this so can say no more at 
Present but Remain My Dear son your Ever Most Affection- 
ate father 

P: Pelham. 

South Audley Street, Grosvenor Square 
London, November 30, 1749. 1 

1 Received February 12, 1749-50. 

i75° Copley -Pelham Letters 19 

Charles Pelham 1 to Peter Pelham, Jr. 

Newport, Sepr. 10, 1750. 
Hon'd Sir! 

On Saturday Evening I Arriv'd here after a very pleasant 
Ride of almost Two Days, and as I immagine I shall not set 
out from hence before the beginning of next Week I thought it 
proper to present you and my Mother my humble Duty and 
Love, which I flatter my Self will not be unacceptable to you; 
and I hope when I return to meet with your Blessing and Con- 
tinuance of your Regard and Love. 

I met with Mr. Rob't. Jenkins upon the Road on Fryday 
Night where I Lodg'd at 1 1 oClock at Night, who Wak'd me 
after I had been an hour in Bed, so I did not Speak to him with 
Regard to your Receipts, as it was an improper time, and as 
you will see him In Boston, what he has done with them I can- 
not say; But Bro'r Phillips Informs me, if you will send him 
Receipts, he will Engage to procure 20. or 30 Subscribers with- 
out fail, so if you see cause you may do it Writing him a Line 
informing him I had acquainted you of his proposition, which he 
says he would be glad to do to serve you. 2 whether or not he can 
do it I am no Judge at present, so you are to do as you Please, 
pray present my Love to my Brethren and Accept me as Hon'd 
and Dear Sir Your Dutiful and Affect'e Son, and hum. Serv't 

Chas. Pelham. 

This I Write under several Disadvantages, so hope you'l 
Excuse the Roughness of it. Mr. Rowand and Mr. Logan pre- 
sent you their kind Service. 

1 Son of Peter Pelham, Jr. 

2 In 1750 Pelham engraved a portrait of Rev. Thomas Prince, painted by- 
John Greenwood. 

2o Copley -Pelham Letters 1755 

Will of Peter Pelham, Sr., 1 1755 

In the Name of God Amen. This is the last Will and Testa- 
ment of me Peter Pelham now of the parish of Saint George Han- 
over Square in the County of Middlesex Gentleman which I now 
make whilst I am in perfect Health in order to prevent any Dis- 
putes that might arise after my Death touching or Concerning 
the Disposition of my Estate and Effects in Manner following 
(that is to say) first and principally I recommend my Soul into 
the hands of Almighty God my Creator hoping for the Salvation 
of it through the Merits and Intercession of my Saviour Jesus 
Christ and my Body I Commit to the Earth to be Buried in such 
Decent but private manner as to my Executors hereinafter Named 
shall seem meet And as to such Worldly Estate as it hath Pleased 
God to Bless me with I Give and Dispose thereof as follows, First 
I Give and Bequeath unto Henry Compton and John Compton 
Sons of Thomas Compton of the said parish of Saint George Han- 
over Square Grocer the Sum of Twenty pounds apiece to be paid 
them as soon after my decease as possible and it is my Will and 
Desire that all my Wearing Apparel be sold and disposed of as 
soon after my Deacease as Conveniently may be and the money 
Arising by sale thereof shall go Into and be taken as part of the 
Residum of my Estate and Effects Item I Give and Bequeath 
unto the said Thomas Compton and John Tiso of Bloomsbury in 
the said County of Middlesex Oylman the sum of Ten pounds 
apiece hoping they will take upon them the Execution of the 
Trusts hereby Reposed in them Item I Give and bequeath unto 
my Loving son Peter Pelham now at Boston in New England the 
sum of Two Hundred pounds of lawfull money of Great Britain 
to be paid him as soon after my decease as Conveniently may be 
but In Case I shall survive my said Son then the said sum of Two 
Hundred pounds shall go into and be taken as part of the Residuum 
of my Estate and Effects Item I Give and Bequeath unto my Lov- 
ing Daughter Helena Pelham my Two Handled Silver Cup And 

1 From the records of the Prerogative Court of Canterbury, Somerset House. 

1755 Copley -Pelham Letters 21 

it is my will meaning and desire that my said Daughter Helena 
Pelham shall have the use of all the Remainder of my plate and 
Rings for and during the Term of her Natural life and from and 
imediately after her Decease then my will and desire is that the 
same shall be sold by my Executors herein after named and the 
money arising by sale thereof shall also go into and be taken as 
part of the Residuum of my Estate and Effects And all the Rest 
Residue and Remainder of my Estate and Effects both Real and 
personal of what Nature Kind or Quality soever whereof I shall 
Dye Possessed or whereunto I shall be Intitled at the time of my 
Death either in Possession Reversion Remainder or Expectancy 
(after payment of my Just Debts Legacys and funeral Expences 
which I hereby Charge with the payments thereof) I Give Devise 
and Bequeath the same unto the said Thomas Compton and John 
Tiso their Executors and Administrators Upon this special Trust 
and Confidence nevertheless to pay and apply the Interest and 
produce thereof unto my said Daughter Helena Pelham and her 
Assigns for and during the Term of her Natural life and from and 
Imediately after her Death then I Give Devise and bequeath the 
whole of the Residuum of my Estate and Effects unto my said Son 
Peter Pelham his heirs and Assigns forever but in Case my said 
Daughter shall happen to Survive my said son then I Give Devise 
and Bequeath the same (after the Death of my said Daughter as 
aforesaid) unto and amongst all and every the Child and Children 
of my said son Peter Pelham Lawfully begotten to be Equally Di- 
vided amongst them share and share alike And In Case any of 
the Children of my said son Peter Pelham shall happen to Dye 
before the Bequest hereinbefore mentioned can take Effect leav- 
ing (or is now Dead and has Left) any Child or Children behind 
him her or them then I Give the share of him her or them so Dying 
unto such Child or Children in Equal shares and proportions And 
I do hereby Nominate Constitute and Appoint the said Thomas 
Compton and John Tiso Joint Executors of this my last Will and 
Testament And I do hereby Revoke and make Void all former and 
other Wills by me at any time heretofore made And I do Declare 
this only to be my Last Will and Testament In Witness Whereof 

22 Copley -Pelham Letters 1756 

I the said Peter Pelham have to this my last Will and Testament 
Written upon Two sheets of Paper to the first whereof I have set 
my hand and to the last Sheet my Hand and Seal this Thirtieth 
Day of June in the year of our Lord one Thousand Seven Hundred 
and fifty five. 

Peter Pelham. (L.S.) 

Signed Sealed Published and declared by the said Peter Pel- 
ham the Testator as and for his last will and Testament in the 
presence of us who at his Request and in his Sight and in the Sight 
of each other have Subscribed our Names as Witnesses hereto — 
Thos Williams — Joseph Kaye South Audley Street Grosvenor 
Square London — John Mitton his clerk. 

Proved 22nd July 1756. 

July 22d 1756. 

Thomas Compton one of the Executors within named was sworn 
before me 

Taverner And : Colter Ducarel 


Proved at London the twenty second day of July 1756 before the 
Worshipfull Andrew Colter Ducarel Doctor of Laws Surrogate by 
the Oath of Thomas Compton one of the Executors to whom Ad- 
ministration was granted having been first sworn duly to admine- 
ster (John Tiso the other Executor also one of the residuary Lega- 
tees in the Trust named in the said Will having renounced as well 
the Execution thereof as also the said Trust). 

The Testator was formerly of the parish within mentioned but 
died late of the City of Chichester in the County of Sussex on the 
2d day of July last a Widower. 1 

1 See Mass. Col. Soc. Transactions, v. 194. 

1762 Copley -Pelham Letters 23 

Thomas Ainslie 1 to Copley 

D'r S'r, 

I am favour'd with Yours, and the picture came very safe, 
and gives me great Satisfaction. I am just going to send it to 
Scotland to please a fond Parent, and as it goes in a Man of 
War, I hope She will receive it Safe. 

I belive You may find it worth Your while to take a trip 
down here in the Spring, there are several people who would 
be glad to employ You, I belive so because I have heard it 
mentiond, if you should stay never so little while with us 
should You come my Assistance in any thing in my power 
should not be wanting, I am D'r S'r Your Oblid: hum'l Ser't 

Thos. Ainslie. 

Halifax, 8 Oct: 1757. 

Helena Pelham to Charles Pelham 2 

Chichester, Feby 15th, 1762. 
My dear Nephew, 

The third of this month brought me the confort and pleasure 
of a letter from you dated Nov. 2. 1761. Indeed I was rejoiced 
to see one, for I have been vastly uneasy as I have never heard 
from you since Oct. 27, 1759 and I have written you three letters 
since that. My dear I have never heard from you since that 
dreadful fire happened at Boston, 3 therefore judge of my 
uneasiness. But, thank God, I have now heard that you are 

1 Collector of the port of Quebec and a captain in the city's militia. His 
diary during the defence of Quebec against the Americans in 1775-1776 was 
printed by the Literary and Historical Society of Quebec, vn. 9. The manu- 
script is in the Sparks Mss. in Harvard College Library. 

2 From Mass. Hist. Soc. Proceedings, ix. 206. 

3 That of March 20, 1760. See N. E. Hist. Gen. Reg., xxxiv. 288. 

24 Copley -Pelham Letters 1762 

well, as for your brother Peter, I have not heard from him this 
age — poor William you mentioned to me and said he was but 
of a poor constitution, 1 and till then I did not know that there 
was any children of your mother's, but Peter and you ; or if I 
did I had forgot it. So your brother has five children, poor 
man I pity him. 2 You have never seen Capt. Parker I suppose 
since you told me of him, I know him perfectly well. 

Now Charles as to my picture, how can you think I would sit 
for it. Your grandfather sat for his at 80, 't is true, but there 
never was so handsome, so charming a man at that age as he 
was — it was with much ado that I got him to have it done. I 
told him I would not be without it for any thing in the world, 
nor indeed no more I would, and as there was a tolerable good 
painter upon the place, I insisted on it — but as to miniature 
there is not one nearer than London, and it would cost above 
half a year's income to have it done, were I even there, and 
most likely I shall never go there again, for tho' my dear father 
was older than I, yet in constitution I was always older than 
him. So desire never to hear any more on that subject, for I 
shall never come into it. 

I am much obliged to Mr. Parsons who sent me your letter 
directly, and I send this to him and beg the favour of him to 
send it. I desire you will send yours to him when you write, 
which I hope will not be long before I shall be made so happy. 
Now I must tell the dates of my letters which I wrote — Yours 
of Oct 27, I reed Jany 2. 60 — and I answered that Apr 18 — 
I wrote again Aug 15, and in Mch 13 61 — so you see how often 
I have wrote to you — 3 letters for one. I hope this will come 

1 William was buried January 28, 1761. 

2 Probably Peter, who "left many descendants" in Virginia, but nothing 
is known of them. The name of Peter Pelham was in the militia rolls of the 

1762 Copley -Pelham Letters 25 

safe, for indeed my dear, writing is not the agreeablest thing 
in the world, unless I could write as well as you do — but my 
writing and spelling is so bad that I can take no pleasure in it 
— but it is the only way that any one can have the pleasure of 
conversing with their friends and I hope so near and dear as 
you are to me that you will be good enough to make allowances 
for an old woman. 

I saw in the papers you had a fine burial at Boston — poor 
General Whitmore, 1 some of his troops are here. I think it was 
a sad accident he met with. My dear child I cannot possibly 
make my letter agreeable to you by telling you all the chit- 
chat, as you know not a soul here, so will conclude with assuring 
you how much I am Your affectionate aunt and humble 

Helena Pelham. 

P.S. My dear nephew. I do not remember any thing about 
your ever having the small pox, but think it most likely you 
never had it, by your brother having so lately got it — so hope 
you will always avoid it, as you say you have done. I cannot tell 
what to say in regard to your coming to England, as it is not in 
my power to give you the assistance I could wish, therefore 
must say you are right in staying in a place where you are 
known and settled — and dont doubt but God will give a 
blessing to your honest endeavours, and shall think myself 
happy in hearing from you and of your welfare, — which I 
hope you will be so good as to gratify me in as often as you 

1 Edward Whitmore, who was at the siege of Louisburg and remained as 
governor after its capture in 1758. He was drowned in Boston harbor, De- 
cember 11, 1761, aged seventy-one, and was buried under King's Chapel. 
Foote, Annals of King's Chapel, 11. 213. 

26 Copley -Pelham Letters 1762 

Copley to Jean Etienne Liotard 1 

Boston, Sep'r 30, 1762. 

This Letter will meet You accompanied by one from the 
Worthy Coll : 1 Spierring who has been so kind to give me his 
assistance for the obtaining a sett of the best Swis Crayons for 
drawing of Portraits, allow me Sir to Joyn my sollicitations 
with him that You would send as He directs one sett of Cray- 
ons of the very best kind such as You can recommend [for] 
liveliness of colour and Justness of tints. In a word let em be a 
sett of the very best that can be got. 

You may perhaps be surprised that so remote a corner of the 
Globe as. New England should have any d[e]mand for the neces- 
sary eutensils for practiceing the fine Arts, but I assure You Sir 
however feeble our efforts may be, it is not for want of inclina- 
tion that they are not better, but the want of oppertunity to 
improve ourselves, however America which has been the seat 
of war and desolation, I would fain hope will one Day become 
the School of fine Arts and Monsieur Liotard['s] Drawing with 
Justice be set as patterns for our immitation. not that I have 
ever had the advantage of beholding any one of those rare 
peices from Your hand, but [have] formd a Judgment on the 
true tast of several of My friendfs] who has seen em. 

permit me Sir to conclude with wishing You all Helth and 

1 Draft, in Copley's handwriting, unsigned and without address. Upon an- 
other sheet is written in a different handwriting: "A Monsieur Liotard fameux 
Peintre a Geneve en Suisse." Liotard (1702-1790) was surnamed "the Turk" 
because of his adopting the Turkish costume. He is remembered chiefly for his 
delicate pastel drawings, of which the " Chocolate Girl " in the Dresden Gallery 
is one of the best known. 

1763 Copley -Pelham Letters 27 

S. Fayerweather 1 to Copley 

Mr Copley, 

After Waiting a Considerable time 
with much Uneasiness to know whether 
Judge Leigh's 2 Picture was sent to 
Carolina or no, at Length I 'm Agree- 
ably Surpriz'd to find it is Actually- 
Gone, and I hope by this, it has Gott 
safe to its Destind Port, and that the 
proper Owner has joyfully took pos- 
session of it. 

Upon Your Information in your last 
letter I immediately Wrote to Mr Leigh 
of your having sent from Boston his 
Honourd Fathers Effigy to Him, But 
Coud not tell By Whom, or What Ves- 
sel it Went; of this Be pleasd to Ac- 
quaint Me. 

I have made the handsomest Apol- 
ogy to Mr Leigh in your Behalf, for the 
long Detention of the Picture ; And not 

1 Rev. Samuel Fayerweather (1725-1781), 
graduated from Harvard College in 1743, settled 
in Newport, Rhode Island, in 1754, was ordained 
a presbyter in the Episcopal Church in England 
in 1756, and entered upon his mission at St. 
Paul's, Narragansett, in 1760. 

2 Probably Peter Leigh (1710-1759), Chief 
Justice of South Carolina. His only surviving son 
was Sir Egerton Leigh, whose controversy with 
Henry Laurens gave occasion to an interesting 
series of pamphlets before the War of Independ- 



28 Copley -Pelbam Letters 1763 

only so, but wrote Him of your Assiduity and Diligence to Gett 
it on Board of a proper Vessel: And of your being obligd to 
Unshipp it once, by reason of the Ship's altering her Voyage for 
Another part of the World, after She putt up for Charlestown 
South Carolina. Upon the Whole, It will Much Rejoyce Me to 
hear from Mr Leigh which I Expect daily, and of Which you 
shall know. With Compliments To yr Good Mother I Subscribe 
y'r most humble Serv't 

S. Fayerweather. 

Narragansett, Jan'y 7th, 1763. 

[Addressed :] To Mr. John Copley, Limner, Near the Orange 
Tree In Boston. These Pr favr of Mr Mumford. 

Captain Peter Traille 1 to Copley 


I received the favor of Yours, by the last Vessel from Boston 
and shou'd have sent for my Picture long ago but have not 
be[en] able to get a proper Oportunity. I shou'd be glad you 
would draw upon me for the Cash; and send the Picture 
when you can meet with a proper Conveyance. 

It wou'd realy be worth Your while to make a Visit here. I 
am certain that y[ou would] get a Hundred or two £ ster'lg 
this summer. I shou'd be very glad to see You, and shou'd en- 
deavor to make the Place as agreable to You as in my Power. 
I am Sir, Your Most Obedient and Humble Serv't 

P. Traille. 

Halifax, 24th April, 1763. 

1 The name is not in the Army List for this year. 

1764 Copley -Pelham Letters 29 

Copley to [Charles Pelham?] 

Boston, Jan'y 24, 1764. 
Dear Sir, 

' I have receifd the Money (103.10.) Old Ten'r from Mr Box 
and sent the same by Miss Johana Dodge (as you desired). 

I have entertain'd some hopes I should have the happyness 
of seeing You once more in Boston, before the small Pox had 
spread its contagion so far as to render it utterly unsafe for You 
to venture without the risque of Your health if not Your Life 
by catching that distemper; but I can now by no means advise 
You to see this distresst Town, till its surcumstances are less 
mallancolly than they are at present, which I hope will be in a 
few months, and which I pray God of his infinite goodness 

My dear Mamah sends her kind love and Blessing to You 
wishes You all imaginable helth and happyness in Your re- 
treat, and her compliments with mine weit on the ColPl x 
Mrs. Roy all and the Young Ladys. 

Our Brother Henry send his sincerest love to and best wishes 
for Your Happyness, and promisses strictly to observe Your 
good instructions to him, which were very sesonable, this being 
the first Day he has been able to draw sence You left us. 

I have no time to add any perticulars about the small pox 
at present, only that it is very fatal, allmost every [one] being 
dead that has been taken with it, or remain dangerously ill. I 
hear there are several in the Country Towns that are broke out 
with it, perticularly two in Roxbury this Morn'g, which looks 
as if the callamity would be more general than we first expected. 

1 Isaac Royall, who married, March 27, 1738, Elizabeth Mcintosh, and in 
1775 went, with other loyalists, to England, where he died in 1781. Two 
daughters were living in 1763 — Mary and Elizabeth. 

30 Copley -Pelham Letters 1764 

But that kind Providence may preserve You and the good fam- 
ily in which You are from any Personal share in this Callamity 
is the herty prayer of, Dear Sir, Your affectionate friend and 

J : S : Copley. 

Thomas Ainslie to Copley 

Quebec, 12 Nov'r, 1764. 

A few days ago I had Letters from Scotland by the Snow 

Apthorp, in -which my Young Son of 15 Months Old went a 

Passenger to Glasgow, and as there is a Paragraph in one of 

them, which does great honour to You, I think it a Justice, due 

to Your Merite to accquaint you with it, and that too in my 

Father in Laws own Words : 

We drank Tea with Grandmama Ainslie the afternoon of his 
Arrival, and being in the dineing Room, the Infant eyed your Pic- 
ture, he sprung to it, roared, and schriched, and attempted gripping 
the hand, but when he could not catch hold of it, nor gett You to 
speak to him, he stamp'd and scolded, and when any of us askt 
him for Papa, he always turned, and pointed to the Picture. What 
think [you] of this proof of the Painters Skill in taking Your like- 
ness ? 

Now, Sir, As I have ever had an Inclination to do You a Ser- 
vice if in my power, and the propagating of this Circumstance, 
which I have taken Care to do having not a little added to Your 
fame here, And as I am of Opinion that a Jaunt into this Coun- 
try would rather add to Your Credite, and fortune, than de- 
minish it; If You will come here for two or three Months in the 
Summer, so as to be here in June, I have a Room in my house 
at Your Service, so that Your Stay will be no Expence to You, 
and not only my family, but all those of Credite in the town 

1765 Copley -Pelham Letters 31 

would be glad to employ You. Be not overperswaded from 

coming, for certain I am Your Journey will be of Service to you 

and I shall have a pleasure in Entertaining You. I am, Sir, 

Your most hum'bl Servant 

Thos. Ainslie. 

Let me hear from You by the post in the course of the 

Copley to [an English Mezzotinter] 

Boston, Jan'y 25, 1765. 

Out of pure regard to a good Old Decenting Cleargyman of 
this Town several Gentlemen have apply'd to me for the pro- 
curation of his portrait inMetzotinto. I therefore beg You will 
be pleasd to let me know on what terms You will undertake the 
same, and add to your demand for cuting the plate (which must 
be fourteen inches by ten * and containing only a head of the 
Rev'd Doc'r Sewell) 2 that of paper and Printing pr hundred, 
for as to number I shall want, that at present is alltogether un- 
certain, but I shall let You know in due time, leaving the plate 
in Your hands till I have a sufficient quantity Printed off, than 
desire the plate to be sent me with the last parcil of prints. I 
must beg You will not neglect writing to me the first oppertun- 
ity, for by the time Your answer comes to hand I shall have the 
Picture finishd and in proper Order to send. I shall likewise 
depend on Your perticular care in the preservation of the like- 
ness that being a main part of the exellency of a portrait in the 
oppinionof our New England Conoseurs. be pleasd also to let 
me know the price of the different kinds of frames, as also that 

1 This was first written twelve. 

2 Dr. Joseph Sewall was minister in the Old South Church from 1713 until his 
death in 1769. 

32 Copley -Pelham Letters 1765 

of Glass, and when You write direct to John Singleton Copley 
portrait Painter in Cambrige street Boston. I am Sir Your 
Most Obed't Humble Ser't 

J: S:C. 


[Circa January 25, 1765] 

Proposals for executeing a portrait of The Revd Doctr Sewell in 
Metzotinto by John S. Copley, which he promises to procure 
with all convenient speed to be done by the Ablest Master in Lon- 
don from a Painting done by himself, provided these his pro[po]sals 
are comply'd with, Viz: The Gentlemen who are desireous to for- 
ward the work must subscribe for prints to the amount of three 
hundred at three shillings and four pence per print, paying one 
half for any Number subscribed for at the time of subscribeing, 
the other half at the delivery of said prints : And upon Notice be- 
ing given by Advertisement in the publick prints, or said Copley 
tendering the same to subscribers. Yet notwithstanding such 
Notice being given, They the subscribers do Neglect calling for 
said prints within three Months after such notice being given that, 
the said Copley shall not be accountable to them for any Moneys 
they have paid. And that in case the Picture should be lost in go- 
in[g] to London, and if in the mean time The Father of mercys 
should take the Good Doctor to himself, by which means it will 
be impractable [for] said Copley to proceed in the Design, the 
Moneys paid by Subscribers shall be returnd, said Copley deduct- 
ing for hi[s labor?] five pounds twelve shillings which is the price 
of said Picture. 

Copley to [Thomas Ainslie] 

Boston, Feb'y 25, 1765. 

Your kind favour came safe to hand, but not so soon as might 
have been expected, otherwise I should sooner have made my 

1765 Copky-Pelham Letters 33 

acknowledgements for Your proferd kindness, which I do now 
with all sincerity, and should receive a singular pleasure in ex- 
cepting, if my Business was anyways slack, but it is so far 
otherwise that I have a large Room full of Pictures unfinishd, 
which would ingage me these twelve months, if I did not begin 
any others; this renders it impossable for me to leave the place 
I am in : but the obligation I am under I shall ever acknowledge 
as sincerely as if it was in my power to except of it. I assure 
You I have been as fully imployd these several Years past as I 
could expect or wish to be, as more would be a means to retard 
the design I have always had in vew, that of improveing in that 
charming Art which is my delight, and gaining a reputation 
rather than a fortune without that: Tho if I could obtain the 
one while in the persuit of the other, I confess I should be so 
far from being indiferent about either that I would willingly use 
great diligence for the acquireing of both, and indeed the mu- 
tual assistance they would render each other in their progress 
must naturally excite in me a desire for both, tho in diferent 

I confess it gives me no small pleasure to receive the appro- 
bation of so uncorrupted a judgment as that of so Young a 
Child: it is free from all the fals notions and impertinant con- 
ceits that is the result of a superficial knowledge of the princi- 
pals of art, which is so far from assisting the understanding 
that it serves only to corrupt and mislead it: unless temperd 
with a large share of good since : and might tend to excite some 
degree of Vanity did not my diligence for Years past in the study 
of nature, most ef [ecjtually convince me of this sad truth, that 
all human productions fall infinitely short of the bea[u]tys of 

The favourable opinion You have of my performance shows 

34 Copley -Pelham Letters 1765 

a large share of goodness in You, as it is more than I can pre- 
tend to deserve unless indeavouring to do well shall be ac- 
counted a merrit. I am, Sir, with all Sincerity Your Obl[i]ged 
Humble Ser't 

John: S: Copley. 

Captain Peter Traille to Copley 

Halifax, 7th March, 1765. 
Dear Sir, 

By a letter from my freind Captain Bruce I find my self un- 
der great Obligations to You, particularly in sending a couple 
of peices of your drawing in Crayons. I am sorry to have the 
Mortification to tell You that You are dissappointed in your 
good intentions by the unpardonable remissness of the Master 
of the Vessel. She was lost about 30 leagues to the westward 
of this port, and your drawings, together with several other 
things, have become the prey of the barbarous Inhabitants. 
I have taken every step to find out if any of them are recover- 
able, but can hear only of two of the prints which were pur- 
chas'd from Mr. MofFat. I beg leave, to assure You that not 
withstanding this Misfortune my Gratitude is not lessen'd, and 
I shall always esteem it as a real Pleasure to improve every Op- 
portunity of acknowledging it. I cannot conceal the innex- 
pressible pain this loss gives me, it robbing me of those patterns, 
by which I most sanguinely flatter'd me self to acquire some 
knowledge in the Art of colouring of which I have very disstant 
Ideas as yet. If it was not intruding on your Bussiness I shou'd 
beg a few Directions on this favorite Subject or some illustra- 
tion by example as that easier followed than precept. I am with 
great regard Dr. Sir, Your Most Obed't and Humble Sev't 

Peter Traille. 

1765 Copley -Pelham Letters 35 

A Bill for a Portrait 1 

Dr Joseph Jackson Esqr. to J. S. Copley Cr 

1765 To one Portrait of his j By an order in ^| 

Daughter at eight V £i I . . 4 . . o favour of Wil- V £9-6-8 
Guineas ) Ham Miller J 

By your Accot 1-17-4 
Boston 25th March 1769 £11:4:0 

Errors Excepted Per John Singleton Copley. 

Copley to [Captain R. G. Bruce} 2 

Boston, Sepr. 10, 1765. 
Dear Sir, 

I have sent You the portrait of my Brother 3 by Mr. Haill, 4 
who has been so kind to take the care of it and put it among his 
own baggage. Nothing would have been a sufficient induce- 
ment to have sent it so soon but the desire of confirming the 
good opinion You began to conceive of me before You left 
Boston which I would by no means forfeit, chusing rather to 
risque the Picture than the loss of Your esteem; indeed I be- 
leive it must be allowed I act with prudence in this respect if it 
is considered that should the Picture be unfit (through the 
changing of the colours) for the exhibition, I may not have the 
mortification of hearing of its being condemned. I confess I am 
under some apprehension of its not being so much esteem'd as I 
could wish; I dont say this to induce You to be backward in 

1 Boston Public Library, Chamberlain Collection, F. 4. 3. It is in Copley's 

a Captain of the John and Sukey, a merchant vessel. 

* "The Boy with the Squirrel," Copley's first picture to be exhibited in 
London, 1766. 

4 Mr. Roger Hale, Collector or Surveyor of the port of London. 

36 Copley -Pelham Letters 1765 

letting me know how far it is judged to deserve censure for I 
can truly say if I know my own heart I am less anxious to enjoy 
than deserve applause. 

I doubt not You have seen Our good friend Capt. Traile 1 be- 
fore this time, pray present my best regards to him and tell 
him I long to hear from him. 

Capt. Jacobson is just arrived with the stamps which has 
made so much noise and confusion among us Americans. You 
will no doubt have heard before this reaches You of poor Mr. 
Howards 2 House being pulld almost down and all his furni- 
ture destroyd and himself with Doer Moffatt 3 (whose house 
and good shared the same fate) and Mr. Robinson being obliged 
to save their lives by flying on board the Kings Ship that Lay 
in the Harbour, the Doer and Mr. Howard are sence sail'd for 
Europe, But in Boston we demolishd the Lieut. Govournours 
House, the stamp Office, 4 Mr Storys 5 and Greatly damaged 
CaptHollowells 6 and the Secretarys 7 Houses, sence which there 
is a strong Military watch kept every night which keeps the 
Town in quietness. I am Sir with all Sincerity Your Real 
Friend and Ser't. 

John: S: Copley. 

1 Captain Peter Traille. 

2 Martin Howard, a lawyer in Newport, whose house stood on Spring Street. 
His offense was publishing two pamphlets on the rights of the colonies. Ham- 
mett, Bibliography of Newport., R.I., 66. 

3 Dr. Thomas Moffat, of Broad Street. With the stamp master for Rhode 
Island, Augustus Johnson, they were burned in effigy. 

4 A new building which some supposed to be intended for a stamp office. 2 
Mass. Hist. Soc. Proceedings, x. 6i ; Boston Gazette, September 2, 1765. 

6 William Story, Deputy Registrar of the Court of Admiralty. 

6 Benjamin Hallowell, Comptroller of the Customs. * 

7 Thomas Flucker (1719-1783). 

1766 Copley -Pelham Letters 37 

/. Powell to Copley 

Lond'n, 18 Octo'r, 1765. 

Herewith is Capt. Scotts Receipt for Two Cases of Frames 
Glasses etc. The Box of Craons I put Into Mr. Powells Trunk 
shipt by Capt Daveson. I hope will Turn out agreeable as I 
Took The pains To Go To The maker. The Cost as below, 
Capt Bruce and I both Expected by some of The Late ships To 
have seen your Brother's] Picture as an Exhibision Peice, as 
would have been very agreeable To have Introduced You To 
The Knowledge of some of your Bror. Artists here. I am with 

Esteem yrs. 

J. Powell. 

@ Box Cloths 

2. 7 

@ Box Craons 


@ Case of Frames and Glasses. 

6. 5 

po[r]teridge & shipg 


£ 9.10. 6 

Peter [Pelham?] 1 to Copley 

Barbados, April 28th. 1766. 
My dear Friend, 

It is with a Sensible Pleasure that I set myself down to write 
to a Friend whom I ever lov'd & esteem'd and in whose Com- 
pany I have enjoy'd so many pleasing hours. I hope you did 
not take it amiss that I left you so abruptly the morning I sail'd 
from Boston. But give me leave to say that when I whisper'd 
to you I imagined you would take the hint, and follow close 

1 Probably the son of Copley's stepbrother of the same name. Copley's 
reply to this letter is printed on p. 47, infra. 

38 Copley -Pelham Letters 1766 

after me for I did not intend to return into my Father's and 
sisters presence again. I should read over and over again any 
even the shortest Letter I could receive from you, and should 
have wrote to you before this, but I have been engaged in Busi- 
ness and writing to my Father, and Sisters and those friends in 
Boston who favour'd me with letters, and must say I was not a 
little disappointed when I look'd over my Packet of Letters 
I receiv'd from Boston and heard nothing either of you or from 

I will say it because my Heart bears me witness that, let me 
forget whomsoever of my Friends, I will that Mr. Copley shall 
not be obliterated from my Remembrance. Your honest, Droll 
and pleasant Brother Charles did me the pleasure of seeing the 
last of me in Boston, and amus'd me, and several of my hearty 
Friends in the ships Cabbin till we Cast off from the wharff. If 
he is with you please to make my Compliments and best regards 
acceptable to him as also my kindest respects, affection, and 
regard to your very worthy mama of whom I retain the most 
pleasing remembrance, and most devoutly wish she could enjoy 
only one twentieth part of the Health that I partake of. Please 
to remember me to your ingenious little Brother Harry whom 
I expect to see in a very respectable situation of Life by and by, 
owing to your great Care and Brotherly Love; also my Com- 
pliments and best regards to Mr. Pelham and Respects to the 
honble Family wherein he resides, more Compliments etc — 
Vizt. Compliments, best wishes and regards you'l please to pre- 
sent in my name to my worthy Friends Messrs. Winthrop, Prout 
and Lady, Miss Gerrish; Henderson and Lady, Shepherd and 
Lady, and all those by name whom you knew I lov'd and es- 
teem'd. I am now on the Island of Barbados alias Garden of 
Eden, and while you my friend have been pinch'd with as severe 

1766 Copley -Pelham Letters 39 

a Winter as ever was known, I have been enjoying the blessed- 
est Weather and the most enchanting scenes human imagina- 
tion can paint. If I was plagued at Boston it is all made up to 
me in the enjoyment of my Health, and of every Pleasure that 
my heart can wish. When I saild from Boston I had no more 
intentions of tarrying between the Tropicks than I now have 
of going to China, or to visit the Ruins of Rome, and Palmyra. 
But in short I meet with everything so agreable here, and such 
a Chance of making well for myself in life, that I think I cannot 
in justice to myself return at least this year; if I should it will 
be only to settle my affairs, and return here immediately. 

It is well known of me that I did not launch out of my Coun- 
try in order to get Business, because I not only had (very often) 
more than my share, but was every day increasing it. But I 
doubt not but you'l join with me in opinion that that is our 
Country where we can live most happily. I can live infinitely 
more happy here (absence of my dear Friends, and old Acquain- 
tance excepted) than I can in my own Country, the Weather 
being pleasant beyond Discription, and not so hot even in the 
hottest season as with you ; the People hospitable and generous 
to a Fault, and the most polite, polish'd and gentile of any I 
ever saw before. 

It is with Difficulty my dear friend that a man can get away 
from the Country where he receiv'd his birth and Education; 
but when he has once broke the spell, and goes out into the 
World he sees things that he never could see in his Father's 
Chimney Corner, and has an oppertunity of making a Fortune 
if he is commonly prudent. I could wish you was here most de- 
voutly for the Climate would suit your Constitution, and In- 
terest, I would not give Mr. Copley more than ten years to put 
himself in his Chariot and four could he come here. There is 

40 Copley -Pelharn Letters 1766 

but one painter here and he has a prodigious run, and paints so 
admirably that I talk of leaving my abode in the Country, and 
taking a Room in one of the Publick Towns, and set up Portrait 
painting in Opposition to him, and doubt not I could excell him 
if my Charcoal was good. 

I live in splendor here Vizt. at the Chief Justice's House who 
does me the Honour to profess himself my fast Friend and who 
will not stir from home even to take an Airing without me. 
This, with the Letters I carried from Boston, and those the 
polite Governour Scott 1 of Dominica has been pleas'd to send 
me, has been sufficient to introduce me into all the polite Com- 
pany of this Island, so that I have neither friends to make or 
Connections to form if I incline to tarry. 

It would give me pleasure to hear from you as often as you 
possibly can, and when you write please (under the Rose) to let 
me know how my father and sisters took my slipping away 
from 'em that morning, and how they bear my absence. I hope 
you visit 'em. Please to take care of my dear Sisters. I do not 
beleive I could love any man that did not regard and assist 
them, should they stand in need of it. I know not what is be- 
come of you all at Boston. I never hear from any of my friends 
there. I hope they han't forgot me. Farewell. God bless you, 
my dear Friend, you see I have only room to assure you that I 
am most unfeignedly and sincerely yours 


[Addressed :] To Mr. John Singleton Copley at his Seat near 
St. James Square, London Place, in Boston, New England. 

11 George Scott, Lieutenant Governor, 1763-1768. 

1766 Copley -Pelbam Letters 41 

Captain R. G. Bruce to Copley 

London, 4th August, 1766. 
D'r Copley, 

Dont imagine I have forgot or neglected your Interest by my 
long Silence. I have delayed writing to You ever since the Ex- 
hibition, in order to forward the inclosed Letter from Mr. West, 1 
which he has from time to time promised me, but which his ex- 
treme Application to his Art has hitherto prevented his finish- 

What he says will be much more conclusive to You than 
anything from me. I have only to add the general Opinions 
which were pronounced on your Picture when it was exhibited. 
It was universally allowed to be the best Picture of its kind that 
appeared on that occasion, but the sentiments of Mr. Reynolds, 
will, I suppose, weigh more with You than those of other Crit- 
icks. He says of it, "that in any Collection of Painting it will 
pass for an excellent Picture, but considering the Dissadvan- 
tages" I told him "you had laboured under, that it was a very 
zvondet full Performance." "That it exceeded any Portrait 
that Mr. West ever drew." "That he did not know one Painter 
at home, who had all the Advantages that Europe could give 
them, that could equal it, and that if you are capable of pro- 
ducing such a Piece by the mere Efforts of your own Genius, 
with the advantages of the Example and Instruction which you 
could have in Europe, You would be a valuable Acquisition 
to the Art, and one of the first Painters in the World, provided 
you could receive these Aids before it was too late in Life, and 
before your Manner and Taste were corrupted or fixed by 
working in your little way at Boston. He condemns your work- 

1 Benjamin West. 

42 Copley -Pelham Letters 1766 

ing either in Crayons or Water Colours'." Dont imagine I flat- 
ter You. I only repeat Mr. Reynolds's words, which are con- 
firmed by the publick Voice. He, indeed, is a mere Enthusiast 
when he speaks of You. At the same time he found Faults. 
He observed a little Hardness in the Drawing, Coldness in the 
Shades, An over minuteness, all which Example would correct. 
"But still," he added, " it is a wonderful Picture to be sent by a 
Young Man who was never out of New England, and had only 
some bad Copies to study." I have beg'd of Mr. West to be 
copious in his Criticisms and Advices to You. Mr. Reynolds 
would have also wrote to You himself but his time is too valu- 
able. The Picture is at his House where I shall leave it till I 
have your Directions how to dispose of it. I could sell it to ad- 
vantage, but it is thought more for your Interest to keep it as 
a Specimen. You are greatly obliged to Lord Cardross, 1 a 
Friend of mine, to whom I first sent it. He showed it to the 
most eminent Conniseurs, then gave it to Mr. Reynolds, who 
sent it with his own Pictures to the Exhibition. You are best 
Judge of your own Affairs, and whether you can with propriety 
accomplish a Trip for a few Years to Europe. Should you take 
that Resolution, I believe I may venture to assure You, that 
You will meet with much Encouragment and Patronage. 
Should it be in my little power to be of the least use to You, 
you may command me to the utmost. I am already very happy 
in having contributed to make your Merit so far known to the 
World, and hope it has laid the Foundation of your being the 
great Man Mr. Reynolds prognosticates. 

I am obliged to write this in a very great hurry as I set out 
tomorrow on a Visit to Scotland. Pray remember me to my 
old Acquaintances at Boston. I have wrote to Mr. Scollay 2 

1 Title of the Erskines. 2 John Scollay. 

1766 Copley -Pelham Letters 43 

and Mrs. Melville. 1 You have already my Direction, and I 
shall expect to hear from You. Perhaps I may see you in Bos- 
ton next Year, but that at present is uncertain. 

I had almost forgot to tell You, that in case you dont appear 
yourself, the Friends of your Art wish that you will paint 
another Picture to exhibit next Year, and Mr. West has prom- 
ised to point out a Subject to You. Should you do so, send it to 
Mr. West who seems sincerely disposed to be your Friend. Mr. 
Reynolds is too busy and too great a Man to be active for You, 
tho he is also much disposed to serve You. 

I have now a Favour to beg of You in turn, which is, that 
you will make me a Copy of my Picture I left with Mrs. Mel- 
ville. I hope this will find You and your Familly well, — And 
either in Europe or America assure your self of my sincere 

Friendship while I am 

R. G. Bruce. 2 

Benjamin West to Copley 

London, August 4th, 1766. 

On Seeing a Picture painted by you and meeting with Cap- 
tain Bruce, I take the liberty of writeing to you. The great 
Honour the Picture has gaind you hear in the art of Painting I 
dare say must have been made known to You Long before this 
Time, and as Your have made So great a Progr[e]ss in the art 
I am Persuaded You are the more desierous of hearing the 
remarks that might have been made by those of the Profession, 
and as I am hear in the Midst of the Painting world have the 
greater oppertunity of hearing them. Your Picture first fell into 

1 Probably wife of Thomas Melville. 

2 The letter was addressed to Mr. William Copley — Boston. 


44 Copley -Pelham Letters 1766 

Mr. Reynolds' hands to have it Put into the Exhibition as the 
Proformanc of a Young American : he was Greatly Struck with 
the Piec, and it was first Concluded to have been Painted by 
one Mr. Wright, 1 a young man that has just made his appear- 
ance in the art in a sirprising Degree of Merritt. as Your Name 
was not given with the Picture it was Concluded a mistake, but 
before the Exhibition opened the Perticulers was recevd from 
Capt. Bruce, while it was Excibited to View the Criticizems 
was, that at first Sight the Picture struck the Eye as being to 
liney, which was judgd to have arose from there being so much 
neetness in the lines, which indeed as fare as I was Capable of 
judgeing was some what the Case, for I very well know from 
endevouring at great Correctness in ones out line it is apt to 
Produce a Poverty in the look of ones work, when ever great 
Desition [decision] is attended to they lines are apt to be to fine 
and edgey. This is a thing in works of great Painter[s] I have 
remark[ed] has been strictly a voyded, and have given Correct- 
ness in a breadth of out line, which is finishing out into the 
Canves by no determind line when Closely examined; tho when 
seen at a short distanc, as when one looks at a Picture, shall 
appear with the greatest Bewty and freedom, for in nature 
every thing is Round, or at least Partakes the most of that 
forme which makes it imposeble that Nature, when seen in a 
light and shade, can ever appear liney. 

As we have every April an Exhibition where our works is 
exhibitied to the Publick, I advise you to Paint a Picture of a 
half figure or two in one Piec, of a Boy and Girle, or any other 
subject you may fancy. And be shure take your Subjects 
from Nature as you did in your last Piec, and dont trust any 

1 Joseph Wright (1734-1797), who first exhibited in London in 1765. Not to 
be confused with Joseph Wright (1756-1793), son of Patience Wright. 

1766 Copley -Pelharn Letters 45 

resemblanc of any thing to fancey, except the dispositions of 
they figures and they ajustments of Draperies, So as to make an 
agreable whole, for in this Consists the work of fencey and 
Test [taste]. 

If you should do anything of this kind, I begg you may send 
it to me, when you may be shure it shall have the greatest jus- 
tice done it. lett it be Painted in oil, and make it a rule to 
Paint in that way as much as Posible, for Oil Painting has the 
superiority over all other Painting. As I am from America, and 
know the little Opertunities is to be had their in they way of 
Painting, made the inducement the more in writeing to you in 
this manner, and as you have got to that lenght in the art that 
nothing is wanting to Perfect you now but a Sight of what has 
been done by the great Masters, and if you Could make a viset 
to Europe for this Porpase for three or four years, you would 
find yourself then in Possession of what will be highly valuable, 
if ever you should make a viset to Europe you may depend on 
my friendship in eny way thats in my Power to Sarve. 

Your Friend and Humble Servent, 

B. West. 

my direction is Castle Street Leicester Fields. 

[Addressed] To Mr William Copley Painter at Boston 
[Endorsed] forwarded by Your Humbl Servt J. Loring. 1 

Francis M. Newton to Copley 

I am directed to acquaint you that on the 2d of Sepr. you 
was Elected a Fellow of the Society of Artists of Great Britain. 

Your attendance is therefore desired at the Turks Head 

1 Joshua Loring? 

4-6 Copley -Pelham Letters 1766 

Tavern in Gerrard Street, Soho, 1 on Monday the 6th of Octr 

next at Six OClock in the Evening in order to be regularly 

admitted. I am Sir Your Very Humble Servt. 

F. M. Newton Secy 2 
Sept. 3rd: 1766. 

[Addressed.] To Mr. Wm. Copley of Boston in New England. 3 
[Endorsed] Octr. 13, 1767. 

James Scott to Copley 
Dr. Sir, 

This Informs you of my Arrivall in London. I have got the 
portrait safe home, it gives great satisfn. 

I Expect I shall Sail the first week in Octr. I believe I Cannot 
posibly get your order Executed, before I sail Myself. My 
Brother is out of Town, 180 miles from London, and Engag'd 
all the winter; but however, I will not fail to Get some Able 
Hand to purchase for me all the Articles that requires inspec- 
tion, beyond my Judgment. 

I hope You are well and am with Respect Your Hble 


James Scott. 

5th Septr., 1766, London. 

1 The Turk's Head was originally in Greek Street, and towards the middle 
of the eighteenth century removed to Gerrard Street. It was the headquarters 
for the Loyal Association during the rebellion of 1745, and after 1764 John- 
son's Club held its meetings there. Notes and Queries, 1. 114. 

2 Francis Milner Newton (1720-1794), a portrait painter. He was Secretary 
of the "Incorporated Society of Artists of Great Britain," and later of the 
"Royal Academy," a seceding body. See Dictionary of National Biography, xl. 

3 Copley erased the word Wm., and wrote J: S: above it. Copley's reply is 
dated November 23, 1767. 

1766 Copley -Pelham Letters 47 

Copley to Peter [Pelham] 

Boston, Sepr. 12, 1766. 
Dear Sir, 

The receipt of Your kind favour of April the 28 1 gave me the 
most sensable pleasure, as it confirm'd me in the opinion I 
always had that the tour You proposed would be attended with 
great advantage, both to Your helth as well as to Your purse. 
I most sincerely wish You a long continuance of every worldly 
Blessing. You have at present Your helth, are in a fine Cli- 
mate, and are geting Money; those are Blessings that must 
smooth the ruget path of life and make it irksome to leave the 

You are likly soon to be in a fair way of making Your fortune. 
You have many good frinds about You and as our friend 
Shakespear says, that which seasons all unfisickd helth. if this 
is the happy effect of leaving ones native Country, is it not 
strange any one should ever submit to the shackels which 
deprive him of such great Blessing[s]. especily when a little 
resolution would break em off. but this You will perhaps think 
strange doctrine to come from one Who is at this present, in 
spite of evry propose[d] advantage, tamely submiting to the 
Yowke he thinks so easyly shook off. but my friend You know 
my Bondage (if you seriously consider) is of a much more bind- 
ing nature than the tie of Country. Your invitation to Bar- 
bados and incouragement come with much more force, as it 
should at the same time I made my fortune, give an oppertu- 
nity of injoy[ing] Your company. But beleive me, Dear Peter, 
when I can get disingage[d] from this frosen region, I shall take 
my flight to Europe, where tho I shall not find the warmth You 

1 Page 37, supra. 

4 8 Copley -Pelhatn Letters 1766 

injoy in Barbados, I shall feel a much enlivening one. I shall 
there be heated with the sight of the enchanting Works of a 
Raphael, a Rubens, Corregio and a Veronese, etc., etc. here 
give me leave to acquaint You, as You was privy to my sending 
the portrait of my Brother to the exibition, that it was received 
into the Collection, and as I am inform[ed] by severall who saw 
it, and by letters to the Surveyer x and others, for I have not 
yet [heard] from Capt. Bruce, it was much approved, and such 
handsom things said of it that my Modesty would not permit 
me repeat one of them but to You, who I have a better oppinion 
off, than to think it would be made any use of to my disad- 
vantage, a Gentleman writes to his friend in Rhode Island that 
none but the Works of the first Masters were ranked with it. 
and flatter myself you know me too well to suspect the rep[et]i- 
tion arrises so much from Vanity, as a just senc of the Duty I 
owe to Your friendship, what I owe to Your friendship, this is 
an incouragement to me I confess, and adds new Vigeour to the 
pencil. I have som foundation to build upon, some more sure 
prospect of attaining what has cost me so many hours of severe 
study, and given me resolution anough to live a batchelor to the 
age of twenty eight. 2 however, I dont dispair, but I shall be 
Married as I find Mericle[s] have not ceas'd, as You must 
acknowledge when I assure You Mr P : 3 is Married to P[olly] 
T[yler] has bot a farm at New Town and there set Down for life. 
Your Hond. Father and Sister much long to see you and took 
not amiss no more than my self You[r] sudden Departure. I am 

Dear Peter Your Sincere friend and Sert. 

J. S. C. 

1 Roger Hale. 

2 This would show that he was born in 1738, and not in 1737, as usually 
stated. The Boston Records contain no entry of his birth or baptism. 

3 Charles Pelham. 

1766 Copley -Pelham Letters 49 

Copley to Benjamin West 

Boston, Octr. 13, 1766. 

I can by no means let this first oppertunity slip without 
making my acknowledgements to You for Your favourable 
Oppinion of the small portrait I sent to the exibition the last 
Year,' and Your kind offer of obliging me in any thing in Your 
power, which I heard by way of My good friend Mr. Powell. 
This testamony of Your goodness, as I thot it unmerited so it 
was altogether unexpected, and has my most gratefull acknowl- 
edgements. I assure You when my Friend Mr. Powell told me 
of Your intention of wrighting, I could not forbear thinking 
hard he did not weit on You at the time of his coming away, as 
it would have given me the greatest pleasure immaginable to 
have had a letter from One of whom I entertain so high an 
oppinion, as an artist ingaged in the same studys with myself, 
and esteem as my Country man, from whom America receives 
the Same Luster that Italy does from her Titiano and Divine 

It seems almost needless to say how great my desire is to 
enter into a corraspondance with You, as it is very obvious that 
the pleasure and advantages would be very great on my side, 
and I doubt not the same benevolent disposition, that prompd 
You to express Your kindness for me, will incline You to add 
to my happyness by promoting that friendly intercourse. 

As a compliance with Your desire will be ever pleasing to me, 
I shall not fail transmiting another small Picture for the exibi- 
tion, which give me leave to trouble You with, as the stay of 
my friend Capt [Bruce] (to whose care I commited the last) in 
London is altogether uncertain, and I have no friend else that I 

50 Copley -Pelharn Letters 1766 

am certain would give themselves the trouble of sending it to 
the exibition, unless You will be kind anough to take that 
trouble upon Your self, which will greatly Oblige him, who with 
great pleasure shall allways as at this time subscribe himself 
Your Obliged friend and Humble Ser't 

J. S. C. 

Copley to Benjamin West 

Boston, Novr. 12, 1766. 

Your kind favour of Augst. 4, 1766, came to hand. It gave 
me great pleasure to receive without reserve Your Criticisms 
on the Picture I sent to the Exibition. Mr. Powell informd me 
of Your intention of wrighting, and the handsom things You 
was pleas'd say in praise of that little performance, which has 
increased my estamation of it, and demands my thanks which 
previous to the receipt of Your favour I acknowledged in a letter 
forwarded by Mr. Powell. It was remarkd the Picture was too 
lind. this I confess I was concious of my self and think with 
You that it is the natural result of two great presition in the out 
line, which in my next Picture I will indeavour to avoid, and 
perhaps should not have fallen into it in that, had I not felt two 
great timerity at presenting a Picture to the inspection of the 
first artists in the World, and where it was to come into compe- 
tition with such masterly performancess as generally appear in 
that Collection. In my last I promis'd to send another peace, 
the subject You have sence pointed out, but I fear it will not be 
in my power to comply with Your design, the time being two 
short for the exicution of two figures, not having it in my 
power to spend all my time on it, and the Days short and 
weither cold, and I must ship it by the middle of Feby. at 
farthest, otherwise it will come too late for the exibition. but I 

1766 Copley -Pelham Letters 51 

shall do somthing near what you propose. Your c[a]utioning 
me against doing anything from fancy I take very kind, being 
sensable of the necessity of attending to Nature as the fountain 
head of all perfection, and the works of the great Masters as so 
many guides that lead to the more perfect imitation of her, 
pointing out to us in what she is to be coppied, and where we 
should deviate from her. In this Country as You rightly 
observe there is no examples of Art, except what is to [be] met 
with in a few prints indiferently exicuted, from which it is not 
possable to learn much, and must greatly inhanch the Value of 
free and unreserved Criticism made with judgment and Candor. 

It would give me inexpressable pleasure to make a trip to 
Europe, where I should see those fair examples of art that have 
stood so long the admiration of all the world, the Paintings, 
Sculptors and Basso Releivos that adourn Italy, and which 
You have had the pleasure of making Your Studies from would, 
I am sure, annimate my pencil, and inable me to acquire that 
bold free and gracefull stile of Painting that will, if ever, come 
much slower from the mere dictates of Nature, which has hither 
too been my only instructor. I was allmost tempted the last 
year to take a tour to Philadelphia, and that chiefly to see some 
of Your Pictures, which I am informd are there. I think myself 
peculiarly unlucky in Liveing in a place into which there has 
not been one portrait brought that is worthy to be call'd a 
Picture within my memory, which leaves me at a great loss to 
gess the stile that You, Mr. Renolds, and the other Artists 
pracktice. I shall be glad when you write next you will be more 
explicit on the article of Crayons, and why You dis[ap]prove 
the use of them, for I think my best portraits done in that way. 
and be kind anough to inform me what Count Allgarotti 1 

1 Francesco, Count Algarotti (1712-1764), author of Letters upon Painting. 

52 Copley -Pelham Letters 1767 

means by the five points that he recommends for amusement 
and to assist the invention of postures, and weither any prints 
after Corregios or Titianos are to be purchased. I fear I shall 
tire Your patience and mak you repent your wrighting to one 
who makes so many requests in one letter. 

But I shall be exceeding glad to know in general what the 
present state of Painting in Italy is, weither the Living Masters 
are excellent as the Dead have been, it is not possable my 
curiossity can be sattisfied in this by any Body but Yourself, 
not having any corraspondance with any whose judgment is 
sufhcent to sattisfy me. I have been painting the head of a 
Decerning Cleargyman and his friends are desireous to sub- 
scribe for it to be scraped in mezzotinto in the common size of 
14 inches by ten, but I cannot give them the terms till I know 
the price. I shall take it kind if when you see any artist that 
You approve You menshon it to him, and Let me know. I have 
seen a well exicuted print by Mr. Pether x of a Jew Rabbi, if 
You think him a good hand, be kind anough to desire him to let 
me know by a few lines (as soon as convenient) his terms, as the 
portrait weits only for that in my hands, and I shall send it 
immediately with the mony to defray the expence when I know 
what it is. 

I am Sir with all Sincerity Your friend and Humble Sert. 

J : S : Copley. 

Captain R. G. Bruce to Copley 

London, nth June, 1767. 
Dear Copley, 

I have received your two Letters of the 16th and 18th of 
Febry. last, but the former Letter you refer me to I have never 

1 William Pether (i738?-i82i). His "Jewish Rabbi" appeared in 1764. 

1767 Copley -Pelham Letters 53 

received, so that I am quite at a loss how to dispose of the 
Picture which was exhibited last Year. 

I am greatly obliged to You for the Portrait you have sent 
me. I have but just got it, as it was detained at the Custom 
House, and I had some difficulty, as well as Expence, to recover 
it; which made it unlucky that you did not send it, with the 
other, to Mr. Hale. I have not yet seen it, the Box not being 
opened, as Mr. West has desired it may be sent to him, that 
he may see your Performance in Crayons. 

Your Picture arrived just in time for the Exhibition, and Mr. 
West did it all Justice, having the principal Direction of placing 
the Pictures there. I have been assiduous to collect the Con- 
noiseur's Opinions of your last Exhibition. Mr West will tell 
You his in the Letter which I herewith send You ; and the gen- 
eral opinion of the Society of Artists you may judge of by their 
Electing You a Member; their vote for which I also herewith 
send You. The general opinion was that the Drawing and Ex- 
ecution exceeded the last, and some went so far as to say it was 
the best Portrait in the Room in point of Execution; but you 
have been universally condemned in the choice of your Subject, 
which is so disagreable a Character, as to have made the Picture 
disliked by every one but the best Judges who could discern the 
Excellence of the Painting; so that it has not so universally 
pleased as last years Picture. I 'm astonished that you should 
have suffered [Mr. Powel's vanity] 1 to lead you into such an 
error. I waited on Mr. Rennolds on purpose to get his opinion, 
as of more Consequence than all the rest. He exclaimed against 
the Subject, but approved of the Painting, and perseveres in 
his Opinion that you only want Example to be one of the first 
Painters in the World. He dislikes your Shades; he says they 

1 The words in brackets have been erased and are almost illegible. 

^4 Copley -Pelham Letters 1767 

want Life and Transparency. He says "your Drawing is won- 
derfully correct, but that a something is wanting in your Col- 
ouring." I begd him to explain it, that I might communicate it 
to You, but he told me "that it was impossible to convey what 
he meant by Words, but that he was sure (by what you have 
already produced) he could make you instantly feel it by 
Example, if you was here." 

You have his own words and may therefore judge what use 
to make of them. If you do not come over Yourself I hope 
you will still continue to exhibit, and establish a Reputation 
already so happily begun. At any rate I hope you are al- 
ready enabled to raise the price of your pictures. If you have 
not I think you ought immediately. I hope You will be at 
some Pains to chuse a pleasing Subject for your next Exhi- 
bition, for it is not agreable to hear Dislikes exprest by even 
the most stupid and ignorant from such an accidental Cir- 

I expected to have revisited America this Summer, but I 
beleive I shall now spend another Year in England, where I 
should rejoice to see You, and to render You every Service in 
my power. I hope your Mother and Brother are well. I doubt 
not but the latter is making great Progress in your Art, which 
he seemd to have so fine a Genius for. Your old Friend Capt. 
Traille is at Gibraltar, where he went about two Months ago. 
He continues to remember You with much regard, and is still 
assiduous in the Labours of the Pencil. He has parted with his 
Wife I believe totally. She lives with her Father in Somerset- 
shire. A happy Riddance. 

I beg you will continue to let me hear from You, and com- 
mand any Services I can do You here. Mr. West seems much 
your Friend, and would be useful to You if you come to Europe. 

1767 Copley '-Pel bam Letters 55 

He is making great Progress in History-Painting, and pro- 
duced some capital Pieces this Year. He is at the same time a 
very agreeable amiable Young Man. 1 

Your last Year's Picture is still at Mr. Reynolds's, but I 
shall take it from thence in a few Days, and take great care of 
it till I have your Orders how to dispose of it. 

I wrote to Mrs. Melvill and Mr. Scollay last Year, but I 
find my Letters never reached them. I write by this opport'y 
to Mr. Scollay and Mr. Kennedy and send the former a Sett of 
Mr Strange's last Performances. 2 

Remember me to your Mother and all Friends and believe 
me, D'r Copley, Your sincere Friend and humble Serv't. 

R. G. Bruce. 

P : S : I must give you one Caution, which is, that if any of the 
Critical Reviews, Examinations etc., of the Exhibition (which 
have been published here) should fall into your Hands, to pay 
no manner of Regard to what they say, as they are most execra- 
ble Performances and universally condemned. The Artists 
depend on another Exhibition from You next Year. They 
already put you on a footing with all the Portrait Painters 
except Mr. Reynolds. If You have been able to attain this 
unassisted at Boston, What might you not atchieve in Europe ? 
Your coming home as an Artist travelling for Improvement 
will cost you very little. I shall therefore hope to see You 
bring home your next Exhibition in Person. 

This was first intended to go single but as I now enclose it 
and have not time to write it over again you '11 excuse my scrib- 
ling over the first Direction. 

1 West was born in 1738. 

2 Sir Robert Strange (1721-1792), an engraver, and long a friend of West. 

5 6 Copley -Pelham Letters 1767 

Benjamin West to Copley 

London, June 20th, 1767. 

Dont impute the long Omition of my not writeing to you [to] 
any forgetfullness or want of that Friendship I first Shewd on see- 
ing your works. My having been so much ingaged in the Study 
of my Bussiness, in perticuler that of history Painting, which 
demands the greates Gear and intelegance in History amagin- 
able, has so intierly Prevented my takeing up the Penn to 
answer your Several Agreable favours, and the reception of your 
Picture of the little Gairl you Sent for the exhibition. It came 
safe to hand in good time. And as I am Persuaded you must 
be much interested in reguard to the reception it mett with 
from they artists and Publicks »opinion in General, I as a 
Friend Take this oppertunity to Communicate it to you. 

In regard to the Artists they Somewhat differ in Opinion 
from Each Other, Some Saying they thought your First Picture 
was the Best, others Say the last is Superior (which I think [it] 
is as a Picture in point of Exhecution, tho not So in Subject). 
But of those I shall give this of Mr. Reynolds when he saw it 
he was not so much Pleased with it as he was with the first 
Picture you Exhibited, that he thougt you had not mannaged 
the general Affect of it so Pleasing as the other. This is what 
the Artists in General has Criticised, and the Colouring of the 
Shadows of the flash wants transperency. Those are thing[s] in 
General that have Struck them. I Cant say but the Above 
remarks have some justness in them, for the Picture being at 
my house some time gave me an oppertunity of Examining it 
with more Exectness. 

The General Affect as Mr. Reynolds justly Observes is not 

1767 Copley -Pelham Letters 57 

quite so agreable in this as in the other; which arrises from 
Each Part of the Picture being Equell in Strenght of Coulering 
and finishing, Each Making to much a Picture of its silf, with- 
out that Due Subordanation to the Principle Parts, viz they 
head and hands. For one may Observe in the great works of 
Van dyke, who is the Prince of Portrait Painter[s], how he has 
mannaged by light and shedow and the Couler of Dreperys 
made the face and hands apear allmost a Disception. For in 
Portrait Painting those are they Parts of Most Consiquence, 
and of Corse ought to be the most distinguished. Thare is in 
Historical Painting this Same attention to be Paid. For if the 
Principl Carrictors are Suffred to Stand in the Croud, and not 
distinguished by light and shadow, or made Conspicuous by 
some Pece of art, - So that the Eye is first Caut by the Head 
Carrictor of the History, and So on to the next as he bears 
Proportion to the head Carrictor, -if this is not observed the 
whole is Confusion and looses that dignity we So much admier 
in Great works. Your Picture is in Possession of Drawing to a 
Correctness that is very Surpriseing, and of Coulering very 
Briliant, tho this Brilantcy is Somewhat missapplyed, as for 
instance, the Gown too bright for the flesh, which over Came it 
in Brilency. This made them Critisise they Shadows of the 
Flesh without knowing from whence this defect arose; and so in 
like manner the dog and Carpet to Conspichious for Excesry 
things, and a little want of Propriety in the Back Ground, 
which Should have been Some Modern orniment, as the Girle 
was in a Modern dress and modern Cherce [skirt?]. The Back 
Ground Should have had a look of this time. These are Critis- 
isms I should not mak was not your Pictures very nigh upon a 
footing with the first artists who now Paints, and my being 
sensible that Observations of this nature in a friendly way to a 

58 Copley -Pelham Letters 1767 

man of Your Talents must not be Disagreable. I with the 
greater Freedom give them, As it is by this assistance the art 
is reasd to its hight. I hope I shall have the Pleasur of Seeing 
you in Europe, whare you will have an oppertunity of Contem- 
plateing the great Productions of art, and feel from them what 
words Cannot Express. For this is a Scorce the want of which 
(I am senseble of) Cannot be had in Ameri[c]a; and if you 
should Ever Come to London my house is at Your Service, or if 
you should incline to go for Italy, if you think letters from me 
Can be of any Service, there are much at your Service. And 
be asshurd I am with greatest Friendship, Your Most obediant 
Humble Servent 

Benjn West. 

PS. I have Spoke to Several of our Mezzotinto Scrappers, 
and there Prices for a Plate after a Picture of that Sise is from 
fifteen Guines to Twenty Guines. Thare is Scrapers of a less 
Price thin that, but they are reather indefirent. I hope you will 
fevour us with a Picture the next Exhibition. In Closed I Send 
you a Copy of our Royal Charter and list of fellows, amongst 
whom you are Chosen one. The next which will be printed your 
name is to be inserted. 

Captain R. G. Bruce to Copley 

London, 25th June, 1767. 
Dear Copley, 

Since I wrote to You the nth Curr't I was informed that 
a Letter had lain a great while for me at Mr. Myers's. Upon 
calling there yesterday I found your Letter of the 12th Novr. 
last, which, had they taken the trouble of putting in the Post 
Office, I should have received in course. I wish I had received 

1767 Copley -Pelham Letters 59 

it sooner, that I might have made your Acknowledgements to 
the Gentlemen therein mentioned. However I shall do it the 
first time I see them. Your Brother's Portrait I have removed 
from Mr. Reynolds's to Mr. West's, where I think it had better 
remain as a Specimen till you arrive yourself to dispose of it; 
especially as your last Exhibition is in the Hands of People 
where it will be of no use to You. With regard to the last 
Picture exhibited, you have the opinions of the learned in my 
Letter of the nth, and the letter inclosed in it from Mr West. 
Upon the whole you have not pleased so universally as last 
Year, arising merely from the unlucky choice of your Subject. 
Among the Judges there are several who prefer the last, and of 
these are Mr. Hayman 1 and Mr. West, but Mr. Reynolds and 
the Majority prefer the first, because in that you have made 
the under parts of the Picture more subordinate to the principal 
than in the last, where they say the under parts such as the 
Dog, Parrot Carpet etc., are too brilliant and highly finished in 
proportion to the Head and Hands. The Nobility in gen'l have 
condemned the last for this excellent Reason, that " it is an ugly 
Thing." Let me therefore intreat You to ransack the whole 
Town and Country for a pleasing Subject for your next Exhibi- 
tion. As the Society of Artists have chose You a Fellow of the 
Society (which you will find by a Letter, I have inclosed in my 
last, from the President) They will depend on your continuing 
to exhibit. I wish it was convenient for You to paint your next 
Exhibition Picture at the House of Mr. West, where you would 
be very welcome, and where you would receive some Assistance. 
I should think your Business at Boston could not, at any rate, 
suffer much by a Year or twos Absence, and the Expence would 
not amount to much. I am afraid you will delay coming to 
1 Francis Hayman (1708-1776). 


60 Copley -Pelham Letters 1767 

Europe till the Force of your Genius is weakened, and it may 

be too late for much Improvement; and the Art be thereby 

deprived of a capital Hand. You are obliged to Mr. West and 

Mr. Hayman for being proposed as a Fellow of the Society. 

The former is so hurried that I have been obliged to teize him 

for the Letter I have sent You, much in the same manner as I 

did formerly to persuade You to finish the Picture, which is still 

surveyed here as an astonishing Performance. My Vanity is not 

a little nattered in having been the first to find out its Merit, since 

it has had such great and universal Applause in this Country. 

Remember me to your Mother and Brother and my old 

Acquaintances in your Part of the World and believe me with 

much Truth, Dear Sir, Your sincere Friend and Serv't 

R. G. Bruce. 
Continue to direct for me as usual. 1 

George Livius to Copley 

Portsmouth, New Hampshire, 3d. Sepr., 1767. 

I am desirous of having two family pictures copied in the 
best manner. If you will undertake it I will send them to you 
next week. I intend carrying the copies home which makes me 
wish to have them very perfect pictures, and was I not well 
satisfied of your ability I woud have ventured the originals to 
England. I shall send them to you if you think well of it, and 
can let me have them at the end of five weeks in Boston. The 
originals were painted by De Kelberg, and one of them has 
been allways held to be a good picture; the other I have been 
told by good judges has faults, and when I know your deter- 

1 This letter, sent by the John Galley, Captain Huline, was received October 
13, 1767. 

1767 Copley-Pelham Letters 61 

mination I shall be able easily in a few lines to you to point out 
any necessary alterations. 

I shoud be glad of your answer by return of the post, also 
the price of a copy, as I do not at present well recolect it, they 
are half pictures. I remain, Sir, Your most obedt. & h'ble Servt. 

George Livius. 

George Livius to Copley 

Portsmouth, N.E., 14th Seper., 1767. 

You shoud have heard from me in consequence of your 
letter had not the packett which was to have sail'd last week 
been delay'd 'till this time. I intend sending the Portraits by 
Captn. Fernald; he sails tomorrow. As to the price you wrote 
me it exceeds considerably what was customary with you when 
I was in Boston two years since, and at present is more than 
was expected by some Gentlemen here, especially for a copy; 
and I need not observe to you the very few opportunities you 
have of copying from so good a picture as one of them is. How- 
ever all I shall add on this head is, that it shall be left entirely 
to your discretion. I have particularly to beg that nothing may 
be spared to have them as perfect pictures as you can make 
them for your own honor and the credit of New England, for 
as good pictures they may be observed in England and further 
convince many of your merit. I am sorry you have been dis- 
appointed by three or four days of receiving them, however I 
make no doubt but that five weeks from the date of your letter 
(the 8th. Instt.) will answer your purpose as to time, you shall 
hear from me if I shoud be delay'd longer, but I at present rely 
on having them at that time finish'd in Boston. 

I remain, Sir, your most Obedt Servt 

George Livius. 

62 Copley -Pelham Letters 1767 

I P.S. They measure the Kitcat size. I find I can now spare 
you five weeks from this date, that is 'till monday the 19th of 
next month. The Alterations I woud chuse to have in one of 
the pictures are, 1st. the hand which holds the baskett of 
flowers. This I think is very badly foreshortned. The best way 
to remedy that in the copy may be by letting the mantle cover 
it, tho' I shoud prefer seeing the hand well foreshortned. The 
hair is also badly executed, as it is intended to exhibit hair that 
has been powder'd, careless in undress, but it looks more like 
grey hairs in its present dress, which woud be very inconsistant 
with the air of the picture, which has a youthfull appearance. 
The person's age was about 30 at the time of taking the picture, 
and a sure circumstance that they were not intended for grey 
is that at the time of her death the hair was light brown, which 
is the color I woud prefer having it drawn in. Another fault, 
thought so by those who remember the person, is the prodigious 
breadth of the picture across the shoulders (I dont mean the 
fall of the shoulders). This you will observe when you see the 
picture to be to a degree unnatural, tho I imagine it was in- 
tended to express the looseness of the bed gown; but it does 
not produce that effect. I woud chuse to alter the color of the 
bed gown from the flaring colour it is of to a more becoming 
and grave one, to a garnet purple for instance; but this I 
leave also to your fancy and taste. As to the other picture I 
woud chuse no alteration whatever in it; only an exact and 
good copy as possible. Care must be taken not to thrust the 
chisel too far in opening the case, there is a groove in the wood 
work in which part of the portrait is let in as it was a \ of an 
inch too small; you will observe the case is not to be opened 
on the broad part, but on the side on which the card is nail'd, 
which is to be gently wedged up with a chisel for fear of hurt- 

1767 Copley -Pelham Letters 63 

ing the pictures, which are to be carefully drawn out of the 
grooves they are put into. And in packing up the pictures 
again you will take care to have them put facing each other, 
that they may not rub or be hurt. I shall be obliged to you if 
you will in time bespeak as good a case to pack up your por- 
traits in, to be sent me here. 

Copley to Francis M. Newton. 

Boston, Novr. 23, 1767. 

I received your very polite Letter of the 3d of Sepr., 1766, 
which gave me the first notice of my being Elected a Fellow of 
the Society of Artists of Great-Briton tho by some accident it 
did not come to hand till the 13th of Octr., 1767, otherwise I 
should sooner have acknowledged the seense I have of the 
compliment they have been pleased to Honour me with. 

I beg Sir You will take the first oppertunity of making my 
acknowledgements to the President and Society for this 
testamony of their approbation, and the favourable reception 
they have given my works, and as I shall allways esteem it a 
real Honour to be of that Society, so I shall by constant appli- 
cation to my studys strive to deserve the Election; But as I 
am sensable the Honour of the Society depends on the promo- 
tion of the Arts, I cannot but reflect with concern on my pres- 
ent situation, which utterly deprives me of every oppertunity 
(but what Nature has furnish'd me with) of being aiding in this 
laudable work. 

In a Country where their is neither precept, example, nor 
Models, to form the taste direct and confirm the practice I 
cannot take the sattisfaction or procure the advantages I might 

64 Copley -Pelham Letters 1767 

injoy in obeying Your sommons. But the tie of Filial Duty 
pleads my excuse for what might otherwise be thought to arrise 
from Inactivity I am, Sir, with all Due Respect, Your Most 
Obet. Humble Sert. 

John Singleton Copley. 

Copley to [Captain R. G. Bruce?] x 


But What shall I do at the end of that time (for prudence bids 
us to Consider the future as well as the present). Why I must 
eighther return to America, and Bury all my improvements 
among people intirely destitute of all just Ideas of the Arts, 
and without any addition of Reputation to what I have already 
gaind. For the favourable receptions my Pictures have met 
with at home has mad them think I could get a better Living 
at home than I can here, which has been of service to me, but 
should I be disappointed, it would be quite the reverse. It 
would rather lessen than increase their oppinion of my Works 
which I aught by all prudent methods strive to avoide. Or I 
should sett down in London in a way perhaps less advantagious 
than what I am in at present, and I cannot think of purchasing 
fame at so dear a rate. I shall find myself much better off than 
I am in my present situation. (I would be here understood to 
speak of the profits of the art only, for as I have not any 
fortune, and an easy income is a nesasary thing to promote the 
art. It aught to be considered, and Painters cannot Live on 
Art only, tho I could hardly Live without it) . But As it is not pos- 
sable for me, Who never was in Europe, to settle sufficiently in 
my mind those points, I must rely on Your Friendship and Mr. 

1 A fragment of the letter. 

1767 Copley -Pelham Letters 65 

West to inform me. I have wrote You and Mr. West in the 
plainest and most unreserved maner what the dificultys are, 
and doubt not Your friendship and prudence will lead You to 
give all Due weit to the objections I have proposed; and if 
You think they are still sufficient to keep me in this Country, 
I shall strive to content myself where I am. I have been thee 
more pellicular in this Letter Least the other should have mis- 
carried, and doubt not You will write me answer as soon as 
possible, and prevail on Mr. West to Lay asside the pencil to 
remove my Doubts, for You cannot but know a state of uncer- 
tainty in affairs of consequence (as these are to me,) are very 
perplexing and disagreable. Beside if Your Answer [be] such as 
to favour my going, you know I have a Real Estate which I 
must dispose of, and a Great Deal of Business to settle, which 
must take up much time and will detain me another Year, 
unless I can hear soon from You. 

Copley to [West or Captain R. G. Bruce?] 


I observe the Critisisms made on my last picture were not the 
same as those made on the first. I hope I have not in this as in 
the last by striving to avoid one error fallen into another. I 
shall be sorry if I have. However it must take its fate. Perhaps 
You may blame me for not taking anoth[e]r subject that would 
have aforded me more time, but subjects are not so easily 
procured in this place. A taste of painting is too much Wanting 
to affoard any kind of helps ; and was it not for preserving the 
resembla[n]ce of perticular persons, painting would not be 
known in the plac[e]. The people generally regard it no more 
than any other usefull trade, as they somtimes term it, like that 

66 Copley -Pelham Letters 1768 

of a Carpenter tailor or shew maker, not as one of the most 
noble Arts in the World. Which is not a little Mortifiing to 
me. While the Arts are so disregarded I can hope for nothing, 
eith[e]r to incourage or assist me in my studies but what I 
receive from a thousand Leagues Distance, and be my improve- 
ments what they will, I shall not be benifitted by them in this 
country, neighther in point of fortune or fame. This is what I 
wrote at large in my last letter Datted [ ] x as the only 

reason that discourages me from going to Europe, least after 
going I shall not find myself so good an artist, as to merit that 
incouragement that would make it worth my while. It would 
by no means be [ ] to go th[e]re to improve myself, and than 
return to America; but if I could make it worth my [while] to 
stay there, I would remove with Moth[e]r and Broth[e]r, who 
I am bound by all the ties of Duty and Eff e[c]tion not to Desert 
as Long as I live. My income in this Country is about three 
hund'd Guineas a Year, out of which I have been able to Lay 
up as much as would carrie me thru and support me hand- 
somly for a Couple of Years with a family. 

Copley to Benjamin West 2 

Boston, Jany. 17th, 1768. 

By Capt [ ] I send You two portraits, 3 one in Oyl the 

other in Crayons, with respect to the first I think common jus- 

1 Perhaps the letter preceding. Cunningham, in his Lives of the British 
Painters, prints two extracts from letters of 1767 not found in this collection, 
one to Captain Bruce, and the other to West. 

2 There are two drafts of this letter. The first one has many erasures, the 
more important of which are given in the footnotes. 

3 Erased in first draft: "agreable to the promiss I made You in my Last, which 
I am very desireous to hear of Your receiveing." 

1768 Copley -Pelharn Letters 67 

tice to myself requires some Apologys, that in case it should 
not answer Your expectations it may not be intirely at the 
expence of my Reputation. For altho it may be as good as my 
portraits generally are, yet for an Exibition somthing more may 
be expected, and that Artist is greatly to be pitied, who cannot 
occationally rise above the common level of his practice. Yet 
such has been my ill Luck, that this as well as the last Years 
I have not had the advantages I generally have for my other 
portraits. The reason of which is my not receiveing the Criti- 
sisms of the Artists and publick earlyer, and I prize them two 
highly to be willing to lose the advantage of them, which I 
should do at least one Year, should I paint my picture before 
they come to hand. Yet I find I had better submit to that in- 
con veniance than to the evil of doing it in the depth of Winter, 1 
the weither bein[g] too severe and time too far elapsed for such 
a work, considerin[g] at the same time that I am obliged to 
attend to a great [deal] of Business. Having no assistance I 
am obliged to do all parts of my Pictures with my own hand. 
However, I should not have had so many apologys to make for 
this portrait if Mr. Rogers could have spared time to have sat 
as I found occation for him, but the preparations for his Voy- 
age to London took up so much of his time as to leave me to the 
disagreable necessaty of finishing a great part of it in his absence. 
As to the other if I have not succeeded I must take all the 
blame to myself it. It is a plain head 2 and the only apology I 
have to offer is this, that as I never saw 3 any thing done in that 

1 Erased in first draft: "when the shortness of time the sever [it]y of the 
Climate at once conspire to appose the Art that can only thrive. But here I was 
doubly unlucky." 

2 First draft: "in Crayons." Erased in second draft: "in the most simple dress 

8 Erased in first draft: "more than three heads done in Crayons." 

68 Copley -Pelham Letters 1768 

way that could possably be esteemd, I am more at a loss to 
know what will please the Coniseur. I prefered simplissity in 
the dress because, should I do any thing in a taste of Drapery 
forrain from or contrary to what is the prevailling f ashon when 
the picture appears at the Exibition, it must displease. Nor 
indeed can I be suplyed with that variety of Dresses here as in 
Europe, unless I should put myself to a great expence to have 
them made. This picture bears the Likeness of a Young Lady 
who is known by some that may visit the Exibition and may be 
desireous to have a coppy of it, which I beg You will not suffer 
as I am under the strongest obligations both to her Parents and 
herself having given my word and honour that no Coppy shall 
be taken of it. What ever their reasons may be this is so bind- 
ing upon me that I beg it as a thing of the last importance not 
to let any Body have it out of Your possession except while it is 
in the Exibition. After that is over I beg You will keep it till 
I shall direct how to dispose of it. 

I am very ancious to hear of Your receiveing my last Letter, 
as it contained the reasons that have hithertoo deter'd me from 
a Voyage to London; and being uncertain weither they will be 
thought sufficent or not, and I can only be informd by You and 
My Friend Capt. Bruce, to whom I communicated the same. 
I should be glad to go to Europe, but cannot think of it without 
a very good prospect of doing as well there as I can here. You 
are sensable that three hundred Guineas a Year, which is my 
present income, is a pretty living in America, and I cannot 
think You will advise me to give it up without a good prospect 
of somthing at least equel to it, considering I must remove an 
infirm Mother, which must add to the dificulty and expencive- 
ness of such [a] Voyage. And what ever my ambition may be 
to excell in our noble Art, I cannot think of doing it at the 

1768 Copley -Pelham Letters 69 

expence of not only my own happyness, but that of a tender 
Mother and Young Brother * whose dependance is intirely 
upon me. 

I cannot conclude this long epistle without taking notice of 
the diference of the Exicution of the three portraits in Oyl I 
have painted for the Exibition. The first is Minutely finished 
and, as well as I can remember, I think pretty clean; the shades 
collected and thrown out of the principal part of the Picture. 
The second less minute not so clean, nor the shades so well 
dispos'd on the flesh. The last You will find differs from the 
other two, from the first in point of Minuteness, and the second 
in point of Cleanness and disposition of shades. Yet I am alto- 
gether uncertain weither it will please mor or less than the last, 
but I beg You will continue Your remarks in the same friendly 2 
maner You have hither too done, which will very much Oblige 
Your sincere friend And Humble Sert. 

John S: Copley. 

P.S. To secure the pictures from the customs I have directed 
them to Roger Hale Esqr. Land surveyor at the custom house 
port of London, in the same maner as I did the last Year. 

Copley to \Gaptain R. G. Bruce] 

[Circa January 17, 1768.] 
Dear Sir, 

By this oppertun[i]ty I send the two portraits that I promist 
in my last, one in Crayons the other in Oyl, which I have 
Directed to Mr. Hale to secure them from the Customs, as I did 
the one I sent the last Year. I must beg you will be so kind as 

1 First draft: " who I am bringing] up to [the] same study with myself." 

2 First draft: "canded." 

70 Copley -Pelham Letters 1768 

to see that Mr. West receives them for the Exibition. I in- 
tended to have sent them sooner but I found it more dificult to 
procure a subject than I thought I should. I really wish they 
may please but I assure you I have not had a Common chance 
sence the first I sent but have eigther been hurried by the 
shortness of time or the interuption of other Business or hin- 
dred by the badness of the weither. Perticularly in Mr. Rogers 
portrait I met with so much dificulty as not to be certain weither 
I should be able to finish the face before he saild or not till a 
few Days before he went for London, which was so dispiriting 
that if it is not liked you must blame him for all the Defects you 
find in it. He will acknowledge my observations to be true and 
I doubt not will do me justice in this pellicular. He will remem- 
ber I was Obliged sometimes to beg sometimes to scold in order 
to mak[e] the Dificulty of his compliance less than the neglect 
of his seting by which means I obtain[e]d as much time as I gen- 
erally spend about a portrait of this size, which is by no means 
sufficient in my oppinion for an Exibition Picture. Indeed (I 
find however it may be with other painters) that mine are 
almost allways good in proportion to the time I give them pro- 
vided I have a subject that is picturesk. 1 

Myles Cooper 2 to Copley 

King's College, New York, 5 Augt. 1768. 

By Capt Smith, who conveys this, You will receive 7 Guineas, 
the price, if I recollect, of the Picture. By the Same Gentleman 

1 The remainder of the letter is wanting. 

2 Myles Cooper was second president of King's College from 1763 to 1776. 
There are two portraits of him at Columbia University, one of which is 
doubtless th_e object of this correspondence. It has been reproduced in Columbia 

1768 Copley -Pelham Letters 71 

I also send a Gown, Hood, and Band, by which to finish the 

Drapery. This, I doubt not, you will be able to execute, before 

Capt. Smith returns to New York; at which Time You will 

return the Gown etc. together with the Picture: and, if a 

Couple of Guineas will purchase the little Piece which I so much 

admired, the Nun with the Candle before her, You may send 

that also, which I will deposit in our College Library, as a 

Beginning to a public Collection. If the Picture does not please 

You, and I should visit Boston again, the next Year, I will take 

Care that it shall be there before me; that, when I come, it may 

receive your finishing Hand. I am, Sir yr. most obedt and very 

hble Sert. 

Myles Cooper. 

Please to convey the Letter to Mr. Troutbeck. 1 

Copley to [Myles Cooper] 2 

I received Your favour by C[apt.] Smith with the robe in 
good order. I am sorry it is not in my power to comply with 
Your reques[t] in sending it back as soon as You expected, but 
having been ingaged to sett out opon a tour of a week the next 
Morning, but will return it when Cap Smith makes his next 
trip. I likewise received seven Guineas the price of Your por- 
trait. As to the Candle light In consideration of the use You 
propose to make of it I will part with it for two Guineas, as it is 
my desire to see some publick collection begun in America. 

University Quarterly, i. 347. The other is either a replica by Copley or a copy 
by another artist. Mr. Edward R. Smith has discussed the history and rela- 
tionship of the paintings in ibid., xn. 299-301. 

1 John Troutbeck was assistant rector of King's Chapel, 1755— 1775. 

2 An extremely rough draft of Copley's reply to the preceding letter, without 
address, signature or date. 


72 Copley -Pelham Letters 1768 

I shall therefore send it with Your portrait] . One box will 
contain the two but I [am] extreemly loath to send Yours till 
You sett again, for after it has been seen by everey body the 
finnish comes too late to answer the purposes desired. 

Benjamin West to Copley 

London, Sepr. 20th, 1768. 
Dear Sir, 

By your Friend Mr. Rogers I send you these few lines on 
the subject of your last letter to me. My long Silence on this 
head must have made you think by this that I had forgot you. 
But the more I reflected on your Situation, and those Points 
you have been Pleasd to Communicate to me, the More I found 
myself under the Necessity of a longer Deliberation and not to 
be too precipitate in writeing you my Opinion till I had 
Exactly assertaind that of Publick. I have with the greatest 
care Endavoured at their real Sentiments in regard to the 
Merrits of those Specimens you have been pleast to favour us 
with of your Painting at our Exhibition, And find by their 
Candid approbation you have nothing to Hazard in Comeing 
to this Place. The Plan I then offer for your Consideration is as 
follows : The length to which you have advanced in the Art of 
Painting shews the High light you hold that noble art in, and 
the venaration you must have for those great Productions with 
which Italy abounds, Tho perhaps amongs the liveing Masters 
of that Country you may not meet with a rival. But from the 
works of those dead to a Man of Powers they are a Source of 
Knowledge ever to be prized and Saught after. I would there- 
for, Mr. Copley, advise your makeing this viset while young 
and befor you determin to Settle. I dont apprehend it needs be 
more than one Year, as you wont go in pursut of that which 

1768 Copley -Pelham Letters 73 

you are not Advanced in, but as a Satisfaction to yourself 
hearafter in knowing to what a length the art has been Carried 
to. by this you will find yourself in Possesions of Powers 
you will then feel that Cannot be Communicated by words 
and is onely to be felt by those which Nature has Blessd with 

As your Setling in England will be attended with a little 
famely, if your viset to Italy could be first accomplished I 
should think it would be better. But this yourself, Mr. Rogers, 
or your other Friends will be the best judges of. This seems to 
me the Plan that most afFectually establishes you, and what 
is to be Accomplisdd without great Expance. this is what 
Occurs to me on this head, and candidly send it you as one that 
is your Friend. My Friendship I freely give, and if ever you 
should Come hear, I begg you'll make my house your home. 
I am, Dear Mr. Copley, Your Friend and Most obediant Hum- 
ble Servent 

B: West. 

Myles Cooper to Copley 

King's College, New York, 24 Octr., 1768. 

I was so unfortunate as not to see Capt. Smith during his 
Stay here the last Voyage, otherwise, a Line should have waited 
on You at his Return. I am obliged to You for what you say 
concerning the Candle-Light, which You will please to send by 
Capt. Smith (who, I fancy, will be almost ready to sail, by the 
Time You receive this), and the Money [shall be re-]mitted 
to you by the first Opportunity. But, by the Same Convey- 
ance, I must also beg of you to send my Portrait, finish'd in 
the best Manner You can ; for, as to my Coming again to Boston, 

74 Copley-Pelham Letters 1769 

(considering what a Situation You are in, and I am afraid 
Things are not likely to change for the better) the Matter is 
quite uncertain: and, if ever I do see the Place again, it will 
hardly be before both You and I have seen Europe. 

I have seen several People who have told me the Picture is 
exceeding like me; and if the Finishing is not so high, as You 
might have made it, on another Sitting; I will take all Care 
that the Circumstances shall be known to those who have 
either Discernment enough to taste its Excellencies, or Pene- 
tration sufficient to observe its Defects. I am, Sir with my 
best wishes for your Welfare, yr. most obedt. and very hble 

Myles Cooper. 

Myles Cooper to Copley 

King's College, New York, 9th Jany, 1769. 

I was much surprized that you neither thought proper to 
send my Picture, as you were desir'd to do, by Capt. Smith; 
nor to give me any Reason for the Omission. Perhaps he might 
have slipt away as he has done from me, without your Know- 
ledge of his sailing: but still you might have let me know that 
such was the Case. As for the portrait itself, the want of it 
cannot be attended with any great Inconvenience; but the 
Gown I think you are unpardonable for keeping in your Hands 
so long: And the other Picture, if I had been in possession of it, 
would, ere this, have been the Occasion of procuring some 
more, to my certain Knowledge, for our Library. I beg, Sir, 
you would send at least, my Gown by the first Opportunity, 
and remain, yr. most obedt. Servt. 

Myles Cooper. 

1769 Copley -Pelham Letters 75 

Edward Holyoke 1 to Copley 

Cambridge, Jany. 31, 1767. 2 

This comes to desire you to delivr. Mr. Hollis's Picture to 
the Persons I shall send (as soon as may be) with an Order for 
it. It seems you say the Goven'r told you, you might take it to 
yor self, having 16 Guineas only for the new Picture, which I 
wonder at, for that his Excy. must needs know he had no more 
power to Dispose of it than the smallest man in the Governmt. 
But however, We shall not be sure part with the Picture, and 
if you must have more for the new Picture, let it be so, and as 
for yor letting us have it Cheaper, being for the College, I 
think you are in the Right rather to give what you shall see 
meet to allow in Gift to the College, in some other Way, I am 
Yor humble Servt. 

E. Holyoke. 

Myles Cooper to Copley 

King's College, New York, 21, Augt., 1769. 

I am extremely sorry, that, for a voyage or two before this, 
Capt. Smith should have made so much Haste, as to have pre- 
vented my Sending by Him the two Guineas which I am 
indebted to you for the portrait. The piece has been much 
admired; as well as the picture of myself. I should be very glad 
if You could persuade yourself to exercise your Art for a few 

1 Edward Holyoke was president of Harvard College, 173 7-1 769. He died 
June 1, 1769. 

2 The date was at first read 1769; but a closer examination, too late for 
transferring the letters to their proper places, proved 1767 to be correct. 

76 Copley -Pelham Letters 1769 

Months in this place : I am satisfied you would find an unparal- 
leled Degree of Encouragement, notwithstanding the common 
Complaint of the Scarcity of Money. Any assistance that I 
could lend you, you might depend on receiving. Capt Smith 
will give you the Balance of your Account; and you will oblige 
me by sending a Rect. for the whole by the Return of the same 
Conveyance. I am, Sr. Yr. most obedt. and very hble Servt. 

Myles Cooper. 

Copley to [Myles Cooper] 

Boston, Sepr. 24, 1769. 

I take this oppertunity to acknowledge the receipt of your 
kind favour by Capt. Smith. It gives me peculiar pleasure to 
find the pictures came safe to hand and were approved off. I 
am much obliged to you for the assistance you are so kind to 
offer me should I visit New-york. Although I cannot at present 
make that excursion for the exercise of my pencill, I may in 
some future time, when I shall be doubly happy in the friend- 
ship of one from whom an obligation will be no ways painfull. 
I am Sir with all Respect your Most Obet. Humle Sert. 

John Singleton Copley. 

G. W. Schilling[?\ to Copley x 

To fulfill my promisse per these few lines I do acquaint you 
that yr Pictur[e] is very wel received by all the world. 

I am very glad and thank you kindly for your paines that 
you have taken in painting, and for all favours which you 

1 This letter is written in a somewhat trembling hand. It bears the stamp of 
the New York post office, April 3. The postage was four shillings. 

1769 Copley -Pelham Letters 77 

have shewd to me. my Compliments to yr beloved lady 

, Mother and whole famyly. I am with the utmost regard, Sir, 

Your most humble servant 

G: W: Schilling [?]. 
Utregt the 18 8br. 1769 

Pray excuse my scrable. 

Captain John Small 1 to Copley 

Head Quarters, New York, 8ber. 29th. 1769. 

The Miniature you took from my Crayon Picture has been 
very much admir'd and approv'd of here, by the best Judges. 

Your picture of the General 2 is universally acknowledg'd to 
be a very masterly performance, elegantly finish'd, and a most 
striking Likeness; in short it has every property that Genius, 
Judgement and attention can bestow on it. The Gentleman 
who delivers you this Letter is Mr. Taylor of considerable 
Fortune in the West Indies, and of an accomplish'd Taste 
and education, improv'd by Travelling and observation; these 
circumstances induce me to make so great a Connoisseur ac- 
quainted with you, that he may have an opportunity'~of 
Observing that Genius is not confin'd to Europe, or the East- 
ern Country s. 

I Want much to have a Copy of my Crayon picture, Mr. 
Dumaresq 3 will Let you have the use of it for that purpose. 

Mr. Taylor soon returns hither, and will do me the favor to 

1 (1726-1796). Long in America, as Captain of the 21st Regiment in 1765, 
Major Commandant in the 84th in 1775, and finally Lieutenant Colonel Com- 
mandant in the same regiment in 1780. He is prominently represented in Trum- 
bull's picture of Bunker Hill. 

2 Gage? 

8 Probably Philip Dumaresque, a merchant of Boston. 

7 8 Copley -Pelham Letters 1769 

take Charge of it; should it be any way inconvenient to him; 
(for I would by no means be troublesome) it can be sent by 
any other safe Opportunity, and you may draw on me for the 
price, or inform me to Whom I shall pay that Sum here or at 
Boston; Your Order shall be instantly accepted. If Consistent 
with your own oppinion and agreable to your Rules, I should 
be glad. The Face should be a Little higher in the frame, so 
that more of the body and drapery should appear; I think I 
mentioned this when I sat to you or about the time the first 
picture was finish'd; But I Leave it intirely to your own decision 
and shall be satisfy'd to receive it as you think propper to send 
it; should You approve of any Alteration of the above sort and 
that a hand may appear I would wish to have plac'd in that 
hand a paper, or part of a paper folded up and endors'd on the 
upper end with the Annex'd Superscription or Endorsement 
and as this may occasion a good deal more Labor and must 
be troublesome in some degree to you in the performance, I 
would by no means, propose this addition without also an 
Increase of the price. If you think proper to demand or charge 
it, be assur'd it will be chearfully paid. I beg an answer to this 
Letter As soon as convenient to you and am, Sir, Your Obedt 

John Small. 

Direct To John Small Esqr Major of brigade at Head 
Quarters N York. 

To appear on the before mention'd paper. General Return of 
the troops composing the Army in North America Boston 8ber 

N. B. The words may be contracted if you choose it, the paper 
by no means to be broader than this annex'd pattern. 





177° Copley -Pelham Letters 79 

Mr. Eliot l to Copley 

[1767?] 2 

Mr Eliot's Compliments to Mr Copley. The President and 
the other Gentlemen of the Corporation think it would be 
quite improper to part with the Picture sent by Mr Hollis — 
are willing to pay Mr Copley for the other, but earnestly desire 
the small one may be put up to be ready when the President 
shall send for it. 


Henry Pelham to Charles Pelham 

Boston, Jany 17, 1770. 
Dear Brother, 

This is to request of you to let Me know if you have yet 
found the Letter that you mentioned when last in town. Upon 
thinking of the Circumstances of that affair, we can form no 
probible conjecture but that it must be a person who has had 
some connection or Acquaintance with our hond. Father, 
either in England or here. I therefore submit it to you weither 
it would not be best to Incert an Advertizement in the News- 
paper for the Recovery of it. If it should be found and turns 
out to be of no Advantage ether to you or me, yet it will satisfy 
our Curiosity, and leave us assured that we have not lost any 
thing for the want of seeking it. If you think an Advertizement 
proper, be pleased to write one and send it and I will insert it in 
the paper. I would request you to make strict search, because 
it is impossable to know what advantages may be missed by 
the Family by its being lost. My Hond. Mama, who has been 

1 Andrew Eliot. 

* See President Holyoke's note of January 31, 1767, p. 75, supra. 

80 Copley -Pelham Letters 1770 

very unwell ever since you was in Town, joins me in tenderest 
love and Respects to yourself and Sister Pelham, hoping you 
are all well. I remain Dear Sir Your Affectionate Bror. and, 
Humble Sert. 

H. Pelham. 

PS. There is a Report in Boston which gains Credit that 
Mr. Dickinson the pensilvania Farmer is dead, which gives the 
greatest concern to every Friend of the Libertys of America. 1 

Charles Pelham to Henry Pelham 

Newton, Jany. 27, 1770. 
My dear Bror., 

I reed yours of 17th, and very much Commend the prudent 
concern you shew regarding the Letter I mention'd to you, and 
were it necessary shou'd have readily fallen into your proposal 
of Advertising it. 

I had not the least apprehension that it related, or was 
interesting to me personally, but concluded you was the person 
meant, and by what I had heard, I judg'd it to be very Inter- 
esting; This imagination engag'd my utmost vigilence, by 
which after some search I receiv'd the Letter, and found it to 
be from Capt. Richard Lowry, half Bror. to Thos. Pelham. 2 
The Letter is directed to Mr. Pelham. He says he had been 
absent and had heard nothing of the Family for 25 Years, but 
meant to address himself to Chas. or Wm., whichever might 
be Living. The purport of the Letter is a very tender enquiry 
after his Brethren, His Mothers, and our Fathers Familys; and 
a very earnest request that I will write to him concerning them. 

1 John Dickinson died February 14, 1808. 

2 Peter Pelham's second wife was Margaret Lowrey. 




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i77° Copley -Pelham Letters 81 

I am sorry to hear your Mama was so unwell, but hope 'ere 
now she is better again. We are all (Thank God) in pretty good 
health; your Sister Pelham heartily Joins in Tender Respects 
to our Mama, in Love to you, and affecte. Regards to Mr. 
Copley and Lady. Your Godson 1 grows a clever Fellow, and 
will soon wonder that you do not come and Catechise him. 
Hilly 2 is Taught to express Duty and Gratitude to her Grand- 
mama, and would be greatly pleas'd to pay her a visit. I pray 
God to Bless you and am Your Affecte. Brother 

Chas. Pelham. 

John Greenwood 3 to Copley 

Dr. Sir, 

> It has given me infinite pleasure from time to time, to see 
your masterly performances exhibitted here in London, and 
hope at the approaching Season to find no disappointment, as 
it will certainly be a very great one to me, if a Picture of yours 
is wanting, as it may hapen that subjects may frequently hin- 
der your favoring us with them so often as one coud wish, I've 
tho't of one very proper for your next years Applause, and our 
amusement; I mean the Portrait of my Hond. Mother, 4 who 
resides at present nigh Marblehead, but is often in Boston, 
as I have of late enter'd into conections, that may probably 
keep me longer in London than I coud wish, I am very desirous 
of seeing the good Lady's Face as she now appears, with old 
age creeping upon her. I shoud chuse her painted on a small 
half length or a size a little broader than Kitt Katt, sitting 

1 Charles Pelham, Jr., born May 10, 1769. 

2 Helen, born April 2, 1867 or 1768. 

3 See Dictionary of National Biography, xxm. 85. 

4 Mary (Charnock) Greenwood. 

82 Copley -Pelham Letters 177° 

in as natural a posture as possible. I leave the pictoresque 
disposition intirely to your self and I shall only observe that 
gravity is my choice of Dress. I have desired her to write to 
you to be inform'd when 'twill suit you for her to come to 
Boston, if you could get it done by the time that Capn. 
Symms sails for London I shoud be sure of a safe conveyance. 

In regard to myself, since I left the West indies I 've been 
visiting most of the Courts of Europe, and admiring the thou- 
sand fine paintings that one finds distributed among them, 
tho' at present England bids fair to become the seat of the 
Arts and Artists. Almost every thing that is not immoveable is 
brot here, from every Country, as none pay so generously for 
real good pictures as the English — thd > I must confess, I think 
it begins somewhat to fall off. You '11 be supprized when I tell 
you, that I have brot into London above 1500. pictures, and 
have had the pleasure of adorning some of the first Cabinets in 
England, so that I have had but little time to exercise my pen- 
cil, but now and then, have for amusement painted and scrap'd 
several pieces that have not been disregarded. 

West goes on painting like a Raphael and realy out does 
every thing one could have expected, his Compositions are 
Noble, his design correct, and his Colouring harmonious 
and pleasing, and a certain Sweetness in his Charecters, that 
must please every one that beholds them. You certainly 
have seen prints after him, which will give you but a faint 
Idea of his Performances, we have several Exhibitions com- 
ing on, of old and new pictures, Prints, Drawings, etc., which 
form Mr Boydels Collection, so that for six weeks to come, 
you woud hear of nothing here but the Virtu — just as chil- 
dren in Boston for a fortnight before the 'Lection, prate of 
nothing else, it will please me to continue a correspondence 

i77? Copley -Pelham Letters 83 

with Mr Copley, and if I can be any ways Serviceable to 
him here in London he may freely comand me. I beg you'll 
accept my most sincere wishes for Your Welfare, and be as- 
sured shall Always be pleased with Your Success. I am with 
respects to all friends, Dear Sir, Yr most Obed. Humble Sert. 

Jno. Greenwood. 
Mount Street the 23 March, 1770. 

Henry Pelham to Paul Revere 

Thursday Morng. Boston, March 29, 1770. 

When I heard that you was cutting a plate of the late Murder. 
I thought it impossible, as I knew you was not capable of doing 
it unless you coppied it from mine and as I thought I had en- 
trusted it in the hands of a person who had more regard to the 
dictates of Honour and Justice than to take the undue advant- 
age you have done of the confidence and Trust I reposed in you. 
But I find I was mistaken, and after being at the great Trouble 
and Expence of making a design paying for paper, printing &c, 
find myself in the most ungenerous Manner deprived, not only 
of any proposed Advantage, but even of the expence I have 
been at, as truly as if you had plundered me on the highway. 
If you are insensible of the Dishonour you have brought on 
yourself by this Act, the World will not be so. However, I 
leave you to reflect upon and consider of one of the most dis- 
honorable Actions you could well be guilty of. 

H. Pelham. 

P S. I send by the Bearer the prints I borrowed of you. My 
Mother desired you would send the hinges and part of the 
press, that you had from her. 

84 Copley -Pelham Letters 177° 

A Receipt for Money 
Major Small Dr. 

To Mr Copeleys order for £7.10/ Sterlg. at par .... £13.6.8 
To freight a Box from Boston 4 

New York Curry. £13. 10. 8 

Reed, the above, 

Paschal N. Smith. 

[Endorsed by Major Small] Receipt in full from Capt Smith 
for £13.10.8 New York Currency remitted by him to Mr 
Copely at Boston, in March 1770. 

A Bill for Printing 

Mr. Henry Pelham to Danl Rea Junr.- Dr. 

March To Cash Advanc'd for 12 Quire of Paper @ f 2 
1770 To Printing 575 of your Prints x @ 12/ Pr.Hund. 3:9: 

Lfawful] Money £5:9: 
Contents Reed. Pr. Danl Rea Jun. 

John Hurd to Copley 

Portsmo., 17th April, 1770. 
Dr Sir, 

By orders from Governor Wentworth I have putt on board 
this Sloop, Capt Miller, a Large Case with a Valuable Picture 
of one 2 of his favourite Friends which lately arriv'd from Eng- 
land, and by some bad Stowage in the Vessell has taken con- 
siderable Damage. The Governor desires you would receive 

1 Probably Pelham's prints of the massacre. See previous letter. 

2 Mr. Hurd has underscored " one " and written " Mr Jno. Nelson " in the 

i77° Copley -Pelham Letters 85 

it into your Care and do the Needful to recover and repair the 
Beauty of the Picture and the Frame, so as to reship it by 
return of Capt Miller, you may at the same time pack up the 
Frame of the Picture here, which you have the measure of and 
ought to have been sent before, together with the Governor's own 
Picture. I was much disappointed in not receiving it, when the 
Vessell arrivd here last, beg it may not be forgot this next Time. 

You '11 please to take all necessary pains to repair this Picture 
of Mr. Nelson, as the Governor setts great Store by it being a 
Present to him. he esteems it as an Elegant and choice piece of 
painting, the Taste of which he thinks you will be pleased with. 

He desird me to renew his Invitation of your and Mrs. 
Copley's coming to Wolfboro' where he intends moving very 
soon, and tho' you may meet nothing very elegant there, he '11 
assure you of a hearty Welcome and some Employment for 
your Pencil, and you may depend on something of the same 
sort from us at Portsmo. as it lyes within our Sphere. I am with, 
great Esteem, Your Most hum Servt. 

John Hurd. 

[Pr]ay my Complimts with Mrs. Hurds to Mrs Copley. 

Henry Pelham to Charles Pelham 

Tuesday Noon, May I, 1770. 
Dear Brother, 

I have just Been to Mr. Barnards x Store, and am very sorry 

to inform you that he sat out this Morn'g for Kenebeck, where 

he tarrys 3 or 4 Weeks. I have therefore returned the Order and 

1 Probably John Bernard, of King Street, opposite Vernon's Head, who was 
one of the merchants being denounced at this time for "audaciously continuing 
to counteract the united sentiments of the body of merchants throughout North 
America, by importing British goods contrary to the agreement." Boston Gaz- 
ette (Supplement), June 18, 1770. ( - 

86 Copley -Pelham Letters 177° 

should have been very glad to have done the Buisness more to 

your satisfaction. 

As your man is waiting, I have only to subscribe myself your 

most Affectionate Brother 

Hen'y Pelham. 

P S. Accept of our best Love and Respects to yourself and 
Sister Pelham. 

Henry Pelham to Charles Pelham 

Boston, Tuesday Eveng, May I, 1770. 
Dear Brother, 

I embrace the first Leasure Moment scince your Man Left 
Boston to appologize for the very engenteel scrawl I sent by 
him. I beg you would attribute it to the shortness of the Time, 
and not to any disrespect to a Brother whom I shall always take 
the greatest pleasure in Serving whenever it is in my Power. 
I enquired of the person who takes care of Mr. Barnard's Busi- 
ness if he had left any Orders respecting you Acct. But was 
i[n]formed he had not. My Mama sends her Love and Respects 
to you and Sister Pelham, and Blessing to Hilly and Charles; 
kindly thanks you for the present of parsnips; hopes the Goose- 
berry Wine she sent will prove agreable. Inclosed I send you 
two of my prints of the late Massacre, and a Newspaper con- 
taing. Messages between the L[ieutenant] Governor and the 
House, Extract from Lord Chatham's Speech, A sketch of the 
proceedings of our patriotick Merch's who have resolved to 
return to England 30000 £ st. worth of Goods imported con- 
trary to agreement; the WISPERER. No. IV; the remon- 
strance of the City of London to his Majesty &c. &C. 1 By which 
you will conclude that they are in the utmost confusion in old 

1 The Boston Gazette, April 30, 1770. 

i77° Copley -Pelham Letters 87 

as well as New England. What will be the final Result of these 
Altercations time only can discover, thus much seems to be 
certain that if there is not a change of Measures, and that very 
soon, the British Dominions will be plunged into one of the 
most dreadfull of all temporal Evills, into all the Horrors of a 
civil War. Yesterday Messrs. Hutchinsons who had a large 
quantity of Tea under the Custom house agreed to have it 
stored by the committee of Inspection 'till the Act is repealed. 

A Vessell just arived who left London a week after Cap't 
Scott. Says the London Remonstrance was presented to the 
King by three Gentlemen at the head of the largest Number of 
People ever assembled together in London and was most 
graciously Received. 

We greatly Rejoyce to hear that you are all well hope 
you will enjoy a continuance of that and every other Bless- 
ing. Brotr. and Sister Copley join me in tenderest Love and 
Respects to yourself, Sister Pelham, and Cousins Hilly and 
Charles. Hoping very soon personally to pay my respects, and 
catachize my son Charles at Newton. I remain, Dear Sir, Your 
Most Affectionate Brother, and Most Humble Servt. 

H. Pelham. 

P S. I must beg the favour of you Sir, to lock up the News- 
paper in your desk till I come to Newton, as I find I cannot get 
another from the printer, and I should be Very sorry to be 
without one. 

John Hurd to Copley 

Portsmo', 4th May, 1770. 

I rec'd your favor of April with the Portrait Pictures per 
Capt Miller which are come to hand in good Order, but the 

88 Copley -Pelham Letters 1770 

Frame designd for the Picture here is too small by half an Inch 
in the Wedth, that I fear it must go back again unless we find 
some other Use for it. 

Mr. Nelson's Picture I think is well recoverd from the Ruin 
it seemd devoted to. The Governor is satisfy'd with it, tho' he 
hardly thinks it restor'd to its original Beauty. 

He and his Lady return their Compliments to you and Mrs. 
Copley for yr. respectful Remembrance of them. 

I am pleas'd with the Governor's Picture now sent, but I 
cant perswade Mrs. Hurd, nor my Children who were very fond 
of the first, that this Copy is equal to the Other. The Glass and 
frame is certainly not so good. 

Inclosd you have the Governor's sett of Bills Exchange on 

Messrs. Trecothick and Apthorp of London for £30. 13.6 

Sterlg, the Exact Ballance of your Acco't and which you' 11 

please to credit him for Accordingly. Pray [give] my best 

Respects to your Father Clarke and all his good family in 

which Mrs. Hurd desires to join with our kind Complim'ts to 

Mrs Copley. I am with great Regard and Esteem, Dr. Sir, 

your most humle Servt. 

John Hurd. 

William Johnston 1 to Copley 

Barbados, 4th May, 1770. 
Dear Sir, 

Yours of the 6th. Jan'y I reed, and setting the motive asside 
from which it was wrote, be assured it gave me much pleasure; 
could I promise myself sucess, I would petition for a continu- 
ance of your favors. I will at a Venture. It is the humble 

1 Perhaps a son of Thomas Johnston, who was painter, engraver and japanner 
in Boston, and also a designer of heraldic work. John Greenwood, some of whose 
letters are in this volume, was apprenticed to him. 

1770 Copley -Pelham Letters 89 

request of your friend Will: that as often as Opportunity 
presents, and your time cannot be better employ'd that you 
convey a few sentiments, which will ever be agreable and most 
gratefully received, as coming from my friend Copley. 

I could wish to give you a more satisfactory account of the 
arms you are in search of, I well remember the talk of such a 
thing, but it never was carried into Execution, to my knowl- 
edge, for be assur'd I never had it possession in my life. It 
might possibly have been given to Mr. Parker who was at 
that time my partner. I was at Portsmouth a year and half 
after I left it as the place of my residence, and put up at 
Captn. Pearsons;" no mention was ever made of it at that 
time. If I had had it I should have done it and return'd them 
both, for of what service could they be to me. You say that 
the Arms consisted of three Lions and a Stag for the Crest, if 
the arms are so well remember'd, the Loss is happily mitigated. 
I am sorry for the Loss of the other, if there was any particular 
Value put upon it, but cannot charge myself with having been 
instrumental to such a misfortune. 

The next thing to be considered, I think is the boiling of 
oil, the purity of which article much inhances its Value. A few 
words would explain to you what you desire, but I choose to 
be methodical, for when method is strictly observ'd, we are 
not so apt to shake hands with Reason. 

Now Sir the common practice of boiling oil among Common 
Painters ; observe I say Common Painters, for what I am now 
about communicate is a knowledge you do not want to come 
at; but that knowledge which you would wish to be inform[ed] 
of, or made perfect in, is to me equally easie and shall be com- 
municated in a future paragraph. You now undoubtedly will 
expect to be inform'd of the Common Painters method boiling 

go Copley -Pelham Letters 1770 

of oil, as I observ'd to you before altho it is not a knowledge 
you are any ways curious about, yet I have promis'd and must 
abide by it; from this Principle, that the complying with 
Engagements is not only a Duty, but a Virtue, which every one 
should cherish, and hold in the highest Veneration. Now Sir 
this said information may not, and I dare [say] is not altogether 
so neigh as you may imagine, for a thought has Just popt into 
my head, the bear Idea of which, affords me such pleasure, that 
I cannot indulge you with my promise till I have committed it 
to writeing. It is this, the great satisfaction it would give me to 
have a painting of my friend Copley's Head Either in Crayons 
or oil, in miniature or what ever way will be most agreable to 
him. I should wish to have it very like, but to be sure of that 
I need only to desire it may be done by himself. I say the Com- 
mon painters method is this, the Common painters method of 
what? you are quite right indeed, to ask what, for I really like 
to have blunder'd, but it must have occur'd to you from what 
would have follow'd that the boilg. of oil was what I meant. 
Well then (for we will be very Carefull this time) the Common 
painters method of Boiling oil is this. Take any given quantity 
of Oil put into an Iron pott, throw into it, a little red Lead put 
it over the fire, and let it boil till such times as the froth sub- 
sides, which is an Indication of its being boil'd Eno. Some 
indeed try with a feather; when it is sufficiently Boil'd it will 
scorch the Feather. Although this method does not alter the 
Quality of Dryg. which is all they want, yet it has not the 
property the other method gives it, for instead of its being 
return'd to you Very black (which is ever the case from the 
Common method of boilg.) it will be return'd to you as pure as 
you put it in, and will hold its colour, and that in fact is what 
you are in pursuit of. 

1770 Copley -Pelham Letters 91 

Really, Sir, what I promised you in a future paragraph was 
design'd for this place, but upon sudden recollection find that 
the mark as well as word signifies the beginning of a new sub- 
ject; a new subject letjt be and confine the other to a new sen- 
tance. Mrs. Hobby is an only Sister of mine, not intirely 
unknown to you; and such is my affection for her, I should be 
very glad to have her picture in miniature, in water colours or 
oil, which you please tho : I must confess should like to have it 
in water Colours, for this reason, because there are several 
pictures in this Island lately arriv'd from England, that are 
thought much of, so far inferior to some I have seen of my 
friends, that they never can be nam'd with them, and to con- 
vince them it is not mere boast should be glad to have [it] as 
soon as you can conveniently do it. What ever your price is 
shall be remitted to you in specie, or any thing you may Fancy 
from this Island. Pray oblige me in this request. I think there 
was a picture done of Mr. Dipper: done in small life and given 
to Harry Liddle if you will give me a Copy of it in black and 
white Chalk, Just the head; or with a black lead pencil. I want 
it for a Lady, you shall receive a Compensation beyond your 

I have been in some parts of this letter, a little bordering 
upon the Shandean stile; that should it meet you on a Cloudy 
day, or when the weather had for a time been disagreable, 
brought on a languor and depression of spirits, to rouze you 
and make you forget the malady you then Labour'd under. 

Now seriously to answer your request. Take a Glaz'd pipkin, 
made long in shape thus. x let it depend from the trammel into a 
Kettle of water, if you have a mind to force the drying prop- 
erty, you grind a little Vitriol or sugar of lead, and stir into it 

1 Here followed a crude sketch of a pipkin. 

92 Copley -Pelham Letters 177° 

before it grows hot. this method will take 6 Hours at least, the 
water boiling all the time. I have put the Oil somtimes imedi- 
ately into the water which method will render the oil as white 
as v/ater it self, but in the boiling so divides the oil into number- 
less Globles that it is a considerable time before it will unite 
sufficently to get any great matter from the water. 
The other will answer to your wishes. 

N B never fill the Vessell with oil above two thirds full. 

I see by the papers you have chang'd your condition, 1 and 
have taken to yourself a wife. I have [not] the pleasure of 
knowing your Lady by sight: but from the Charracter of that 
family in general, you must be the happy Man. I sincerely wish 
you both every hapiness you promis'd yourselves, or that your 
hearts can desire; it is customary upon wishing a new married 
Couple Joy to salute, but as this must be done by proxie, I 
cant with propriety employ a better hand than yourself; please 
to make a kiss acceptable to your Lady till such times as I can 
have the Honor of doing in Propria Persona. Well adieu, God 
bless you ; write me as often as you can, and dont forget the 
News of the place you live in, and which I have so great a 
regard for. my kind regards to your Lady accept the same 
yourself and believe me to be with truth and sincerity Dear 
Sir Your affectionate friend, and Very Humble Servant 

Wm. Johnston. 

P.S Inclos'd is a pencil to assist you in the miniature. I forgot 
to tell you I have an Organists Birth worth £75 Sterl'g per 

What ever you may have to send me : if there should not be 

1 Copley was married November 16, 1769, to Miss Susannah Farnum ("Su- 
key") Clarke, daughter of Richard Clarke, merchant. 

177° Copley -Pelham Letters 93 

any Vessell in Boston for this place forward them to Mr. 
Hobby at Middletown Connecticutt. If there should be a 
Vessell in Boston for Barbados, Direct for me to be left at the 
Attorney Generals Office. I.Veyow. I had like to have forgot 
one thing. I want a rough scetch of that little picture that is 
over the Door of Mr Chardon's Hall, 1 Time bringing truth to 

Captain John Small to Copley 

Head Quarters, New York, May 15th, 1770. 

I was favor'd with yours by Captain Pascal Smith, who also 
Deliver'd to me, the Picture you were kind enough to Send 
me by him; it came Safe and undamag'd from the Voyage 

You'll see by the Inclos'd Accot. and Receipt that Captn. 
Smith has been paid, and Your Draught in his favor Duely 

Allow me now, Sir, to Congratulate you on your marriage, 
which I saw inserted in a Boston paper. I had the pleasure of 
hearing you Mention the Lady, when I attended your Levee, and 
with such warmth of Encomium as Convinc'd me of your 
serious and well plac'd attachment. Both from what you said 
yourself and the amiable Character I heard of her from others : 
I make no doubt of your having been happy in your choice and 

I beg leave to assure you that I sincerly wish you Joy; A 
person of Your Merit and emminence in your proffession, 
deserves and ought to enjoy sweets of social and domestick 

1 Peter Chardon, who died in I77S(?). But see Works of John Adams, n., 

94 Copley -Pelham Letters 1770 

happiness ; as an additional and indeed the highest incentive of 
Endeavors to shine in so exellent an Art. 

The Beau Monde here, have Mutter'd a good deal; on hear- 
ing of your happy wedlock; not from want of good wishes for 
you, but that as they consider that agreable Event to you, as a 
prevention of your Coming hither; which I assure you has been 
earnestly and eagerly wish'd by some of the finest women in 
the World. The fame of your performances had Long ago 
Reach'd them, and the Specimens which have recently made 
their appearance, have confirm'd them in the Idea of your 
Superior genius; and Excited the Wishes of numbers of Both 
Sexes; that your Leisure might admitt of Even a Short Visit 
from you : Indeed I dare say they might undertake to bespeak 
you for several Years Employmt at this place alone: but they 
now begin to Despair of the happiness of seeing You. The 
Generals 1 Picture was receiv'd at home with universal applause 
and Looked on by real good Judges as a Masterly performance. 
It is plac'd in one of the Capital Apartments of Lord Gage's 
house in Arlington Street ; and as a Test of its merit it hangs 
between Two of Lord and Lady Gages, done by the Celebrated 
Reynolds, at present Reckon'd the Painter Laureat of Eng- 

The Picture you sent by Captn Smith; is not only approv'd 
highly by the person it's drawn for, but greatly admir'd by 
Crowds of My Friends who come to Look at it. I shall only 
further observe that Nothing Indifferent can Come from the 
hands of the Ingenious Mr. Copely. I am Sir your oblig'd and 
very humble Servt. 

John Small. 

1 Gage. 

177° Copley -Pelham Letters 95 

John Wilkes to 'Nathaniel Barber 1 

Princes Court, near Stories Gate, 
Westminster, Sept. 21, 1770. 

My Brother Hayley 2 has sent me from you a most Valuable 
present of a Picture which I receive with great Gratitude and 
pleasure from its being the recemblance of my dear namesake, 
and the merrit of the Work it self. I was very happy to Observe 
to what a degree of excellence the most elegant art of Painting 
is Arrived in New England, and as you rival us in every essen- 
tial good, so you now equal us in the refinements of Polished 
Life. I shall expect every thing good and intrinsically valuable 
from the Young Gentleman, whose Picture I admire, when I 
consider that he is educated under your care, and among the 
generous sons of Freedom in America, who remain undebauch'd 
by the wickedness of European Courts, and Parliamentary 
Prostitution. I pray heaven to give you great Comfort in him, 
and to permit him long to enjoy the Benefit of the virtuous 
example you set him! My most respectfull compliments ever 
attend the friend[s] of Liberty at Boston, and I beg you, Sir, 
to beli[e]ve me, with great truth and regard, Your Obliged, 
humble Servant, 

John Wilkes. 

1 The letter to which this is in reply is printed in Mass. Hist. Soc. Proceedings, 
xlvii. 214. Barber had named a son Wilkes Barber, and sent to Wilkes a portrait 
of the child, then in his fourth year. Copley painted it. See Copley to Benjamin 
West, November 24, 1770. 

* George Hayley, an alderman of London and brother-in-law of Wilkes. He 
was a member of the mercantile house of Hayley and Hopkins, with important 
American connections. 

g 6 Copley -Pelham Letters 1770 

Henry Pelham to Charles Pelham 

Boston, Nov. 12, 1770. 
Dear Brother, 

Upon my Arivall in Town I began to execute your Com- 
mands, by delivering your Message to my Mamma. In Return 
she presents her kind Love to you and says that she expects to 
use her stove next Winter, but in the mean time you are intirely 
welcome to the Use of it, if you think it worth while to put it 
up 'till then. 

I applyed Likewise to Mr Walley, 1 and Messrs. Green and 
Russell, 2 from whom I have procured a sett of the perpetual 
and Temporary Laws complete to the present time. The Tem- 
porary Laws were not to be had ready bound. The price of 
them you will see by the inclosed Notes. 

By the papers I am Informed of the sudden Death of Mr 
Barnard, 3 and in Virginia of that of Lord Botetourt 4 both of 
which I most Lement. Thos Pelham is in a deep Consumption. 
He was first taken ill about three Weeks ago, has continued to 
grow weaker, and is now so dangerous that his Life is not ex- 
pected from one hour to anotheV. His Family is in the greatest 
Poverty and Misery. 

I send you a new Specimen of the Abilitys of our Boston 
Poetess Phillis, which has undergone no Corrections what 
ever. Mr. Green, who examen'd her Poem on the death of 
Mr. Whitfield before it went to the Press alterd but one 
Word in the Whole, and that was the Word Stars instead of 

1 Abiel Walley? 

2 John Green and Joseph Russell, printers of the Massachusetts Gazette and 
the Boston Post-Boy and Advertiser. 

8 Francis Bernard, eldest son of Sir Francis Bernard. 

* Norborne, Baron de Botetourt. See Boston Gazette, November 12, 1770. 

i n° Copley -Pelham Letters 97 

star. 1 My Mamma, Bro'r and Sister Copley join me in kindest 
Love and Respects to your self, my Sister Pelham, Cousin Hilly 
and Charles. I am, Dear Sir: Your most affectionate Bro'r 
and most humble Sert. 

Henry Pelham. 

Copley to [Benjamin West]* 

Boston, Novr. 24, 1770. 
Dear Sir, 

I am afraid you think I have been negligent in suffering two 
years to pass without exhibiting somthing, 3 or writeing to you 
to let you know how the Art goes on this side the Atlantick. 
But be assured it is neighther because I have forgot my Friend, 
or have been less assiduous in the Labours of the Pencil than 
here to fore, But I find it extreemly dificult to procure Subjects 
fit and pleasing to entertain the Publick with. You are sen- 
sable in this country the hands of an Artist is tied up, not 
having it in his power to prosicute any work of fancy for want 
of meterials. Than my time is so intirely engrosed in painting 
portraits as to make it very dificult for me to exibit constantly; 
but the most meterial Reason of all others was the prospect I 
had of visiting Europe before this time. When I wrote you last 
I menshoned some obstruction in my way to making such a 
tour, and you have doubtless heard before this time I have 
increased the dificulty; yet be assured, notwithstanding I have 
entered into engagements that have retarded my travilling, 
they shall not prevent it finally. I will make all give way to 

1 Phyllis Wheatley. 

* See West to Copley, June 16, 1770, referring to Dr. Jarves as bearer of a letter 
from Copley. 

8 Copley sent no picture to the exhibitions of 1769, 1770, 1773 or 1774. 

98 Copley -Pelbam Letters 1770 

the predominant passion of cultivating our Art. I am now 
painting a portrait of Mr. Greenwood's Mother for him, which 
he designs to place in the exhibition Room. But if I should 
have the good fortune to imitate nature with some degree of 
merit, yet it cannot please as an Eligent form equelly well 
imitated would do. I should therefore be glad to contrast that 
Picture of a subject in the Evening of Life with one in the Bloom 
of youth, but it will not be in my power, unless you shall think 
one lately sent to Mr Wilks x will answer that purpose. I had 
no thoughts of making such an use of it when I painted it. For 
this reason I beg you will do what you shall think best, but the 
party spirit is so high, that what ever compliments the Leaders 
of either party is lookd on as a tassit disapprobation of those 
of the other; and tho I ought to be considered in this work as 
an Artist imploy'd in the way of my profession, yet I am not 
sure I should be, and as I am desireous of avoideing every 
imputation of party spir[it], Political contests being neighther 
pleasing to an artist or advantageous to the Art itself, I would 
not have it at the Exibition on any account what ever if there 
is the Least room to supose it would give offence to any per- 
sons of eighther party, but at all events I should be happy in 
possesing your observations on it with cander and freedom. 
Before I conclude give me Leave to recommend to your notice 
the Bearer of this Letter, Doer. Jerves, a worthy friend of mine 
and fond of painting. Any favours shown to him will be acknowl- 
edged with the same Gratitude as if they were to, Sir, your 
Most Sin[c]ere Friend, 

John S. Copley. 

1 See John Wilkes to Nathaniel Barber, September 21, 1770. Copley's only 
exhibit in 1771 was "A Lady, half length." Society of Artists of Great Britain, 
Catalogue of Exhibitions, 1 771. 

i77° Copley -Pelham Letters 99 

Charles Pelham to Henry Pelham 

Newton, Deer. 4, 1770. 
Dear Bror, 

The bearer brings i| busl. Malt for our Mama, and 3 buss, for 
Bror. Copley, which being good, will afford you a great deal of 
wholsome Liquor. 

We hear Mrs. Copley is safe in Bed, happily deliver'd of 
a fine Girl. 1 If so we heartily Rejoice with you all, especialy 
Mr. Copley and Lady, whom we Congratulate on this happy 
event. Hope her good geting up, and Pray for the Life and 
health of the little Lady. Pray acquaint them of our thus sin- 
cerely interesting ourselves in this pleasing occurrence. 

I am not unmindful of the unhappy situation of poor 
Thomas's Family, and to relieve the Widow as much as is in 
my power am willing to take Tommy, and do my best for him 
till he is 15 years of age, Mrs. Pelham being heartily dispos'd 
to do her part for his well being; but as I have experiene'd the 
ill effects of taking a Child and not having them Bound, I am 
by no means willing to engage with Tommy unless his Mother 
is free and willing to Bind him till he is 15 Years old. I should 
be glad you would let her know this, and if she sees fit and 
promises to bind him, the Boy may come up with the bearer, 
and when I come to Town shall bring Indentures to execute, 
and shall engage to find him good Bed and Board, Cloathing 
and Instruction, in all which the honour of the Family will 
induce me to go beyond what is common in such Cases : I can 
say no more upon this Head. 2 

1 Elizabeth Clarke Copley, 1770-1866, who married Gardiner Greene. 

* "She desired me to present her kindest Love and respects to you and my 
Sister Pelham, and to let you know the scence she has of the kindness you will do 
her by taking Tommy: She expresses the greatest pleasure and satisfaction at 

ioo Copley -Pelham Letters 1770 

Its now very fine wholsome weather and a little Tour into 
the Country would promote any one's health, especially the 
Sedentary Persons; I therefore strenuously recommend your 
keeping the approaching Thanksgiving with us, but take me 
right; I do not invite you to a sumptuous feast, but to good 
wholsome Country Fare with undissembled friendship. If this 
suits you, my Doors were they animated with my Spirit would 
at your approach open of their own accord : Your Sister Pelham 
joins in saying we shall be glad to see you. 

I hope our hond. Mama is well. Pray give our Duty and 
Love to her, and with Tender Respects to you, Mr. and 
Mrs. Copley, I remain Yr. affecte Bror. 

Chas. Pelham. 

I should be glad of a Line by the bearer, as such kind of 
Folks rarely deliver a verbal message correct. 

Copley to [Charles Willson Peale] 

Boston, Deer. 17, 1770. 
Dear Sir, 

I received your favour of the 24 Novr: Your kind present 
which came to hand in good order. It gave me a twofold 
pleasure first because it is the portrait of that great man, in the 
most exalted carractor human Nature can be dignified with 
that of a true Patriot vindicatting the rights of mankind, and 

having him under your Care and Government. She is perfectly willing to bind 
him, and has sent him with your Man." Henry Pelham to Charles Pelham, 
December 4, 1770. The mother of this Thomas was Hannah Cooper Gerrish 
Pelham, widow of Thomas Pelham. They were married in 1757 and had Eliza- 
beth, born August 2, 1758; Penelope, born March 6, 1760; Thomas, born January 
4, 1762; and Mary, born November 17, 1766 — all living in 1780. Thomas, Jr., 
was a baker, married Lydia Robinson, and died 1802. N. E. Hist. Gen. Reg. 
xxvi. 399. 

1 77° Copley -Pelham Letters 10 1 

secondly for the merit of the work itself and the fair prospect it 
affoards of America rivaling the continant of Europe in those 
refined Arts that have been justly esteemed the Greatest 
Glory of ancient Greece and Rome. 1 Go on Dear Sir to hasten 
forward that happy Era. how little so ever my natural abillitys 
or oppertunitys of improvement may be adiquate to the pro- 
moteing so great a work yet I should sincerely partisipate in the 
pleasure with those great Souls who are happily possessed of 
boath in a Soverain Degre. 

The Aligory strikes me as unexceptionable in every part, 
and fully expressive of Ideas designed to convey. The Attitude 
which is simple is possed of great dignity with a becoming 
Energy, and from what the print expressd I am led to wish to 
see the Original, wher[e] the force of Colouring give Strength 
and perfection to the Clear Obscure. 

Permit me to conclud with my sincere thanks for the kind 
notice you have taken of me and subscribing myself your sin- 
cere friend and Humble Sert. 

J. S. C. 



of the 

Picture and Mezzotinto 


Mr. Pitt, 

done by 

Charles Willson Peale, 

of Maryland. 

The Principal Figure is that of Mr. Pitt, in a Consular Habit, 
speaking in Defence of the Claims of the American Colonies, on 
the Principles of the British Constitution. 

1 See next paper. 

102 Copley -Pelham Letters 1770 

With Magna Charta in one Hand, he points with the other, to 
the Statue of British Liberty, trampling under Foot the Petition 
of the Congress at New- York. — Some have thought it not quite 
proper to represent Liberty as guilty of an Action so contrary to 
her genuine Spirit; for that, conducting herself in strict Propriety 
of Character, she ought not to violate, or treat with Contempt, 
the Rights of any one. To this it may be sufficient to say, the 
Painter principally intended to allude to the Observation which 
hath been made by Historians, and Writers on Government, that 
the States which enjoy the highest Degree of Liberty are apt to be 
oppressive of those who are subordinate, and in Subjection to 
them. Montesquieu, speaking of the Constitution of Rome, and 
the Government of the Roman Provinces, says, "La Liberie croit, 
dans le Centre et la Tyrannic aux Extrimetes :" And again, "La 
Ville ne sentoit point la Tyrannie, qui ne s'exercoit que sur les 
Nations AssujettisP And supposing Mr. Pitt, in his Oration, to 
point, as he does, at the Statue, it makes a Figure of Rhetoric 
strongly and justly sarcastic on the present faint Genius of 
British Liberty, in which Light, Gentlemen of Reading and Taste 
have been pleased to commend it. The Fact is, that the Petition 
of the Congress at New-York, against Acts of meer Power, adverse 
to American Rights, was rejected by the House of Commons, the 
Guardians, the Genius, of that Liberty, languishing as it is. 
\ An Indian is placed on the Pedestal, in an erect Posture, with 
an attentive Countenance, watching, as America has done for 
Five Years past, the extraordinary Motions of the British Senate 
— He listens to the Orator, and has a Bow in his Hand, and a Dog 
by his Side, to shew the natural Faithfulness and Firmness of 

It was advised by some, to have had the Indian drawn in a 
dejected and melancholy Posture: And, considering the apparent 
Weakness of the Colonies, and the Power of the Parent Country, 
it might not perhaps, have been improper to have executed it in 
that Manner; but in Truth the Americans, being well founded in 
their Principles, and animated with a sacred Love for their Country, 
have never disponded. 








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Mr. P I T T, 




THE Principal Figure is that of Mr. PIT T, in a Confular Habit, fpeaking iii 
Defence of the Claims of the American Colonies, on the Principles of the British 

With MAGNA CHARTA in one Hand, he points with the other, to the Statue of 

British Liberty, trampling under Foot the Petition of the Congress at New-York. 

Some have thought it not quite proper to reprefent Liberty as guilty of an Aclion fo contrary 
to her genuine Spirit; for that, conducting herfelf in drift Propriety of Character, She ought not 
to violate, or treat with Contempt, the Rights of any one. To this it may be Sufficient to hf, 
the Painter principally intended to allude to the Obfervation which h th been made by Historians, 
and Writers on Government, that the States which enjoy the bighejl Degree of Liberty are apt to be 
opprejjive ofjhofe who are fubordinate, and in Suojetiion to them. MoNTesojiieu, fpeaking of the 
Conftitutidro of Rome, and the Government of the hOMAN Provinces, lays, " La Liberie croit 
•« dans le Centre et la Tyrannic aux Extrimctes :" And again, " La Villi, ne J'entoit 'paint la, 
" qui ne s' exercoit que fur les Nations AJJ'ujettis " And fuppofing Mr. Pitt, in his Oration to 
point, as he does, at the Statue, it makes a Figure of Rhetoric ftrongly and juillv farcaftic on 
the prefent faint Genius of Rritish Liberty , in which Light, Gentlemen of Reading and TaSte 
have been pleafed to commend it. The Fact is, that the Petition of the Con^refj at New- 
York, againSl Acts of meer Power, adverfe to American Rights, was rejected by the Houfe of 
Commons, the Guardians, the Genius, of that Liberty, languishing as it is. 

An Indian is placed on the Pedeftal, in an ered Pojture, with an attentive Countenance 
watching, as America has done for Five Years part, the extraordinary Motions of the British 

Senate He lifters to the Orator, and has a Bow in his Hand, and a Dog by his Side, to 

fhew the natural h'aithjulnefs and Virmnefs Of America. 

It was advifed by fome, to have had the Indian drawn in a dejedted and melancholy Pofture ■ 
And, eonfidering the apparent Weaknefs of the Colonies, and the Power of the Parent Country 
it might not perhaps, have been improper to have executed it in that Manner; but in Truth the 
Americans, being well founded in their Principles, and animated with a facred Love for their 
Country, have never difponded. 

An Altar, with a Flame is placed in the Foreground, to fl>w that the Caufe of Liberty- h 
facred, and, that therefore, they who maintain it, not only difcharge their Duty to their Kino- 
and themfclves, but to GOD. It is decorated with the Heads of Sidney and Hampdex, who^ 
with undaunted Courage, fp ke, wrote, and died in Defence of the true Principles of Liberty, 
and of thofe Rights and Bleffings which Gkea t-Britain now enjoys: For, as the Banner 
placed between them exprefles it, 

Sanctus Amor Patriae dat Asi.mum. 

A Civic Crown is laid on the Altar, as confecrated to that Man who preferved his'-Fellow-Ci- 
tizens and Subjects from Destruction ! 

The View of W » is introduced in the Back Ground, not meerly as an elegant 

Piece of Architedure, but as it was the Place where ■ ■ "Suffered, for attempting to 

invade the Rights of the British Kingdoms : And it is obfervable, that the Statue and Alrai 
of British Liberty are erected near the Spot where that great Sacrifice was m'.dt, through fid 
Necei?!ty, to the Honour, Happinefs, Virtue, and in one Word, to' the Libert/ oi the Bxli'iaii 

The Petition of the Congrefs at New-York, and the Reprefent ,tion of YV h 

point out the Time, and almoit the Place, where the Speech was delivered. 

The chief Object of this Dcfign will be anfwered, if it manifests, in the leslt, t',c Gratitude 
of America to his Lordfhip. It will, with Tradition, u. .prejudiced by (he YV'rti i_;« of Hireling;, 
who are made to glide in with the courtly Streams of Falshood, be the faiihfj! C iv;ja- L c to 
Pofterity of the Knowledge of thofe Great Things which we, who are not tj r,t i.i,. ofed on 
bv " the buiy Doings and Undoings" of the envious Gceat, have feen 

177° Copley -Pelham Letters x o3 

An Altar, with a Flame is placed in the Foreground, to shew that 
the Cause of Liberty is sacred, and, that therefore, they who 
maintain it, not only discharge their Duty to their King and them- 
selves, but to God. It is decorated with the Heads of Sidney and 
Hampden, who, with undaunted Courage, spoke, wrote, and died 
in Defence of the true Principles of Liberty, and of those Rights 
and Blessings which Great-Britain now enjoys: For, as the Ban- 
ner placed between them expresses it, Sanctus Amor Patrice dot 
Animum. A Civic Crown is laid on the Altar, as consecrated to 
that Man who preserved his Fellow-Citizens and Subjects from 

The View of W h l is introduced in the Back Ground, 

not meerly as an elegant Piece of Architecture, but as it was the 

Place where 2 suffered, for attempting to invade the Rights of 

the British Kingdoms: And it is observable, that the Statue and 
Altar of British Liberty are erected near the Spot where that great 
Sacrifice was made, through sad Necessity, to the Honour, Hap- 
piness, Virtue, and in one Word, to the Liberty of the British 

The Petition of the Congress at New- York, and the Representa- 
tion of W h point out the Time, and almost the Place, 

where the Speech was delivered. 

The chief Object of this Design will be answered, if it manifests, 
in the least, the Gratitude of America to his Lordship. It will, 
with Tradition, unprejudiced by the Writings of Hirelings, who 
are made to glide in with the courtly Streams of Falshood, be the 
faithful Conveyance to Posterity of the Knowledge of those Great 
Things which we, who are not to be imposed on by "the busy 
Doings and Undoings " of the envious Great, have seen. 

Extract of a Letter 3 

I am pleased with your Remarks on Mr. Peak's Performance, 
but wish you had been less sparing of them — A Incident of 

i Whitehall. * Charles I. 

3 A broadside measuring 7! in. X n\ in. 

104 Copley -Pelham Letters 1770 

Yesterday affords me Occasion to add to your Remarks : — One of 
the Mezzotinto's was brought into Company, when all agreed it 
was Very clever; but some thought it "not like Mr. Pitt." 

You, my Friend took the fair Side, and remarked only on the 
Beauties of the Piece — Pray preserve your good Humour from 
being ruffled by the Objections made by my Companions, and 
receive what occurs to me on the Subject. 

Perhaps it was hazardous to offer to the Public a Portrait so 
unlike the old Pictures, which have been long known among us — 
Very few have Seen any other Representation of the Great Man, 
and we know how Strongly First Impressions work on the Imagi- 
nation: And, what is yet more disadvantageous to the Painter, 
not only First Impressions, but many Years intimate Acquaint- 
ance with the old Piece, has probably So fixed that Likeness in the 
Mind, that, were Mr. Pitt himself to be of a Sudden present, and 
appear a Contrast to those Pieces, there would not be a total 
Want of weak Minds, who might even struggle to conceive he was 
like himself — preferring the Likeness with which they were so 
intimate. But between the old Copies and the present, I do not 
see that great Disparity that is pretended: Pray attend to them, 
and make all due Allowances — Twenty Years between the 
Drawing the one and the other — such Difference in his Age ! — 
In the one he is in modern Dress, with Neckcloth, a Wig, and full 
Suit: In the other, with his natural Hair, a loose Roman Habit, 
and Neck bare. I am assured that Gentlemen, who had seen the 
Proof Copy, and among them, Dr. Franklin, thought Mr. Peak's 
a very good Likeness of the Great Patriot, as he is at this Time 
worn down with Sickness and Years, — and with Fatigue in the 
Service of his Country. 

The Pillar at the Back of Mr. Pitt signifies Stability in the 
Patriot and his Principles. — You see the dark lowering Clouds, 
and disturbed Air, representing the alarming Times; and yet at a 
Distance, you observe a calmer Sky, tho' not altogether clear — 
Hope of better Times. 

177 1 Copley -Pelham Letters 105 

Copley to John Greenwood 

Boston, Jany. 25, 1771. 
Dear Sir, 

Your very kind favour of March 23 came to hand and 
afforded me much pleasure, as by it I learned you were in a 
situation of all others the most desireable to the Lovers, boath 
of the fair Sex as well as the arts. I trus[t] you will excuse my 
not writeing to you sooner, but really my ingagement were 
so many as to make it some what dificult. No engagement 
should have hindred me from answering your favour, had I 
not fully intended to have finished Mrs. Devereux portrait 
for Capt. Simms to have carried, but was prevented from my 
design by several surcumstances, the most meterial that of the 
weither being so very hot as to make it inconvenient for the 
Old Lady to come to Town, and so the Letter I posponed 
writeing till Capt. Simms sailed, who promisd to call but I 
suppose forgot it. But beleave me your nex[t] favour, if I 
should omit answering so long, I will make a better apology 
for than this. But trusting in your goodness I will suppose 
myself acquited this time, and proceed to other matters. First 
then permit me to congratulate you on your Marriage in which 
state I sincerely wish you Long Life and all Imaginable happy- 
ness. It gives me great pleasure to find the Arts travill[i]ng 
Westward so fast it gives me hopes they will one Day reach 
this Country however destitute at present it appears of every 
affection for them. Your tour through Europe must have 
affoarded you great pleasure and the more so as you have had 
so many Capitol Picture[s] in you[r] possession. I should think 
myself happy in such an oppertunity of contemplating the 
works of those Renowned Masters. I sincerely rejoice in Mr 

106 Copley -Pelham Letters 1771 

West's successfull progress towards the summit of that Mighty- 
Mountain where the Everlasting Lauriels grow to adoarn the 
brows of those Elustrious Artists that are so favourd of 
Heaven as to be able to unravel the intricate mazes of its rough 
and perilous Asent. It gives me pleasure to receive your Appro- 
bation of the Work I have Exibitted heretofor, and am sorry 
the Distance make it impossable for me to be constant. I 
should be glad never to miss an exibition, for by it the Arts are 
kept in health as the Body is by Exercise. I shall be happy if 
the portrait that accompanys this (of your Mother) is approved. 
I shall be impatien[t] to hear the Criticisms on it. Do be per- 
ticular either in your praises or condemnation of [it]. Dont be 
afraid that finding fault with it will have any other effect than 
to make me more assiduous to do better, nor praising than to 
encouraging me to be diligent. If you can remember the others 
I should be glad of a comparison, by which I shall be better 
able to judge what path to pursue for the future in the [un- 

Petition relative to the Powder House 

[January 29, 1771.] 

To the Freeholders and Inhabitants of the Town of Boston 
in Town-meeting Assembled. 

The Petition of the Subscribers, Freeholders and Inhabitants 
in the town of Boston humbly sheweth. That (considering the 
many and fatal Accidents that happen by the explosion of 
Magazines of Powder in Large popolouse Citys) your peti- 
tioners apprehend their Lives and properties in common with 
the rest of their fellow-Citizens to be very insecure from the 
powder house being situate where it now is. They therefore pray 
the town to take the matter into their serious Consideration 

177 1 Copley -Pelham Letters 107 

and make such application as they shall think effectual for its 
removal. And your petitioners as in duty bound shall ever pray. 

Boston, Jany. 29, 1771. 

Jno Barrett. 
Edm: Quincey. 
Danl. Hubbard. 
Richard Clarke. 
John Winslow. 
Martin Brimmer. 
Thos. Leonard. 
Saml. Prince. 
Adino Paddock. 
Saml Abbot. 
John Timmins. 
David Greene. 
Nicholas Bowes. 
Wm: Bowes. 
Thomas Brattle. 
Benjn. Edes. 
John Gill. 
Paul Revere. 
Nath. Waterman. 
Edward Holliday. 
John Avery. 
Frans. Johonnot. 
Rufus Greene. 
John Box. 

Benja. Greene. 
Ja. Richardson. 
William Henshaw. 
Sam Partridge. 
Samuel Doggett. 
Saml. Dashwood. 
Jno Soley. 
John Deming. 
Jos Green. 
Nicho. Boylston. 
Thos. Flucker. 
James Perkins. 
Sol. Davis. 
James Perkins. 
Silv. Gardiner. 
W. Molineaux. 
Joseph Sherburne. 
Saml. Eliot. 
Henry Stanbridge. 
Ez Price. 
Benj. Church. 
John Sweetser Junr. 
Jonathan Simpson. 

Nathl. Gloover. 
Oliver Greenleaf. 
Sa Salisbury. 
Stephen Cleverly. 
John Amory. 
Herman Brimmer. 
John Gore. 
John Moffatt. 
Nathl. Balston. 
John Scott. 
John S. Copl[e]y. 
Wm Davis. 
James Bowdoin. 
John Erving. 
Thos. Hubbard. 
William Vassell. 
Wm. Phillips. 
Stepn. Greenleafe. 
Thomas Cushing. 
John Hancock. 
Saml. Adams. 
Ph. Dumaresq. 
Robt. Pierpont. 

[Endorsed:] Copy of the Petition relative to the Powder 
House. 1 

Charles Pelham to Henry Pelham 

Newton, March 28, 1771. 
Dear Bror., 

Ever since I enter'd upon House keepg we have had almost 

constantly one or other in our Family who prov'd a trouble and 

a pest to us, But of all Creatures that ever came under my Roof 

1 See Boston Record Commissioners, xvm. 44; xxm. 78, 79. 

108 Copley -Pelham Letters 177* 

Betty Pelham x I seriously think seems to be the worst, and has 
prov'd an affliction to us almost to render us distracted. On 
Friday last she came; we receiv'd her kindly, bid her welcome, 
and did all in our power to convince her of our Sincerity; On 
Saturday she threw out hints of a great dislike to the Country, 
and a want to go home, go home; We hearing it, soothed her, 
told her the strangeness of it might at first make it irksome, but 
a little use would render it more agreeable, especially as her 
Aunt and I shou'd do our utmost to bring her up in Credit and 
render he[r] capable of making a Reputable living; On Sunday 
she fell into strange kind of Fitts of what sort I cant say, for by 
her Pulse, her feeling etc. we cou'd not discover that any thing 
ailed her, and cou'd get nothing out of her but that she wou'd 
return to Boston if she went on Foot, for she should die; every 
thing was administer'd that could be thought of, but she 
refus'd taking any thing and would spurt out what was put into 
her Mouth ; On Monday she harpt all day about going home. 
I told her she should not go home, that she was come for her 
own good, and that she must behave better, or I should find 
means to make her; On Tuesday she fell into her fitts again; 
which she suddenly threw off upon the approach of a good Loin 
of Veal which we had for Dinner; however I thought meat 
might hurt her and prescrib'd a Porrenger of Water Gruel; 
The Doer, coming in, We desir'd him to consider her case, and 
after examining her, he only hinted that she was somewhat in 
the case of Mary Magdalene. The remainder of the day she 
continued her old strain of dislike to the Country that she could 
not bear to see the Trees, and must go home, or shou'd die; On 
Wednesday her fit, (Damoniac I could almost find in my heart 

1 Elizabeth, daughter of Thomas and Hannah Pelham. She married William 

177 1 Copley -Pelham Letters 109 

to say) came on again, Mrs. Pelham told her to go up stairs and 
lay down, but she made as if it was no way in her power so to 
do, upon which Mrs. Pelham greatly alarm'd call[ed] me. 
Upon hearing me call'd Madam got up and walk'd upstairs. 
I went up to her, but could get nothing out of her, only that she 
must go home or should die. I desir'd Mrs. Pelham to cause a 
Bowl of Tea to be made, which was carried to her, but she said 
she would not touch it, nor would she take any thing at all; 
but we found in a Drawer a hoard of Milk Bisket which she 
had privately conveyed there, I suppose to eat when she chose 
to be in her fits ; she says her Mother told her at parting that if 
she did not like, I must send her back again; but I cant think 
her Mother wou'd so affront me; I have now sent her home, and 
would give any thing that I had not sent for her, not only that 
we sent off a Girl which we had, to make room for Betty, which 
is an injury to us, as we have a sick Child, but that I would not 
upon any Accot. have had Mrs. Pelham so frighted and per- 
plext. Thus have I given the heads of Bettys History at New- 
ton. Paper would fail me to give all the particulars, but as I 
expect to be in Town in a few days shall then let our Mama 
know this matter more fully. If you have opportunity shall be 
glad you may let Bettys Mother know the Contents hereof, but 
dont give her this Letter, as I have no Copy of it, and shou'd 
chuse it might be with you as a Register of what I aver to be 
fact: I own I blame my Self for taking her after what your 
Mama said of her, who I now further find is a good judge of 
Mankind. I talk'd with Doer. Spring x concerning the size of 
the Cloth which was to contain his Portrait, he said he knew 
nothing about it, and wou'd leave it to you. I recommended 
the half length, to which he readily agreed, and is ready to Set. 

1 Rev. Samuel Spring. 

no Copley -Pelham Letters 1771 

I have not had good oppertunity to speak to Mr. Meriam about 
his Daughters, but shall do it soon, in the mean time hope to 
see you here, and think the sooner you can begin with Doer. 
Spring the better, however my desire to serve you may lead me 
astray, and will therefore leave it to your own and Mama's 

Hilly has got pretty well, Chas. is still very poorly but we 
hope mending. I hope our Mama is at least as well as usual, 
pray present her our joint Duty and Love. Mr. Copley and 
Lady with their little Dear I hope are well, pray give our Love 
to them. I think I need not say that whenever it suits you to 
come to Newton we shall be very glad to see you, I hope you 
are convine'd of that; Accept our hearty Love and good wishes, 
and Recognise me as Dear Harry, Yr. Very affecte. 

Chas. Pelham. 

If Mr. Copley has got the Oyl he spoke of should be glad the 
bearer might bring 6 Flasks. I inclose a Line to Bettys Mother 
pray Seal it and let her have it. 

Henry Pelham to Charles Pelham 

Boston, March 29, 1771. 
My Dear Brother, 

Your Letter of yesterday, gave me a Narrative of Behavour, 
the most surprising I think I ever met with. To see a girl of 
Betty's Age, who can receive no advantages from her Station 
or Rank in Life, or from her Parents Character, taken from 
poverty and Misery, placed in a Family where she might have 
had all the Benefitts of Example, Education and Instruction, 
have been brought up in a way, in which she might have 
enjoyed Happiness, have been a Comfort to her Friends and a 


177 1 Copley -Pelham Letters in 

Credit to herself, to see a Girl with such Advantages, forfeit all 
favour [of] her Friends, deliberately, and with such Agrevated 
Circumstances spurn and reject their profered Kindness, and 
return to her native Obscurity, shews such a depravity of 
Heart, such a totall want of every generouse and humane 
Sentiment, a proneness to Vice and Folly, as truly astonishing, 
as Malencholly. When that ruin is compleated, to which she 
seems to [be] hastily advancing, your and my Sisters Trouble 
(in which we sincerely pertake) I doubt not will be fully recom- 
penced, by the heartfelt Satisfaction, of having Offered that 
Assistance, and protection, which she has so disgracefully 
refused. I communicated the contents of your Letter to her 
Mother she expressed the greatest Affliction, and uneasiness, 
said she was very sorry, you had so much trouble and Vexsa- 
tion, and would be glad to see you when you come to town. We 
are much pleased to hear of Coun. Hilly's recovery, hope 
Charles will soon enjoy his former health. I return my sin- 
cere thanks for your kindness in procuring me Buisness at 

The kind expressions of your Attachment likewise calls for 
my warmest acknowledgements. The Affability and kindness 
I have experienced from you and my Sister assure me of your 
sincere Affection. Be assured of a hearty Welcome, whenever 
your Bu[s]iness calls, or permits you to come to Boston, where 
we long to see you. My Mamma, who is as well as can be 
expected, with Brother and Sister Copley, join me in Love and 
Respects to yourself, my Sister Pelham, and Cousins. I am, 
Dear Sir, with great truth and regard, Your Affectionate 
Brother, and most Obliged Humble Sert. 

Henry Pelham. 

ii2 Copley -Pelham Letters 177 1 

Captain Stephen Kemble 1 to Copley 

[Before April 17th 1771.] 

Mr. Copely will inform Captain Kemble if he inclines to 
come to New York in the Spring, or Summer. If he does, he 
will specify the time he proposes to stay, and the number of 
Picktures he would undertake to draw, and mention his Price 
for Busts, half Lengths, and whole lengths, of Men, Women, 
and Children. Capt. Kemble will then send Mr. Copely, the 
Names of those, who will employ him, that Mr. Copely may be 
at a Certainty. 

Copley to Captain Stephen Kemble 

[No date.] 

Major Goldthwait communicated to me your memorandom 
desireing to know the price of the Different sizes of portrait and 
what number I would undertake to do at New York. 

As to the number it will be determined by the time it may be 
in my power to stay, should I go in May toward the end of the 
Month and sooner it will not be in my power to go and come 
away in Sepr. I may be able to engage 12 or 15 half Lengths, or 
in proportion to that, reck[on]ing whole Length as two half 
Length[s], and half Length Doub[le] the busts. More I could 
not engage without a Longer stay, and I can not say at present 
it would be in my power to stay beyond that time, tho this is 
not quite certain. The pric[e] of Whole Lengths 40 Guineas, 
half Length 20, % peices or Busts 10. Weither Men or Weomen 
makes no differenc[e] in the pric[e] nor does the Dress ; but Chil- 

1 See New York Hist. Soc. Collections, 1883, 1884. He held a commission of 
captain in the British army from January 24, 1765, in the 60th Regiment, com- 
manded by Jeffrey Amherst. 

177 1 Copley -Pelham Letters 113 

dren in the % peaces will be more, because of the addition of 
hands, which there must be when a Child is put in that size; l 
but should the hands be omitted, the picture may be smaller 
and than the price will be the same as for a Mans or Womans 
without hands. But if hands they will be something more tho 
the pric[e] will be not exceeding 15. According to maner size of 
the Picture you will see by this my pric[e] is greater I have set 
than what I have here. But the Reasons are so obvious why it 
should be that I think it needless to menshon them [fragment] 

Captain Stephen Kemble to Copley 

New York, 17th April, 1771. 

I am sorry a short absence of mine, and a little negligence on 
the part of some who were desired to procure subscribers to 
your Terms, has been the means of delaying an Answer to your 
Letter of the 20th of March. But I have now the pleasure to 
acquaint you that twelve x /b lengths are subscribed for (two 
Busts to a half Length,) and I make no doubt as many more will 
be had as your time will permit you to take. I hope this de- 
lay in answering your Letter will not prevent you from under- 
taking your Journey to this place I am Sir Your most Obedient 

Steph. Kemble. 

List of Subscribers 

[April 17, 1 77 1.] 

We the undermention'd Persons do promise to have our Pic- 
tures drawn by Mr. Copley, agreable to the Sizes set opposite to 
our Names. — 

1 Erased: "which is not the case with grown people." 

ii4 Copley -Pelham Letters 1771 

Lengths half Lengths Busts 

Mrs. Gage 2 1 x 

Mr. Ogilvie 2 1 

Miss Johnston 3 1 

Captain Maturin 4 I 

J. Mallet 5 1 

Mrs Morris 6 , 


[The rest of the page has been lost] 

Lengths \ Lengths Busts 

Captain and Mrs. Montresor 7 2 

Mr Barrow 1 

Mr. Sherbrook 8 1 

Mrs Mc. Evers 9 1 

Mrs. Mortier 10 

M Hust and Lady 2 

Mr Kemp 11 

1 It is uncertain whether this figure was intended to be erased. 

2 Probably Rev. John Ogilvie (1722-1774), assistant at Trinity Church, 
New York. 

3 Thus far, and possibly the next name, in Kemble's handwriting. 

4 Gabriel Maturin was a captain in the 31st Regiment, from June 17, 1767. 

6 There was a Jonathan Mallet, a surgeon of the 46th Regiment, from August 

3i, 1757- 

6 Probably Mrs. Roger Morris, a sister of Frederick Phillips, proprietor of 
Phillipsborough and a loyalist. 

7 John Montresor, whose "Journals" are in the New York Hist. Soc. Collections, 
1 881. 

8 Miles Sherbrook. See Journals and Correspondence of Samuel Blachley Webb. 

9 See Copley to Pelham, August 17, 1771. James McEvers, and his son Charles, 
were the leading representatives of this family. 

10 Abraham Mortier, a deputy paymastef-general. 

11 John Taber Kemp was attorney-general of the province of New York. 

1 77 1 Copley -Pelham Letters 115 

Henry Pelham to Henry and Thomas Bromfield 1 

Boston, June 6, 1771. 


Mr Copley, before he sat out for New York, desired me to 
transmitt a memorandum of some Articles, which as he is in 
great want of he requests you would ship by the very first 
Opertunity. 2 You will oblige him by being perticular as to the 
Size and Quality of the Glass there being a great Difference in 
the Thickness and Clearness of the New Castle Crown, some of 
it being not inferior to the London Crown. You will please to 
procure the Cloths of the very best kind, the last you sent not 
being equal in goodness to the price. The inclosed Bill you will 
pass to his Credit. As my Brother resides all Summer at New 
York, you will direct the things to me at this place. I am Gentle- 
men your most Obedient, Humble Sert. 

Henry Pelham. 


185 Squares of very best New Castle Crown Glass each square 

measuring iof Inchs. by 14^ Inchs. 
200 lb. Wt. of ground White Lead. 
50 lb of putty. 

2 ozs. of finest Vermillion. 
I pint poppy Oil. 

3 pound Brushes. 
3 half pound Do. 

12 half Length Cloths. 
6 kitkat Do. 
12 1 Do. 

1 Merchants, London. Henry Bromfield married Hannah Clarke, a sister of 
Mrs. Copley. 

2 Erased: "and which in case of a War, he begs you to insure." 

n6 Copley -Pelham Letters 1771 

12 Hog hair tools of the smallest Size for portrai[tsj. 
3 Oz. Italian White Cha[l]k. 
2 Oz Italian Black Do. 

Benjamin West to Copley 

London, June 16th, 177 1. 

It was with great pleasure I received your letter by Dr 
Jarves as it informed me of your health and your intentions of 
Coming to Europe. I am still of the Same opinion, that it will 
every way answer your Expectations, and I hope to see you in 
London in the corse of this year, Where I shall be happy in 
rendering you all the Service lays in my Power. 

Your Picture of Mrs. Greenwood was exhibited and did great 

honour. 1 The other Picture you mentioned I have not seen but 

I hear them much spoke of. The arts Continue to receive great 

in Corragement. To London at preassent seems to be the onely 

place in Europe where a man is rewarded for his productions in 

the Art of painting. You will excuse the shortness of this letter 

and be assur'd I am with great respect, Your Obediend Huml. 


B. West. 

Copley to Henry Pelham 

New York, 16 of June, 1771. 
Dear Harry, 

We are now fixed in a very comodious House in this City. 
We arrived here on Thursday night and our Journey perfectly 
agreable, and has contributed a great deal to my looks. I can- 

1 In the catalogue of 1771, it appears as "A lady, half length." Anderson, 
who saw the picture at Lord Lyndhurst's sale in 1864, describes it as the portrait 
of an old lady leaning on a Pembroke table. 

/e-rv st/te Ao.-ta 'add toil, .o^^/PM. erC&n>t>u vo/i/ey, Z^A^e-e^es 

177 1 Copley -Pelham Letters 117 

not say Sukey has improved so much in looks as myself, tho 
she is very well. Our Journey was not attended by the least 
unpleasing surcumstance, but was delightfull beyond all ex- 
pectation. Our Horses held out wonderfully well and brought 
us with great spirit forty Miles the last Day of our Journey. 
I come now to say somthing of this place, but really I have not 
been yet able to attend to anything but that of getting myself 
a little settled, that I may go to Business, and I beleave you 
will think I have done pretty well to be ready to begin Mrs. 
Gages portrait tomorrow, which I propose to do, considering I 
have had but friday and Saturday to Deliver several Letters 
and get suitable Lodging. The City has more Grand Buildings 
than Boston, the streets much Cleaner and some much broader, 
but it is not Boston in my opinion yet. I have seen the Statues 
of the King and Mr Pitt, and I think them boath good Statues. 
I find it so expencive keeping horses here that I think to send 
the Mare back. Mr. Joy will take her, if he is not provided. 
This you will let me know by the next post. You may assure 
him she is as good to the full as he thought her. I beleive he 
cannot easily get so good a Creature. He offered me fifty-five 
Dollars, so do you agre with him according to your own dis- 
cression, and I will send her by the next post, and take the 
chance of Buying in the fall. I want my Crayons much and 
Layman and Drawings. Do see Mr. Loyd, and find when Smith 
will sail, for I shall not be able to do long without them. Cloath 
there is anoughhere. Give our affectionate Duty to our Mamma. 
We long to hear from you. Hope you have wrote by this post, 
but I cant know till to morrow. We are ancious to know how 
Betsey is. let Mr. Clarke know we are well and send our Duty. 
I am your Affectionate Brother, 

J. S. Copley. 

n8 Copley -Pelham Letters 1771 

You will find in one of the Draws of the Desk some Gold 
Buttonholes. Do send me 3 or 4 of the Best of them when you 
send the other things, or shall write by a private hand. 

Benjamin West to Shrimpton Hutchinson 1 

Mr. Temple having made Application to me in behalf of 
your Son's studying the Art of Painting under me, and finding 
my Objection to having Young Gentlemen in my House as 
Students for a certain Number of Years, the Particulars of 
which Mr. Temple will inform you. Tho' this may deprive 
your Son of coming to England for some Years longer, yet in 
my Opinion it will by no Means prevent his being a Painter. 
If it so happens that he should not come to England, my 
Advice is that he may be indulged in the Pursuit of the Art 
by his own Observations after Nature, and that he may the 
more speedily accomplish it, I beg he may be permitted the 
Use of Colours, tho' this is not the modem Receipt to make 
a Painter. Yet if I can judge from the Works of the great 
Masters, who are dead, they thought an early Knowledge of 
Colours, and the Use of the Brush highly necessary. For Exam- 
ple, Raphael and several other great Painters of those Times 
painted many fine Pictures (which are now to be seen) before 
they had obtained the Age of fifteen; so it appears evident to 
me, the great Object they had in View was to surmount, early 
in Life, the mechanical Difficultys of Painting, that is the 
Handling of the Pencil and the Management of Colours, that 
their Hand might keep pace with their Ideas, so as to receive 

1 There are two copies of this letter, with trifling variations. They were 
inclosed in Shrimpton Hutchinson's letter to Copley dated August 24, 1771. It 
is possible that the one here printed is the original sent to Mr. Hutchinson, 
though it is not in West's handwriting. See postscript. Shrimpton Hutchinson, 
born September 10, 171 3, was son of William and Elizabeth Hutchinson. 

177 1 Copley -Pelham Letters 119 

Pleasure from their Performances. This convinces me that 
young Artists should receive great Pleasure from what they 
do, as it is that alone can compensate for the great Fatigue 
which must arise from the prodigeous Length of Time necessary 
to make a painter, let him have ever so great a Share of Genius. 
I mention this that he may early in Life be acquainted with the 
Making of Pictures, and qualify himself for a Painter, and not 
a Drawing Master. You have a strong Instance on your Side 
of the Water (in Mr. Copley) to what a Length a Man may carry 
the Art by his own Assiduity. He is better qualified for coming 
to Europe now than he was seven Years ago. If it is not con- 
venient for your Son to come to England, let him advance 
himself as Mr. Copley has done, and he will find himself equal 
to the first in Europe. I should think from what I have heard 
of Mr. Copley he would have a pleasure in communicating to 
him the Knowledge of Colours. I write my Opinion on this 
Matter with greater Warmth than I should have done, had I 
not been once in your Son's Situation, which I have found since 
my Arrival in Europe was the most fortunate Circumstance 
that could have happen'd to me : My having no other Assistance 
but what I drew from Nature (the Early Part of my Life being 
quite obscured from Art) this grounded me in the Knowledge 
of Nature, while had I come to Europe sooner in Life, I should 
have known nothing but the Receipts of Masters. 

If at any Time I can be of Use to your Son, by communicatg. 
my Thoughts to him, either in America or England, I shall 
with the greatest Pleasure do it. I am, Sir, your most obedi- 
ent humble Servant, -r, * Tr 

' Jdenja. West. 

London, 18th June, 1771. 

PS. You will excuse Incorrectness as Illness prevented me 
writing the above Letter. 

120 Copley -Pelham Letters 177 1 

Copley to Henry Pelham 

New York, June 20, 1771. 
Dear Harry, 

I must not omit so good an oppertunity as the present to let 

you know we are well, and that painting much engages the 

attention of people in this City and takes up all my time. I 

have begun three portraits already, and shall as soon as time 

permits fill my Room which is a very large one. We have 

experienced great sivility from several people, as well from 

those to whom we were recommend[ed] as others into whose 

knowledge we have fallen here. The Gentleman 1 who is the 

bearer of this is desireous of seeing my Room in Boston. 

You'l therefore weit on him, and be kind anough to go to Mr. 

Clarkes and let the family know we are well, and shall write to 

them by Mr. Loring who goes from this place on Monday next. 

We desire our most Affectionate Duty to our Mamma, to Mr. 

Clarke, Love to your self and all our Brothers and Sisters. We 

are very impatient to hear from you and Mr. Clarke's family. 

Do write us by the first oppertunity. As it grows late, I must 

conclude with subscribeing my self your Affectionate Brother, 

John Singleton Copley. 

PS our compts. to Miss Peggy McElvain and all friends. 

Henry Pelham to Copley 

Boston, June 23, 1771. 
My dear Brother, 

By your favour of the 16, we had the pleasure, the inexpress- 

able Pleasure, of hearing of your and my dear Sisters being 

1 Mr. Harmonside. 

177 1 Copky-Pelham Letters 121 

commodiously fixed at New York, after the agreable and safe 
Journey, which you say, has contributed so much to your looks. 
We are greatly Rejoyced to find that you are so well, hope the 
change of Air and Exercise will confirm your and my Sisters 
health. It is with pleasure that I can inform you that our 
Hond. Mamma (whose kind Love and best Wishes she desires 
may be presented to your self and Lady) has been in very tol- 
erable Health for her, since you left us. 

I saw a few days ago, my Cousin Betzey, at Roxbury, she is 
as hearty and well, as when you saw her. she is I think the 
finest Child of her Age of any in New England. Now I am 
speaking of Children, I must not omitt informing you, of an 
Occurrance, which has afforded us a great deal of Entertain- 
ment as well as Satisfaction, on Saterday afternoon the 15 
(as if inspired) took a Horse and Chaise, called and saw my 
little Friend, as above, and thence proceeded to Newton, to 
spend the Sunday. I had a pleasant and agreable time 'till 
Sunday Eveng. 10 o'Clock, when my Sister Pelham was taken 
very ill, and after sending 15 Miles for a Doctr. was safely 
delivered the next Morning, of a fine Son, whom they call 
Peter. Since which my Brother informs me by Letter, that 
"she is as Cleaver as can be expected for one in her case" He 
farther says, "When you write to Mr Copley please present our 
kind Love and Regards to him and Lady, and you will naturally 
inform him of the late interesting event in my Family, of which 
we may say, you was almost an Eye Witness." Mr Clarke and 
Family are all very well. I communicated your Letter to them, 
they were exceedingly pleased to hear of your safe arrival, 
desire their kind Love to you and my Sister. I spoke to Mr. 
Joy relative to the Mare, he says it is not reasonable that he 
should give the five dollers he offered for the Bargain, 'tho he 

122 Copley -Pelbam Letters 1771 

still stands ready to take her at the price you gave, provided 
she returns safe and sound, of this you will inform me more 
particularly the next post. About a Week ago Mr Otis 1 called 
upon me. told me that you had left some Money with me, for 
him, and would be glad if I could let him have it. I told him 
you had left sundry Debts to collect, that I had not yet got 
them in, but that I hoped it would soon be in my Power to 
wait upon him. I shall wait your express Orders with regard 
to this Affair. I have not been able to find, but that he is as 
well, as he used to be. And I hope, will be capable of defending 
your case. You will consider weither (as his purse from his 
long Confinement may be low) he may not if he dont soon 
receive his Fee, get affronted and soured, and neglect if not 
abandon your case. He told me, that it was determined, that 
there should be no adjournment of the Court. So that the tryal 
must be in the begining of September, if it is to come on this 
Fall, you will do well likewise to consider, weither if you have 
Mr. Otis and Coll. Putnam 2 it would not be best to have the 
Case tryed at the next term. Mr. Otis told me that the bill for 
the removal of the Powder House, has had three readings, and 
past the House, so that it seems now to be in a very fair Way; 
in my next, I hope to be able to inform you that it is enacted. 
The Repairs go on very briskly, the upper House will be in 
motion to Morrow. 3 It is I think the unanimouse Opinion of 
all your Friends, that the Expence is not at all adequate to the 
looks, of a hiped Roof upon the upper House. The plan they 

1 James Otis (1725-1783), then suffering from the effects of an assault made 
upon him by Robinson, a Commissioner of the Customs. 

* James Putnam, of Worcester, in whose office John Adams studied law. He 
left Massachusetts a loyalist, and settled in Fredericton, New Brunswick. 

3 Copley's house on Mount Vernon, the land owned by Copley extending from 
Joy Street to low water mark. 

177 1 Copley -Pelham Letters 123 

think is in every other respect perfectly compleat, but the want 
of that, they look upon, as a very great Omission. Aided by 
their Advice, I have ventured to give orders for its being done 
in that manner; as the time would not admitt of consulting you. 
Mr Lechmere 1 was a few days ago, at your place, he told the 
workmen, that he thought it one of the finest Situations in the 
Province, and that had he have known of it, he would have 
bought it at all events; will this please you? Smith sails per- 
haps in a fortnight, perhaps a Month, is quite uncertain which. 
I have twenty things to ask, twenty to say, but have only 
Room to subscribe myself with my most Affectionate Regards 
to my Sister, Your Loving Brother, 

Henry Pelham. 

PS. Write often and send no blank Paper. 

Henry Pelham to Copley 

Boston, July 7, 1771. 
My dear Brother, 

I have to acknowledge the Receipt of your's (per Mr 

Harmonside) of the 20 of June, which gave us the pleasure of 

knowing that you and my Sister were well at that time. Mr 

Loring ar[r]ived here last Fryday Eveng. but as we have not 

yet received your Letter we can only know that you was well 

when he left york, that you had began severall pictures, and 

had received an Invitation from Philadelphia but had refused 

to go. he further informd us that you had not received your 

trunk from Providence which surprised me as your not men- 

tion[in]g it in your Letters made me suppose you had duly 

1 Richard Lechmere, of Boston, who died in England in 1818, having left 
Massachusetts with other loyalists. 

124 Copley -Pelham Letters 177 1 

received it. I was extreemly dissapointed in not having a 
Letter by the post the last Eveng as it might have been wrote 
a Week after Mr. Loring Left New york. My Mamma is as 
well as can be expected for her. she desires her kindest Love to 
yourself and My Sister, begs you would write by every Oper- 
tunity. I saw little Betsey the last Thursday, she is exceeding 
hearty and well. 1 Mr. Clarke and Family are all very well. It is 
with pleasure That I communicate two peices of Intelligence 
which I doubt not will give you some Satisfaction. The 
Powder-house bill is passed into a Law in which it is ordered 
that there should be two Magazines erected, one in the town of 
Watertown, the other at the Back of the Hills near the Pest 
House. 2 The Generall Court have appointed a Committee 
(amongst whom is Mr. Hancock) to build the Magazines with 
all Convenient Speed. 3 Thus has this affair so long wish'd for 
and heretofore unsuccessfully attempted been brought about 
by a little Assiduity and Aplication. I saw Mr Pepperrell last 
thursday he told me that he and Mrs. pepperrell had determined 
to keep Lucy as they like her exceedingly and think she is the 
best Servant they have met with. 4 He invited me to dine with 
him the next day when he paid me 4o£ sterg for her. Luce 
herself is very much pleased with her place. Ag[r]eable to 
contract with Mr. Joy I have made the first payment of a 
ioo£ L.M. He has got the upper house to its place. You 
cannot Imagine how much it has improved that side of the 

1 First draft: "has got a most noble pair of trumpeters cheeks." 

2 Passed July 5, 1771. Mass. Acts and Resolves, v. 167. 

8 On July 4 the House of Representatives named Hancock, Ebenezer Thayer, 
Jr., and John Remington to be a committee, together with such as the Council 
should nominate. House Journals, 1771, 106. 

4 Probably William Pepperell Sparhawk, who took the name of William 
Pepperell, and married Elizabeth Royall. 

177 1 Copley -Pelham Letters 125 

Common it draws the attention of most people who all agree 
in its being one of the pleasantest situated places in the 

I have applyed to Mrs. Dawson for rent, but I have really no 
expectation of getting any. she makes a most lamentable 
preachment about the unreasonableness of paying Rent for a 
place so much out of Repair, says she will apply to the Fence 
Viewers to have the Fences made upp. as to that I informed 
her that they could nor would not do any thing between a land- 
lord and tenant; if they did they must pay for it themselves. 
She further said that she prefers reserving the Rent and paying 
it to yourself when you come home and that she don't like so 
many Landlords. Have you received the T /z Guinea from Mr. 
Balch for the dutch picture. I can not conclude without again 
requesting that you would write often and largely. Present 
my most tender Regards to My dear Sister, accept the same 
yourself and beleive me to be yours most Affectionately, 

H. Pelham. 

P.S. Bror. and Sister Pelham desires their kindest Love to 
yourself and Lady. Complime[nts] from Mr Pepperell and 
Lady. Miss Peggy McElvane. Mr Edward Green and Lady 
say thet the only [way] to make atonement for not calling there 
will be to write to them. When you write to me send the lines 
Mr. Joseph Green made up on Mr Checkleys Picture. 1 The 
Governor has informed the house that he is instructed not to 
sign any tax bill unless the salerys of all crown Officers are freed 
from paying Rates. 

P.S. 2d. My mamma has just received your letter. Mr. Clarke 
and Family desire their kindest love. No more Room. 

1 They are printed in Slafter, John Checkley, i. 5. 

126 Copley -Pelham Letters 177* 

Henry Pelham to Copley 

Boston, July n, 1771. 
Dear Brother, 

By Capn. P. Smith you will I hope receive in good order your 

Layman, Crayons and Drawings and Major Bayard's Picture. 

The Crayons and gold Button holes are packed in the same 

Box with the Layman, the Drawings and Paper underneath 

Major Bayards Picture. My Mamma received with the 

greatest Pleasure your Letter of 23 d of June tho' of an old date, 

as by it she had the Satisfaction of knowing that you and my 

Sister enjoyed so good a Degree of Health. She desires her 

kindest Love and Blessing to you and my Sister, begs that you 

would take Care of yourselves and not Lett the Gayeties and 

Pleasures of New York (by exposing you to Colds) have any 

tendency to impair the pleasing prospect of a confirmed state 

of Health. We are all pretty well. Mr. Clarke's Family are all 

well. Betzey I have not heard from since this day week, she 

was well then. The Account you give of the City, of your 

Buisness, etc. are very agreeable; continue those Remarks. 

You say you have seen two of Mr. West's Portraits. Let me 

have some Account of them. Your Directions with respect to 

the Repairs at the Common, the sale of the House, Papers to 

Coll Putnam etc. I shall punctually observe. It is time that 

I had my full directions with Regard to your Lawsuit, as the 

Court will sit in about a Month, and it may require some 

preveious time to write to and hear from Coll. Putnam. As I 

have received no Answer to my Letter sent per Post of June 23 d 

I am entirely at a Loss what to do respecting Mr Otis's Fees. 

Sha'n't you be able to Procure at New York some Lime Trees 

for continueing the walk from Mr Hancock's ? 

177 1 Copley -Pelham Letters 127 

I We beg that at a proper Season you would send us a Barrell 
of Newton Pippins and a Barrell of the fine New York Water- 

I must before I conclude remonstrate against your not 
writeing. your last Letter was dated June 23d 1 8 Days ago, and 
how long it may yet be before we hear I cannot at present say. 
We must beg you would let us hear oftener. Present my kind- 
est Love and Respects to my Sister. Miss Peggy's Compli- 
ments. Inclosed is a Letter from Mr. Edward Green. I must 
subscribe myself in Haste Your most Aff[e]ctionate Brother 
and Humble Sert. 

Henry Pelham. 

Copley to Henry Pelham 

New York, July 14, 1771. 
Dear Brother, 

This Eveng I devote with pleasure to you as I know it must 
give you pleasure to be inform'd of every surcumstance attend- 
ing our situation here I will give you a minute detail and of 
the maner in which Sukey and myself spend our time. But to 
begin with the most important. Sukey and myself are very 
well; she is imployed in working on muslin, and myself in the 
Labours of the pencil. We commonly rise by six oClock in the 
morng, breakfast at 8, go to our respective Labours till 3, when 
we dine; at six ride out, and since we have be[en] here I have 
by no accident Lost more than one Day, as there is so many 
that are impatient to sit I am never at a loss to fill up all my 
time. My large Chamber is about 9 feet high and 20 feet long 
and near as broad, with a good room ajoining it, the ligh[t] near 
north. I have begun \-y 2 lengths 6-% peaces 1 Kitcat. When 

128 Copley -Pelham Letters 1771 

we came here Capt. Richards's 1 portrait (at Mr. Sherb rooks 2 ) 
[was] so much admired that vast numbers went to see it. Mr. 
McEvers 3 (from whom by the way we have received great 
civility) spoke to Mr Sherbrook to send it to my Chamber 
where it is [as] much esteemed [as] I Could wish. As I am vis- 
ited by vas[t] numbers of People of the first Rank, who have 
seen Europe and are admirers of the Art, I was glad to have 
a Picture so well finish'd. Most of them say it is the best 
Picture they ever saw and all agree in its being an admirable 
Picture. I saw a miniature the other Day of Governor Martin 4 
by Miers which cost 30 Guineas and I think it worth the 
Money, the Gover'r says he sat at least 50 times for it. We 
have not found the wether uncomfortably hot; a great deal of 
rain has injured the hay. We have been at Long Island. It is 
pleasant tho the soil [is] not very good naturaly. the ferry is 
about a mile over. Most of the provisions come that way, but 
is by no means so well tended as Charles Town ferry, tho it is 
six times as dear. We have been at Bloomingdale twice at the 
widow McEvers's (about six miles out of this City), and this 
week are to go to Mr Apthorp's that is about a mile farther. 5 I 
beleive you will think we take a good share of pleasure, but I 
find I can do full as much Business as in Boston, having no 
interruptions and very Long forenoons, and punctually at- 
tended. I received your Letters of 24 of June and 7 of July. 
Mr. Joy thinks he aught not to give the five Dollars he Offer'd 
when I was in Boston, but he did not consider I beleive that it 

1 Charles Lloyd Richards was a captain in the 95th Regiment. 

2 Miles Sherbrook. 3 James McEvers. 

4 Josiah Martin (1737-1786), governor of North Carolina from 1770 to the out- 
break of the War of Independence. 

8 Probably Charles Ward Apthorp, whose house stood on what is now Ninth 
Avenue near Ninety-first Street. 

177 1 Copley -Pelham Letters 129 

would cost 8 Dollars to carry her to Boston; besides she is as 
good as she was than and well worth the money. But I have 
met with a good pasture since and shall keep her here till I 
return, and than I shall be as willing to part with the Horse 
at 14JE sterling as with the Mare at 55 Dollars. They boath 
exceed my expectation. With regard to Mr Oatis I think it 
odd he should be in such hast to call for his fees considering 
the uncertainty of his helth permiting him to do the Business. 
I saw Coll. Putnam and he dont expect any fees till the time of 
tryal. I think you had better ask Mr Clarkes oppin[i]on about 
it. It is mine that you had better assure Mr. Otis he shall have 
his fees before the time of Tryal. If you cannot get the money 
you will write to me and I will send it without any doubt, for I 
told you I would do so. I think the Cause had better be tryed 
this term if there is no adjournment. You may let Mr Otis 
know I thought there would be an adjournt. and expected to be 
in Boston before that time. This must be managed with some 
address but let him know he shall certainly have his fees before 
tryall. I would have you attend the tryall and be vigilent; if 
you can do no otherwise you and Sigorney must give him part, 
but not if you can possably avoid it. When I was in Boston he 
told me the Coart would be adjourned, Putnam and Addams 
the same, and there has been no meeting of the Coart since. 
I therefore wonder Mr Otis should say it has been determined 
otherwise. It must be a fetch to get the money and nothing 
more. Have you got the Money from Sigorney for sundrys? 
I should be glad, if I am not too late, you would put in the Box 
a frame and Glass and paisted paper with Major Bayard's 
portrait, as I have one to do here. 

I am happy to find you are all well by yours of the 7th instant. 
You were misinformed relative to the Trunk. It came in good 

130 Copley -Pelham Letters 1771 

season. I am happy in hearing of the Powder house Bill pasing. 
Take care to save the fence and get Mr. Hancock to put some 
Locust Trees their. If he will not, the Selectmen may, as it 
will be of publick utility. I am glad you have sold Lucy; I wish 
you could sell the House. You say you were advised to put a 
hipt Roof on the uper House, but you did not say who advised to 
it that could be depended on. I am glad people like the situa- 
tion and that the Repairs go on briskly. If it is not two late I 
should like to Direct how to make the Sashes somthing differ- 
ant from what is usual with you. This you may let me know 
next Letter. A pattern of Chinese for the Top of the house I 
will send you, as I think they excell in that way here. I hope 
Mr. Joy will be more carefull to do every thing in the best 
maner than if I was present, that I may find every thing to my 
sattisf action. See that he puts studs where the Doors are to be, 
if wings should be built, and for two Windows in my great 
Room. Let there be three Windows in the Side of the Kitchen, 
beside that in the little Entry. Otherwise it will be Dark. As 
to Mrs. Dawson I think she imposes on me. You may let her 
know the Lease is not of my giving, and if she does not like to 
stay and pay her Rent, she may move out of it directly, for I 
am accountable for the Rent and must lose it if she dont pay it, 
and I will not lay out one farthing more farther, nor any one 
else, and she must pay the money to you. I think there aught 
to be two Windows in the west side of the Chamber I shall 
paint in. It will tend much to keep it cool and pleasant when 
it will be convenient to open them, and I am inclined to think 
it would be best to put the Windows in the Room below now. 
It is so much more extended. We might contrive to have 2 
Windows north of the Wing and a door into the Wing, if the 
Wing should be ever added. This I think must be attended to. 

177 1 Copley -Pelham Letters 131 

You know the Wing might extend lengthwise from the house. 
This would certain give two Windows north of the Wing in the 
Chamber and Lower Room. We send our Affectionate Duty 
to our hond Mamma Love and congratulation to Mr [and] 
Mrs Pelham Compts. to Miss Peggy Mr. and Mrs. Green to 
Mr. Boylston Family and let me know how he is. I would have 
the Windows put in the north side of my Rooms as above, for 
should I not add Wings I shall add a peazer when I return, 
which is much practiced here, and is very beautiful and con- 
venient, and I think it as well to shut up a Window as to cut 
out one. Therefore put in 2, but for the Door put the studs 
only. You must think weither it will be best to put the Door 
next the Chimney or in the Middle. Your Affectionate Brother, 

J. S. Copley. 

Sukey thinks the Kitchen without Windows on the north 
will be very hot; I think so too. Wish the Clossets could be 
contrived better. If it will not be too late next Letter I write 
I will send you my thoughts on it. 

Henry Pelham to James Putnam 

Boston, July 16, 1771. 

I transmitt to you, by Mr. Copleys Directions, the inclosed 

Papers, viz. Copy of Mr. Pratts Minutes in the case of Banister 

vs Cunningham; 1 and Copies of the Depositions of Mr. Lovell 

and Mrs. Church. 

1 Thomas Banister purchased about 1709 the eight and a half acres which 
Copley owned, known as Mt. Pleasant. In 1733 his son, Samuel, mortgaged 
this property to Nathaniel Cunningham, whose son of the same name inherited 
it. There is no record of its sale to Copley, but two of the Deed Books (Nos. 1 12 
and 114) are missing. When Copley transferred the property to Otis and Mason 

132 Copley -Pelham Letters 1771 

My Brother has desired me to furnish you with any Papers, 
etc. that you may want from this Place, as Occasion requires. 
You will therefore please to inform me (by a line per Post) of 
what is requisite, and it shall be immediately forwarded to you. 
I am with the greatest Respect, Sir, Your most obedient and 
Humble Servt. 

Henry Pelham. 

Copley to Henry Pelham 

New York, July 24, 1771. 
Dear Brother, 

Sukey and myself have just finished a rich repast of which I 
wish you and our Mama had been partakers ; it was on a fine 
pine, of which there is great plenty from one shilling Lawfull 
Money to 7 pence a peace, which you will no doubt think cheap 
anough. When you wrote me some time ago you desired I 
would send no blank paper; you may depend on it I shall not 
send my Letter in a Cover, because the postage will be double 
if I should. But you must not expect I should sett up so late to 
night as to fill up this whole paper, for We propose rising so 
early tomorrow Morng. as to take a ride before Breakfast. I 
have received your Letter by Smith, the Layman, etc., in good 
order. He arrived last Sunday. And Your Letter by the Last 
post by which I have the happyness to know our Mama and 
all our other friends were well. I pray Heaven they may con- 
tinue so, and that we May have an happy meeting in the fall. 

in I796 the title was subject to a claim of the heirs of Nathaniel Cunningham, 
and this claim may have been the basis of the lawsuit mentioned in these letters. 
The tract was thus described in 1733: "A tract of land with a dwelling house 
thereon on the N. W. side of the Training Field, containing 8/^ acres with the 
flatts, bounded S. or S. E. on the Common or Training Field, W'ly on Charles 
river or a cove, and in part on John Leverett and Mr. James Allen, on whom it 
also abutts N. E. ly. E. on Sam'l. Sewall." 

177 1 Copley -Pelhatn Letters 133 

I have by that memorable Epistle the happyness to know 
Likewise that you have a good talent at scolding which you 
have well improved, and wraught up in that Letter, you say 
you have not had a line for 3 Weeks ; but you may remember 
Sukey wrote to her Brother in that time, by which you might 
have been informed we were well. You was at a loss likewise 
what to do with Mr. Otis, now that was a sad affair, and Mr. 
Otis could not be so unreasonable as not to think your not 
hearing from me a sufficient apology. Could any thing have 
turned out better or furnish'd you with more powerfull means 
of suspending the giving him his fees ? If I had done it on pur- 
pose I should have thought myself wise therein. 

When I saw Mr. Putnam he informed me should be glad to 
know assuredly of Mr. Goffs purchaseing Land and taking a 
quit claim from Banister, and I think nothing so forceable on 
all such occations as full proof of the fact. This do then. Get 
Mr. Green, or who else you shall think proper if you cannot do 
it yourself, in a way as private as may be best to examin[e] the 
Records at Cambridge. There you will find who he has pur- 
chased of or taken quit Claims from. Mr. Shurbourn who 
writes for Mr. Goldthwaite would do it for Mr Sigorney and me. 
I think him the best person because he understands the nature 
of those things so as to do it with more ease and certainty. 
You must mind weither the name was Goff or Trowbridge, or 
you may be puz'led. I cannot send you the lines on Checkley 
this time. I have [not] received the y 2 Guinea, nor have I been 
able to contrive the Clossetts yet. The Pencill goes on very 
briskley and I have no time. Mr Green's letter shall have an an- 
swer. Sukey and myself are well, we desire our Love to all our 
friends Duty to Mama and Mr. Clarke. Your Effect'te Brother, 

J. S. Copley. 

134 Copley -Pelham Letters 1771 

Henry Pelham to Copley 

Boston, July 28, 1771. 
My dear Brother, 

Could you conceive the Pleasure I take in receiving a Let- 
ter from you, you would (I doubt not) write much oftener. 
Your very acceptable favour of the 14th. Inst, is now be- 
fore me. by it we receive with infinite Pleasure, the agreable 
Account of your and my dear Sisters being very well. We 
reflect with great Satisfaction upon our hopes being happily 
accomplished, bee assured you are ever attended by our best 
Wishes for your Health and Happiness. The Account you 
give of your Buisness as well as Recreations are very satis- 
factory. You say you saw a Miniature Picture of Governor 
Martin by Meirs. I wish you had given me a more perticular 
Discription of it as well as of Mr West's Pictures that you 
mentioned in a former Letter, let me know something about 
them. Mr Otis I have not yet seen but I shall in a day or 
two. The Box with Major Bayard's Picture I hope before this 
is safe in your Possession, so that it is difficult for me to put 
a Frame and Glass into it. Your Friends that advised to a 
hiped [roof] were our Hon'd Mamma Mr Clarke, your two 
Brothers, Messrs. Jack and Isaac Clarke, etc., etc. Some of the 
Sashes are made. I have stoped those that are not 'till I can 
receive Directions which must be as soon as convenient. I 
dont comprehend what you mean by a Peazer. 1 explain that 
in your next. Don't forgett to send the Pattern of the Chinese. 
I spent Commencement Day at Cambridge, while I was there 
I mett Coll Putnam at Mr. Murray's 2 Chamber. I hapned 

i * On the transformation in meaning of this word see Albert Matthews in 
the Nation, lxviii. 416. 

2 Samuel Murray, of the Class of 1772. 

177 1 Copley -Pelham Letters 135 

luckely to have the Coppies of the Papers with me, which I 
delivered him, he gave me the same Account he gave you, 
about the adjournment. I want your full and Perticular Di- 
rections for the law suit as to the largeness of the Fees, the Per- 
sons to whom and the time when they are to be given. What 
is to be done with Messrs. Payne 1 and the two Quinceys? 2 
but of this you must let me know soon. Thus much for 
Buisness. My Mamma is tolerable well for her, she sends her 
kindest Love and best Wishes to yourself, and my Sister with 
her intreaty's that you would take the utmost Care of your- 
selves. I heard yesterday from my Cousin Betzey. (by the 
way I am very much affronted that you made no Inquiries after 
my dear little Neice. I suppose you have forgot her, therefore 
I don't address the Paragraph to you but to my Sister, to whom 
I beg my kindest Love and Respects may be acceptable), she 
is very hearty and well, has got two teeth and cuts them very 
easy, she is a very good Girl and is excellently tended. I see 
her frequently. We have had a most Remarkably fine Summer, 
hay is very plenty and Cheap. — Mr Otis's Action against 
Commis'r Robinson 3 for an Assault come on at the Inferior 
Court last Thursday Morn'g. The Tryal lasted 'till Saterday 
Morn'g, when the Jury bro't in a verdict in Mr Otis's favour 
with 200o£ St. Damages. Pray write often. I am with Regard 
yor Loving Bror. 

Henry Pelham. 

1st. P S Mr Clarke and Family are all well. Compliments 
I am desired to present from Mr. Green and Lady Miss P. 
McElvane etc., etc., etc., etc. I have neither time, Room nor 
Inclination to write about 500 Names. 

1 Robert Treat Paine (1731-1814). J Samuel and Josiah. 

3 John Robinson. See 2 Proceedings, x. 72. 

136 Copley -Pelham Letters 1771 

2d. P. S. Mr Boylston 1 is very ill his Friends have little or 
no hopes of his Recovery. Mr. Pelham I have not seen this ten 
days. They were well then except Peter who has been like to 
die. he is now better. 

Copley to Henry Pelham 

New York, Augst. 3d, 1771. 
Dear Brother Harry, 

I received your favour by the Post and am happy in hearing 

you and our Hon'd Mamma are well. The same information 

I now give you of Sukey and myself, we desire our Most 

Efectionate Love and Duty* to her and Love to all our other 

friends, in perticular to yourself, my time is so much engrossd 

by Business that all I can spare is little anough for recreation 

so that you must excuse all the enaccurys in my Letters. I have 

began Painting to the amount of 3 hundred pounds Sterg. 

shall take four more and than Stop. We experiance such a 

Dispostion in a great many People to render us happy as we did 

not expect, but I must go to Business as it grows late. You say 

you dont know what I mean by a Peaza. I will tell you than. 

it is exactly such a thing as the cover over the pump in your 

Yard, suppose no enclosure for Poultry their, and 3 or 4 Posts 

aded to support the front of the Roof, a good floor at bottum, 

and from post to post a Chinese enclosure of about three feet 

high, these posts are Scantlings of 6 by 4 inches Diameter, 

the Broad side to the front, with only a little moulding round 

the top in a plain neat maner. some have Collums but very 

few, and the top is generally Plasterd; but I think if the top 

was sealed with neat plained Boards I should like it as well. 

1 Nicholas Boylston (1716-1771). See Quincy, History of Harvard University, 
11. 214. 


ffl . ^ — ,*■■■■* -. ■■ , ,- , ^ - r , ^ -. . „ ■■ X .y J>| , | II I ' 

I7-TT-T-) f- 1 -1 1 ) £ 

177 1 Copley -Pelham Letters 137 

these Peazas are so cool in Sumer and in Winter break off the 
storms so much that I think I should not be able to like an 
house without. I hope you will find it not much addition to the 
Expence to add them as I have drawn them in the Plan, you 
will see I have not drawn accurately, the Distanceing of the 
Post, Windows, etc., I have left to you. you can make them 
tourn out right. You see I have Drawn the Chinea Clossit 
Store Room in the east piaza, which containing things the Cold 
cannot injure, will be better there than in the Kichen, and I 
suppose not more expencive; and the Pantry I have left in the 
Kichen a[s] proposed when I was in Boston, Because I can find 
no other place for it, unless it was put where the Store Room is 
now, and the store room put out side of that, and the China 
Clossit as I have dotted in the Plan, the shape will be long but 
convenient anough and this will make the Pantry warm anough ; 
But you must consult Joy in this. If the Piazas are added I 
should lik to have one window in the best Parlour, and a Door 
the top of which shall answer to the Window; but when you 
shove it up so high as to Clear the head (which it may be by 
opening a way through the plate above it) the part emidately 
under it shall open like the Lower half of a Shop Door, if you 
can contrive better, do. the East Peaza need not be sealled at 
all, but left rough, the foundations is not continued but only 
Coins at proper distances. I should have the Roof to pitch 
from under the Arkitraves of the Chamber Windows hipt every 
way and as flat as possable. I cannot send you the Chinese 
pattern yet. see what Mr. Joy will expect for this addition of 
Peazas, and let [him] know I think it cannot be much, becau[se] 
I would have them done at once, if they wont be Expencive. 
you need not tell him so; but if £200 Old Tenr 1 would do it you 

1 A trifle over £26 sterling. See p. 147 for Mr. Joy's estimate. 

138 Copley -Pelham Letters 1771 

migh[t] conclude upon it without my orders. The floor of the 
Peazas except that next the Kitchen should be Pitch Pine. As 
to [the] Lawsuit, I must give Putnam 10 Guineas and Otis the 
same; But if there will be an adjournment dont Guive to Otis, 
tell him I shall be at home before that time, dont be too Liberal 
with the Lawyers ; they will not do the work one bit the better, 
as to Pain Consult Mr. Goldthwait. if they are not sattisfied 
Let them know You are sure your Brother will do what is 
handsom by them when he returns. I know you are apt to be 
Liberal, but remember money once gone never returns. Re- 
member Sigorney is to be half. Send by the first oppertunity 
from Boston 2 half Length Gold frames and 2-^ Cloath frames 
likewise Gould. I am with Great Effection Your Brother, 

J. S. Copley. 

Henry Pelham to Copley 

Boston, August 15, 1771. 
Dear Brother, 

The near approach of the Courts sitting, makes me solici- 
touse about your Law suit. The last Evening, I receiv'd two 
Letters from Coll. Putnam, in one of which he says: 

The superior Court sets at Boston the last Tuesday of this 
Month; I can't attend on Mr. Copley's Cause that Week, if I 
could, it is very uncertain whether the Court will sit, to do Buis- 
ness at that time: you had better therefore get the Cause put off 
till the Adjourment in the Fall: When I hope to be better able to 
attend the Cause than at present. In the meantime I shall take 
all due Care as far as my health will permitt. PS. If the Cause 
must come on the first Week of the Courts setting, and can't be 
delayed let me know, and I will endeavour to attend. 

177 1 Copley -Pelham Letters 139 

Now what I want, is your most pellicular and express Or- 
ders, Whether your Cause shall be tryed at the first setting of 
the Court, or whether it shall be put off till the adjournment [in 
which Case it] can't be sooner than the middle of November. 
On the one hand, you will consider the state of your Lawyer's 
Health; Collo. Putnam you know, is an invalid, and his health 
is so very precarious, as to render his travelling, in such a sea- 
son, very difficult; often impossable. Mr Otis, you are likewise 
sensable, has no certainty of his Health; he is now very well, 
but how long that may continue, is very uncertain; these Con- 
siderations, Operate in favour of its coming on, as soon as 
possable. On the other hand, if it is put off 'till the adjourn- 
ment, you will be able to attend the Tryall yourself. You will 
likewise consider, that if the tryal is put off till November, and 
anything should prevent its being then tryed, it must go to the 
spring term, when it is very bad travelling. It has been put off, 
upon your motion, sundry times already, which should make 
you cautious of putting it off, when you can bring your Lawyers 
together with such favourable Circumstances ; and the oftener 
you put it off, the more difficult you may find it, when you have 
greater Occasion for it. I have just seen Mr. Otis, he says, he is 
entirely ready for speeking. I shall endeavour to have the 
action, so ranged as either to have it tryed now, or in Novem- 
ber. I imagin you wont need soliciting for an immediate answer 
to this Letter, when you consider, that if you write by the 
return of the same post that Carries this, it will be two or three 
days after the Court opens, before I can receive your Letter. I 
must therefore intreat, that you will not neglect letting me have 
an immediate answer. I am just going to write to Coll. Putnam, 
so have only time to subscribe myself, your loving Brother, 

Henry Pelham. 

140 Copley -Pelham Letters 1771 

P. S. We are all well, accept of Love, from our Mamma, Mr. 
Clarke and Family, Mr. Startin * and Lady, myself, etc. The 
same, to my Sister. 

Invoice of Merchandise 

Invoice of Merchze shipped by Henry and Thos. Bromfield in the Thames 
Capt. Jno. Derby; on Acco. of Mr. Jno. Singleton Copley; consigned to Mr. 
Henry Pelham at Boston. 
No. 1 a Case qt. 

No. ( 6 fine half length Cloths 4/ 1 . . 4. 

1 . . < 6. d? Kit-Cats 2/ 12. 

( 6.. d? Three Quarters 1/6 9 

2. . (6. .d? fine ticking half Lengths 4/ 1. . 4 

\ 6. .d? three Quarters 1/6 9 

The Case 2: 6 4 6 

2 a Box qt. 

12 fine Tools 3. 8 

5 Brushes 3. 8 

3 oz. Italian Black Chalk 2/ 6 

3 oz. do White 1/ 3 

2 oz. fine Vermillion 2/ 4 

lb oz 

1 . . 2 fine white Poppy Oil 5 

50 lb Putty 4d 16 8 

Bladders, Bottle & Box . . 1 6 236 

3 Case 

feet Ins 
185 Squares best Newcastle \ - 766 

Crown Glass 14^ by 10^ / yi " *' y 7 

Box etc 5 6 7 12 

4 A Keg 

Wt. Ct. 2..0. .19 
Tare .. ..12 

Nett 2..Q.. 7 Grod. white Lead. 35/ 3 12 2 

Kegg 2 6 3 14 8 

Charles Startin, who married Sarah, a sister of Mrs. Copley. 

177 1 Copley -Pelham Letters 141 


Entry & Shipping 5 6 

Primage & Bills Lading 3 3 8 9 

Commission on £17 19 5 @ 2j£ p Ct 9 

Errors Excepted. £18 8 5 

London 17th August 1771. 

Heny & Thos Bromfield. 

Copley to Henry Pelham 

New York, August 17, 1771. 
Dear Brother, 

Mrs. Copley and myself have this Even'g returned from Mrs. 
McEvers's at Blooming Dale where we have been two Days. I 
have been taking her portrait there, and finding Smith sails 
tomorrow morning I sit up late to write a line to you to let you 
and our Hond. Mamma know we are well, and have been so 
ever since we left Boston, which is a great blessing. I have 
wrote to Brother Jona'n x at large and it is now late, so must be 
very short for we keep good hours. I have not been able to send 
you the Chineese yet, for I hardly get time to eat my Victuals; 
but I will send it soon. I forget weither or not there was to be a 
Clossit in the Keeping Room, if the Clossits are made in the 
Peaza as proposed in my last Letter so as to be contiguous to the 
Keeping Room, I would by no means have any by the Chimney. 
I am likewise determined to have no door into the Kitchen 
from the Keeping Room. I dined at Mr. Yates's 3 Days ago, 
where I noticed two such spaces with side boards in them 
which were very convenient, the Arches were somthing in this 
maner. I should like to have them left open the same Depth 
they are now, or if there should be the Clossit in the Peaza, and 

1 Jonathan Clarke. 

142 Copley -Pelham Letters 1771 

those Spaces will receive a side board in one and a Table in the 
other, which will be very convenient. 

If Mr. Joy would as leaves wainscott the Lower part of the 
Painting Room as plaister, which I should think would be as 
Cheep, I should prefer it. I dont remember weither I did not 
put an odd number of Posts to the Sketch of the Peaza I sent 
you; if I did, it was rong and I suppose that you would correct 
it. the Number should be even, so as to have steps from the 
Middle which would lead into Fennows Pasture, steps of about 
seven or eight foot Long somthing in this manner * I must have 
Windows from my great Painting Room into it. those Windows 
having new fassioned Blinds such as you see in Mr. Clarke's 
Keeping Room Will keep the Ligh[t] out from that side, and 
airways occation a Draught of Air. Mind I dont mean to tie 
you up in any thing; you must contrive the place for Windows, 
Doors, etc. yourself. I dont know but it would be better to 
have the Steps at the End of the Peaza than at the side, as the 
Door from the best Room cannot be opposite to those Steps : 
in which Case their might be the odd number of Posts in this 
manner, indeed I think this would be best, however only let 
me know the expence. if it is not much, as I think it cannot be, 
I would have the Door and Windows orderd Accordingly, and 
the Peaza might be built after I return to Boston. 

I am with EfTectionate Duty to our Hon'd Mamma Love 
to yourself in which Sukey Joins me Your EfTectionate 

John S. Copley. 

You have never said anything of Snap. I hope he is well and 
a good Boy. if he continues to do well he will merrit my Care 

1 A small rough sketch, not reproduced. 

177 1 Copley -Pelham Letters 143 

and tenderness for him and I shall reward him According on my 
return. I am obliged to write in a very Slovenly Manner for 
want of time, which I hope will [be] deem'd a sufficient excuse. 

Shrimpton Hutchinson to Copley 

Boston, 24th August, 1771. 

I take the first Opportunity of sending you a Letter from the 
ingenious Mr. West, 1 which came inclosed in one to me from 
that Gentleman for my Instruction in bringing forward my 
Son in the Art of Painting, and on the other side I give you a 
Copy of it for your Perusal, in hopes that you will likewise 
favour me with your Sentiments on the Subject, and let me 
know if any Compensation can be made to you by me or by his 
Services to entitle him to your Instruction in the Knowledge of 
Colours, which will determine in my Mind the Time of sending 
him home to England, as I find by Mr. Temple's Letter Mr. 
West will be very friendly to him on all Occasions. It gives me 
pleasure to hear by Capt. Smith and many Gentlemen from the 
Southward that you are in Health, and command as much Em- 
ployment as you think proper to undertake, and wishing you 
and your Lady a safe Return to your native Town, I conclude 
with due Regard for you and Esteem for your Merit. Your 
humble Servant 

Shrimpton Hutchinson. 

P S I am sensible Genius, Industry, and long Practice must 
be united in the Painter to make him eminent and am therefore 
anxious my Son should improve his Hours usefully, and Time 

1 See page 118, supra. 

144 Copley -Pelham Letters 1771 

will determine whether he has Genius. Taste may be acquired 
by his future Travels, which I hope he will have the Advantage 
of, and am encouraged in it by the Offers of my Friends. 

Copley to Henry Pelham 

New York, 25 Augst., 1771. 
Dear Brother Harry 

When you wrote me last so pressingly for an Answer you 
should have consider'd I might have been out of Town; there- 
fore you should not have delay'd writeing so long that an acci- 
dent of that sort should possably take place, now this was the 
very accident that prevented my writeing an Imediate answer. 
I slept out of Town the night before and it is the custom to 
send the letters to their respectiv[e] proprieters, and it was not 
brought me till after the Post had been gone an hour. I was 
very much mortified and shall be doubly so if you have not been 
active in bringing on the Action; for it is my judgment to have 
it come on by all means, and in order to make amends as much 
as possable for this delay I have wrote to Coll. Putnam by this 
Post informing him that I send you my peremtory orders to 
have the Cause try'd if possable, so that he will hold himself in 
readyness or go down to Boston at the time to which the Cause 
stands assigned, according to what has past between you. how- 
ever write him, if their is time for him to receive your Letter, 
and go down to Boston before the time to which you ranged 
the Cause for. I would not for any consideration whatever 
you should not procure a Tryal this time, and cannot but be 
surprised you should be so timid as to weit one moment for my 
orders. Act for me as if for your self, and you will do wright. 
the letter to Coll Putnam has taken me up so much of the 


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177 1 Copley -Pelham Letters 145 

Even'g that I can only send you this scrip, for I must rise earley. 
Sukey and myself are very well desire our Duty to our Dear 
Mama, Love to you and all our Brothers and sisters, comp'ts 
to all Friends. I am, Dear Harry, your EfFectionate Brother, 

J. S. Copley. 

Henry Pelham to Copley l 

Boston, Augst. 25, 1771. 
Dear Brother, 

I hope you have too great an Opinion of our Affection and 
Regard, to think it necessary, that I should describe the Pleas- 
ure we enjoyed upon the Receipt of your severall Favours of the 
24th of July, 3d. and 17. of August. Your own feelings upon 
some simular Occasion, can give you a better Idea of our Satis- 
faction, than my Pen — a Satisfaction, heightened into Happy- 
ness, by hearing that you and my dear Sister, were well. In 
return for such agreable News, I can inform you, that our 
hond. Mamma enjoys, as she has done for some time, a pretty 
tolerable degree of health, for her. I have been very well scince 
you left Boston. 

As this goes by Mr. Startin, I shall be as perticular, in An- 
swering your three last Letters and in letting you know the 
situation of things here a[s] his sudden departure will permitt. 

We thank you for your kind Wishes, with regard to the Pine 
Apples, are very Glad you have had such plenty, of so delicatfe] 
a Fruit, but if we may judge from the Price, we have had 
greater plenty here than you have had at New York, with you, 
they were from a shilling to sevenpence, here from a Shilling to 
two pence, and excellent Fruit too. 

1 There are two drafts of this letter. The first bears the date July 4, 1771, 
which has been changed to August, 1771. 

146 Copley -Pel bam Letters 1771 

You tell me, You must not expect I should sett up so late to 
night as to fill up this Paper. That is very clever indeed ! not 
write for better than three Weeks, and than tell me I must not 
expect etc., etc. Yes, dear Sir, I will expect severall Things : that 
you won't sett up late, that you will write often, that you will 
send no blank Paper (I repeat it for all your sneer about a 
Letter's being couvered), but above all, I expect that you will 
take the utmost Care of your Health, a Man and his Wife being 
one, I think it needless, to Say that in this last and most import- 
ant Expectation, my Dear Sister is included. You have receved 
your Layman etc. I am glad of it. I think my self very happy 
in possessing a talent, which, is so very neacessary and usefull, 
and which produced your fav'r of July 24. I hope you will 
render it unneacessary for me to excersise that talant again. 

Agreable to your directions, I have got Mr. Sherbourn to 
examine the Records at Cambridge, for a Quitclaim to Mr. 
GofT, But he can find no such Instrument upon Record, there 
is a quitclaim from Mr Jno. Banister, to Mr. Inman of a 
peeice of Land, for the sum of five shillings. 

The Window Sashes are made much as you would have 
them, narrow but very deep. I have observed the Windows of 
several Houses, lately painted, in a manner that I greatly like, 
and which makes the Glass look much Larger, and the Bars 
appear very slender, it is by painting the putty, with a dark 
Colour, nearly approaching to Black. The Glass you propose 
over the Door, would be very convenient, but I think the 
Venetian Door would be much Handsomer and Pleasanter. 
Paper Mashe Gilt, Mr Gore x makes for thirty shillings O. T. 
per Yd.; if it is white, half that price; but the Goodness ought 
to be regarded. I wish you could send a small peice from New 

1 John Gore, of Boston, painter and merchant. 

1 77 1 Copley -Pelham Letters 147 

York to Compare. I thank you for the lines on Checkley's 
Picture. The Peaza's which you describe, appear to me, to be 
very convenient, as well as pleasant. Capt. Joy has given me an 
Estimate of the expence. it turns out more than you expected, 
£63 L. M. he says is the lowest he could afford to undertake 
to do it for. The stuff comes to near 4o£. The gold frames shall 
be forwarded as soon as possable. The Arches at the sides of 
the Chimnie in the Sitting Room, I like, but there is no deter- 
mining about the Closetts, without knowing weither the Peazas 
are to be built or not. I will speak to Capt. Joy about the 
wainscot in the Painting Room. You putt an odd number of 
posts, in the Peaza, which was right, as there is four Windows, 
which makes five Peers. I think upon the whole it would be 
best to have the steps at the front End. 

In answer to your inquiries after Snap, I take a pleasure in 
informing you ; that he has been well, except one fit, which he 
had since you was away, but it was so much less violent, than 
any of his former ones, that we are in great hopes that they will 
entirely leave him. Each fit has been essentially less Violent 
than the preceeding one, he has behaved himself very well and 
is a cleaver Fellow. Since I began to write this Letter, he came 
up, asked me if I was writeing to New York, and beged that I 
would give his Duty to his Master and Mistress, and tell them 
that he was very glad to hear that they were well. Antony is 
well. 1 Having thus exibited Snap and Antony to View, I begin 
to think it is time to produce myself. I have but Just returned 
from Newton, where I have been exerciseing the Pencill. In my 
way I called up at Jamaica, and saw my Cousin Betzey, she is 
in charming Health, looks as fatt and hearty as you could 
Wish, she cutts her teeth very easy. My Brother Pelham and 

1 A dog. 

148 Copley -Pelham Letters 1771 

Family are well, desire their kindest Love and Regards may be 
presented to you, and my Sister. Little Peter has been exceed- 
ingly ill, but has recovered again, and is now in a fine promiseing 
way. I have now upwards of 5CK>£ worth of Buisness in Hand. 
I have been trying to etch a little thing, an Impression I 

Agreable to your desire, I inclose a Plan of the House. The 
Entrance into the great Room, and the Room over it, were 
objects of great Moment, and what has cost Capt. Joy and 
my self much Study and attention. The principle Object, we 
had in View, was to mak[e] the passages not only convenient, 
but answ[e]rable in Looks, to the noble Rooms, to which they 
lead, a secondary Pursuit, was to prevent the other parts of 
the house, being encroached upon and being a thoro'fare to 
these Rooms. These Objects, I believe, we have accomplished, 
in the best Manner, the Place was capable off. 

I entended to have given you an exact section of the entry and 
staircase, but Mr Startin, going sooner than I or even himself 
expected, I can only send you a rough sketch, drawn by the eye 
only. You will be able to understand the Plans, with a little 
attention, take notice, that the Rest of the front Stairs, the 
rest of the back Stairs, and the passage between the two 
marked AAA are all upon a leavel. To make the thing as plain 
as possable, let us take a Walk up stairs. We have now 
mounted 13 Steps, and are upon the Rest. This you see is 
Circular, it is so made to avoid having Closetts in the Great 
Room, the small peice that Comes into the Room Capt Joy 
says, can easily be hid, by throwing an Arch from the Chimnie 
to the Partition, which will be Very hansome. This rest being 
circular, affords as much passage Room as, if it was square, and 
will more naturally lead us up to the small Rest B, and into the 

1 77 1 Copley -Pelham Letters 149 

painting Room. I beleive, it will look as well, if not better than 
square; if you have any Objections to this plan, you must let 
me know them as soon as possable. The upper Room will be 
about 8 feet 9 Inches under the Beam. Your great Room will 
be a very fine one, 24 feet long, 17.6 feet Wide, and 10 feet high. 
We discovered the other day, that the Chimney in this Room 
has no Funnell, one of the foolishest peices of Buisness that 
could be, to build a Chimnie without a passage for Smoke. We 
have had most excessive hot Weather, this Month. It has been 
the death of several People here, and had like to have been 
Fatal to Capt. Joy. he was at the Common one morn'g about 
3 Weeks ago, about 7 o'Clock, he was [so] over come, as to 
endeavour, with the Assistance, of one of his Men to get home, 
which with difficulty he affected, within a few Minutes after, he 
was to appearance almost dead. Doer. Bulfinch l was called, 
and pronounced him a gone Man, but by the application of 
Medicine he after a time brought him to his Sences again; but 
it has left him soo Weak, that last Monday the Doctr. per- 
mitted him to Walk, for the first time, as far only as Mr. 
Laughtonf's] Shop, bottom of the Lane. Mr Boylston, you 
will doubtless have heard, is dead, he has left 5000 Dollars, to 
Harvard Colledge. But to conclude, is a reviving Sentence after 
a long and dull Sermon. I doubt not you will think it as reviv- 
ing after a long and dull Letter. My Mamma desires, her 
kindest love and Blessing to yourself and My Sister. Present 
my most affectionate Regards to my Sister, Accept the same 
yourself, and beleive me to be with truth and Regard, Dear 
Sir, Your most Affection[at]e Brother and most Humble Sert. 

Henry Pelham. \ 

1 Dr. Thomas Bulfinch (1728-1802), father of the architect. See Bulfinch, 
Life and Letters of Charles Bulfinch. 

150 Copley -Pelham Letters 1771 

Henry Pelham to Copley 

Boston, Septm. 2d, 1771. 
My dear Brother, 

I receiv'd your's of the 25 Inst by which I am sorry to find, 
you are very anxious to have your Cause bro't to an Issue, this 
sitting of the Court; sorry, only as it has not been in my 
Power, to answer your Expectations. Beleive me, when I say, I 
was much Chagrin'd, when I was obliged to apply to Mr. Quin- 
cey, to have your Cause put off to the November Adjournment. 
My Reasons for doing it, were the difficulty of Coll. Putnam's 
Attendance, and the bad state of Mr. Otis's Health. Coll. 
Putman in a letter to me says — 

You tell me in your's of 15 Inst that Mr. Copleys Cause stands 
for the second Saturday of the Courts sitting. You must remem- 
ber that is a time when I can't possably attend; because it is 
the same Week the inferior Court sitts at Worcester and I am 
not now certain it will be over in one Week, if it should I may at- 
tend the second Week in Septmr. if the Cause can't be putt off 
with more Convenience 'till the fall Adjournment, which I should 
choose. If our Court finishes the first Week in Septmr. as I hope 
it will and Mr. Copleys Cause must come on the second; Give me 
timely notice and I will be there. 

Thus you will find, that had there been no other Obstacle, 
your Cause could not have been tryed, till the second Week in 
Sepmr. in which Week, the Court will sit only two Days, viz. 
Tuesday and Wednesday, on Tuesday, there was a Cause 
assigned by the Court, so that the time was reduced to one day. 
The third Week in Septmr. the superior Court sitts at Worces- 
ter. Mr. O — s's health is such, as renders it (in the opinion of 
most People, perticularly of the Court) quite improper, to trust 
a Cause of that importance and difficulty to his Care. At some 

1 77 1 Copley -Pelham Letters 151 

times he is raving, at all times he is so bewildered as to have no 
dependance placed upon him. He told me, that the Court had 
peremtorally ordered the Cause to be tryed on the ensueing 
Thursday, upon enquiry, of Mr Quincey and Mr. Winthrop, 
I found it was a great Mistake. In short He is too well to be 
dismissed from the Cause, too unwell to manage it. Had it been 
possable, I should have engaged Mr. Payne to have spoke, but 
Mr — s thinking himself capable, precluded that. I shall 
write to Coll. Putnam, next post, to inform him that the Cause 
has gone off to November. I should be glad, that you would 
instruct me, about the finishing the body of the upper house, 
as also about painting and papering the same, about Wood for 
Winter. Inform me, where I shall gett some more Money for 
Mr. Joy. As it will be impossable to have both houses finished, 
so as to go into them with safety this Fall, it is proposed to have 
the upper house finished so as for either us or you, to move into 
it when you come back. My Mamma is tolerable well. I have 
got a Violent Cold increased by going out to a Fire, at New 
Boston, the other Night. Betzey is well, she paid us a Visit the 
last Week. Present our love etc. to my Sister, accept the same 
yourself, I am, Yours, most Affectionately, 

Henry Pelham. 

Copley to Henry Pelham 

New York, Sepmr. 9th, 1771. 
Dear Brother, 

Your Letter of the 2d. Instant came to hand, it gives me 

peculiar pleasure to hear our Dear Mamma is so well, and our 

other friends, yourself excepted, in health, this makes every 

other disappointment quite tolerable, nothing in this Life being 

of importance in comparison with that. Sukey and myself are 

152 Copley -Pelham Letters 177 1 

in full possession of this inestimable Blessing at this time, and 
indeed have been so ever since we left you. we grow impatient 
to see you all, but must not expect that Blessing till late in the 
fall. I find it a great work to finish so many pictures, as I must 
do every part of them myself, however patience will accom- 
plish it all in due time, and I shall have more sattisfaction when 
I return from my present assiduety. send me by Smith the 
frame and Glass formerly menshoned and Receipt for Varnish 
in your next Letter. 

I am sorry my Cause has been posponed till Novemr., but I 
hope it is for the best, and would have you apply to Coll. 
Putnam prior to the Coart's sitting to send you word what time 
will be convenient for him to attend, and you can then have the 
Cause ranged for that Day : and with regard to Otis you must 
run no risque; if their is the least doubt about his state of health, 
Paine must be the man. I hope you have not advanced him 
any Money. 

I am sorry the House will not be fit to live in this Winter, 
you had better get the upper one done at all events. I think 
their is only some Window Shutters and Doors to make, in 
which you must be as frugal as possable. as to the Cornishing 
the Rooms (except those in Joy's estimate) I think it needless 
to be at the expence of it; only get the neet low prised papers, 
carry them to the Sealing and with the Border the Rooms will 
look well, the House we lodge in is so and looks very neet and 
fit for the firs[t] Gentleman in this City to live in. this you will 
understand is in respect to the two front Rooms and Chambers. 
Mr. Joy is by his agreement to Cornis those he makes new. as 
to the painting you know how your Mamma would have it 
done, it is for her and I would have you please her in that and 
every thing else. I hope you will soon receive Colours from 

177 1 Copley -Pelham Letters 153 

London and Glass, etc. as to the Chimneys I think if your 
Mamma is determined to put up the stove, I should think it 
needless to have Jambstones. plaster painted will look as well 
and your Mamma will never make fire in the Best room; so 
plaster will do as well their too, but Connecticut Stone hearths 
I think will be best. I only menshon these things, you must 
please our Mamma, but you know my plan is frugallity and 
this way of finishing the Chimneys accurs as being as good as 
any and much Cheeper; but if the Stove is not put up, than I 
think the Keeping Room should have Jambstones. But judge 
in this matter with prudence yourself, as your Mamma shall 
not move this Winter you may lay in your own wood, and when 
we return wee will look out for ourselves and doubt not we shall 
do well, you must mind what Mr. Joy was to do in his agree- 
ment that you don't pay for anything included in that. I should 
think the Doors that go from the front Rooms and front 
Chamber must be included in finishing the Entry, this you 
must take Care of. you want Money, but how can I answer 
your question, Viz, where you shall get some, when you have 
not informed me from whom you have received any, how much 
you have got, and Who owes? let me know when you write 
next, their is an Acct. of Mr. Hancock of about 20 Guineas, 
which I suppose if you are in want you may have, as to my 
receiveing Money here I have received none yet, nor do I expect 
to till I am coming away, when I shall receive it in Bulk. Coll. 
Lee owes, but I am very loath to take that, it is on interest, 
and nothing less than absolute necessity would induce me to. 
I Wonder the Peazas come to so much considering the Plainness 
of them. I should not conclude did not you want to know on 
Acct. of the Clossits. you must talk with Joy about the Price 
of the Posts plain, and so is every thing else indeed, however 

154 Copley -Pelham Letters 177 1 

see. if you can get no abatement I will have them done, and as 
I sketch'd in my Letter 2 or 3 Weeks ago, would have the 
Chinea Clossit and store Room in the East Peaza leaving a 
passage from the front to that part that is contiguous to the 
Kitchen ; and what you have Drawn for the Store Room in the 
Kitchen shall be the Pantry, the Size is good, but only the one 
. Door into the Entrey. than where you have markd a Clossit 
and Entrey I would have all open to the Kitchen and a very 
large Window or two of those old one to the north for Air in 
hot Weither, and I think the Plan compleat. make no Door 
from the Keeping Room Directly into the Kichen. 

J. S. Copley. 

Our Effectionate Duty [to] our Dear Mamma. [L]ove to all 
other friends. I have received a letter from Mr. West he say[s] 
Mrs. Deveroux's Picture was Exibitted and did me great 
Honour. Shrimton Hutchinson has a letter that compliments 
me much from West, no blank paper. 

Henry Pelham to Copley 

Boston, Septemr. 10, 1771. 
My dear Brother, 

I think it needless, to intrude upon your time, by telling you, 
what I hope you know allready, the Pleasure we take in hear- 
ing from you. I was a little, a little did I say? I was greatly 
disapointed, in not receiving a Line from you, by the last Post, 
but that was agreably compensated, by hearing afterwards, 
from Mrs. Startin, that you and my dear sister were well. Your 
not writing, I attribute to your Buisness, which you say takes 
up all your time, an ill effect proceeding from a good Cause. 

We are, thank God, in very good Health. My Mamma is 

177 1 Copley -Pelham Letters 155 

tolerably well, my Cold has left me. Miss Betzey I have not 
seen or heard from Scince my Last. 

Inclosed, is Captn. Paschall Smith's Receipt for a Box of 
Frames, which I hope will arrive safe to hand. The Frames are 
(I think) as good as any that have been done, and are such, as 
I hope will please the Taste of the Gentry at New York. If you 
should have Occasion for more, you would do well to lett me 
know as soon as possable, that they may be ready to goe by 
Capt'n Smith, when he makes his next Trip. 

Your Lawsuit — in my last, per Post, I informed you perticu- 
larly of that. As the Superior Court setts by adjournment in 
November, and as I suppose, you won't be at home till the 
middle of October, I submitt it to you, weither it would not be 
best, that Mr. Payne should prepare himself for speaking in the 
Cause. Mr. Otis you can not have the least dependance upon, 
he has been raving distracted, several times the last Week. If 
you should determin that Mr. Payne is to speak, it would be 
best that he should know of it, as soon as possable, that there 
might be no Excuse, for his not being prepared, for want of 
time. Mrs. Sigourney wants very much, to have Mr. Josiah 
Quincey for a speeker; he tells her, that he will have nothing to 
do in the affair, unless he can speak. Mrs. Sigourney will be 
entirely satisfied with your determination. 

Your Works, at Mount Pleasant, go on very Briskly. The 
upper house is in it's place. It has the Cellars finish'd, the 
Chimnies built, the Back part erected. The Roof finished 
entirely. It makes a very noble appearance, and its situation 
is pleasant beyond Discription, beyond Idea. 1 I could wish the 
lower house stood three feet higher upon its foundation, This 
House is also in a fine forward way. The Back is framed 

1 Erased in first draft: " the conception of the most lively Imagination." . 

156 Copley -Pelham Letters 177 1 

erected and Boarded, Chimnies altered, Roof entirely finished, 
rough pertitions and rough Ceilings up throughout the House. 
Captn Joy says, he shall be ready for the Plastering, in about a 
Fortnight, and that you may come into the House this fall with 
all safety. I wish the matter of the Peaza's was determined, as 
some things depend upon them, for instance, if it was deter- 
mined to have them, the Windows might be placed so far out, 
at the ends of the House, as to allow Room for the Box casing 
for the shutters, without lessening the Rooms. It ought to be 
determined upon, before the House is Clapboarded. The front 
and one end of the upper house must be new Clapboarded, will 
you give me directions about it ? the Clapboards on the other 
end are very good. Who is your Glazier? Mr Gooch x has 
spoke to me, to know if you will give him the jobb, he would be 
very glad to have it. Mr Moses Pitcher has likewise applyed to 
me, he would be much obliged to you for your employ, in the 
Glazuring, Papering'and Plumbing Buisness's. Mr. Miller would 
be glad to serve you, in the Papering Way. he desired me to 
mention it. he says he will work as Cheap and do his Work as 
well, as you can gett it done in Boston. He is at Work at the 
upper house. Mr Winter hopes, you will be so kind, as to lett 

him do what Iron Work you may want. Mr., 1 forget his 

name, no matter, would recommend slate as vastly preaferable 
to shingles, and would be proud to serve Mr Coplin. I dont 
recollect any Body else, that I have to recommend. Would it 
not be best to give one good coat of paint, to the Roofs of the 
Houses ? it appears to me as well as to others, that it would be 
a great benefit, much more than the expence. The Chinese 
Rail — Did I inform you that you are like to have a fine Crop 
of Potatos ? 

1 First draft: Mr. Gough. 

1 77 1 Copley -Pelbam Letters 157 

You would do me a great Kindness, if you would procure 
me, if it is to be had at New York, The Church Prayer Book in 
Latin. I am not able to get it here. If you can get one, please 
to send it by Smith. In my last Letter, that per Mr Startin, I 
gave you a discription of the stair case, since that we have 
made Considerable Alterations in the Plan, much for the better. 
The Passages to the two great Rooms will be much more 
Roomly, 1 and much easier of access, it would be very difficult 
to describe it in a Plan. I have contrived to have your painting 
Chamber, very commodious for painting a whole length Pic- 
ture. This I will discribe by a Plan. 2 The Part of the Room 
marked A is made considerably higher than the rest of the 
Room B. This part of the Room A will be made g or gj4 feet 
high, and will be extended g% feet from the Great Window. 
This I think will be ample Room. 

Capt. Joy has made the front of the lower House 1 1 Inches 
higher, which makes it look much better. I had like to have 
forgot to put you in Mind of the Lime trees, for the continuance 
of the Walk, from Mr. Handcock's. it will be a fine time to send 
them, by Capt. Smith when he returns, it will take 36 Trees to 
go to the Water. The Apples that I mentioned in a former 
letter, a Barrell of Newton Pippins, a Barrell of Golden Pippins, 
and some fine Large New York Water Melons. I have prom- 
issed one of these last, so that I shall depend upon them. News, 
by a Vessell in 5 Weeks from London, we are informed, that 
Mr. Wilks is Chosen Sherriff of London. That the Lord Mayor, 
Aldermen, and Livery, have presented another Remonstrance, 
in which after enumerating many greviances, they request his 

1 Erased in first draft: " Roomy." 

2 There is a similar plan in the first draft, but less carefully drawn, and giving 
fewer details. The first draft also has this drawing. 

158 Copley -Pelham Letters 1771 

Majesty to Restore them their Rights, And Peace to this 
unhappy, and distracted Nation, by a speedy Dissolution of 
Parliament, and a Removal of his Majesty's present Wicked 
and despotic Ministers forever from his Councils and Presence. 
They were answered, by a peremptory refusal, and a severe 
reprehe[n]sion, for using such indecent Language. My Mamma 
presents] her kindest Love and Blessing to Yourself and My 
Sister. Accep[t] my own Love and Compliments, present the 
Same to my Sister. My Compliments attend Mr. Startin. I 
am Dear Sir, Your most Affectionate Brother, most obed[i]ent, 
and Humble Sert. 

Henry Pelham. 

P S. Rememr. it is the 10 of Septr. also Rememr. October is 
approaching, and also that Boston stands in its old Place. 

Post Script. Boston Sepr. 10 PM 

Dear Brother 

I did not intend after so long a letter as that of this date to 
have wrote so soon but this is to let you know that you can 
procure Lime Trees from Spriggs Mr. Handcock's Gardner. 
He will furnish Trees Plant and Warrant them for 18 Shillings 
O. T. a peice. this I imagine will be Cheaper than they can 
be procured from N. Y. for, considering Risque, Frieght etc. 
Spriggs's Trees are four Years old and 12 feet High. If you 
think proper to have them planted this fall (which I think by 
all meens would be best) let me know as soon as convenient], 
that there may be a first Choice. Mr Sprigg says he can supply 
you with every Fruit Tree, flowering Tree except the Tu[lip] 
shrub or Bush that you can want, that he will plant them and 
not receive his pay till it is known weither the Tree etc. lives 
or not, and that he will supply you as Cheap and as well as any 

177 1 Copley -Pelham Letters 159 

Gardner in America. For Compl. I refer to my long Letter. 
I am as there your most Affectionate, 

Hen Pelham. 

P. S The Tulip Trees are plenty with you and it would be 
no damage if you was to send some of them by Capt S. Good 

Copley to Henry Pelham 

New York, the 20 of Sepr. 1771. 
Dear Brother, 

Your favour by Capt Smith I received yesterday and shall 
answer paragraph by paragraph. The frames came safe to 
hand and I hope will do, but shall know better when they 
have been seen by those who will want frames, and soon as 
possable if they will answer you shall have my orders. 

As to my Lawsuit I think you had better write to Mr. Payne 
let him know when the Cause must come on and desire him 
to be ready, let him know Mr Putnam and Mr Quincey is 
engaged with him and they must pursue the common practice 
with respect to speaking, for I am determined to do nothing 
to give offence to Mr. Payne, let Mr Payne know I depend 
on his being ready. But dont you tell this to Mr. Quincey; he 
need know nothing of your Charges to him and my absence is a 
sufficent covouring. for if Quincey Leaves me, I had rather it 
should be at the time of Tryal than sooner, and indeed I dont 
think I shall be at home so soon as the Cause will come on, and 
if you manage well my Absence may be turned to good Acct. 
for you know you cannot with any reason affront Mr. Payne, 
and I left no perticular Direction for Mr. Quincey to speak, 
Suposeing the Attourneys would take proper care and do 
what was proper by me and one another, but be sure direct 

160 Copley -Pelbam Letters 1771 

Payne to be prepaired. furnish him with any papers he may 
want etc. The Works at pleasant Mount go briskley — I am 
glad of it. The Peazas you have my Mind upon, but I dont 
propose they shall be built until I return; only the House 
finishd, so that they may be done when I return; for I think 
they will be better done under my inspection. The front and 
one end of the upper House you say must be new Clapboarded. 
I am willing to have it done, but agree with Joy for every thing, 
if you don't like the Price, don't get it done. Who is my Glaizer? 
I shall like Gooch as well as any one, if he does the Work as 
Cheep, see others first and see how low you can get the Work 
done : and as to plumbing, that is within Joy's estimate, if by 
plumbing you mean leads for Windows. I had as leaves Miller 
should paper as any one, provided he does it as Cheep; but I 
cannot take notice of all those who desire to be recommended, 
so I shall leave them and you do Your best. I have no objection 
to painting the roofs. The Chineese I will send within a fort- 
night. I am Glad you have improved the plan. I have been all 
a long Ancious about the roomlyness of the Passages and am so 
now about the hight of that which leads to my great Room. 
I hope you will take care of it, as you may ruin the House by 
a mistake in that. I like your alteration in my Chamber. 
Mrs. Copley thinks Locust Trees much better than Lime. I am 
of the same oppinion. the Way to Judge is to go at a distance 
and see if the Locust will not be so high that you may see the 
house under the bows. I think they will and that the Lime will 
intercept the sight. The Locust is much quicker Growth and 
much Cheeper etc. Mellions we have none this year better 
than in your Market. Pippins I will take Care of. it is now 
very late and I must to bed, for we rise earley to set out for 
Philadelphia and shall be back in about a Week. When I must 

177 1 Copley -Pelham Letters 161 

work like a Beaver. Mr Startin Mrs. Copley and myself are 
in perfect Health. Our Most Effectionate Duty to our Mamma 
and Except our Love yourself, and remember us to all friends, 
perticularly to Mr. and Mrs Green. I shall write to him by 
Smith. Your Effectionate Brother, 

John S. Copley. 

Mrs. Syme to Copley 

Mrs. Syme presents her Compliments to Mr. Copely — She 
has been in Expectation all this Summar of receiving her 
Father's picture that she understands he has sat for frequently. 
Will be obliged to Mr. Copely if he will forward it as soon as 

London, 21st. Septem'r, 1771. 

Henry Pelham to Copley 

Boston, Septmr. 24, 1771. 
Dear Brother 

I have only time to acknowledge the Receipt of your's of the 
9th Instant and to assure you that it is with greatest Satisfac- 
tion that we hear that you and my dear Sister still enjoy that 
health you have before given me so pleasing an Account of. 
My Mamma is as well as can be expected. She desires her kind- 
est Love and Blessing to you and my Sister, she takes very 
kindly the Respectful and tender Sentiments you express for 
her. We are Glad that you are impatient to see Boston, but 
are very sorry to find that your buisness will detain you till 
late in the fall. We must begg that you would not delay coming 
till the Weather is cold and disagrable. Your directions with 

1 62 Copley -Pelharn Letters 1771 

regard to the Lawsuit [and] the Repairs at Mount Pleasant 
shall be observed. I have talked with Capt Joy about the 
Peazas. he says that he could not possably do them a farthing 
under 63 £ and at that is affraid he shall not be able to make 
days Wages. I am drawing an Elivation of the House with the 
Peazzas. it will (if Possable) have the advantage of the first 
most Beautifull Plan. The Peazzas extend the Front and by 
their being open makes it appear higher. Comformable to 
agreement, Capt. Joy put up a small plain square look out, but 
it has given such generall Disgust that I was obliged to have it 
taken down, it is the generall Opinion that there ought to be 
something taisty atop of the House, or nothing at all. For the 
present I have directed the Roof to be finished with a scuttle. 
Severall People have applyed to me to know what you pro- 
pose to do with the upper House, because they would be glad to 
hire it. Capt. Joy is again Sick, he has been very ill abed these 
two days, his head is very much swelled and he is not able to 
speak, occasioned by his catching Cold, after a great Quan- 
tity of Physick he had taken. 

The Frame and Glass, I should have sent had I not forgot it 
till after Smith Sailed. At Bottom is the Receipt for Varnish. 
I have rece[i]ved Money from Messers. Sargent, Fenno, 
Barrell, Goldthwait, Pepperell, Hancock and Mrs. Watts. 
I have about 9o£ O. T. by me. Mr Jno. Green owes, as also 
Mr. Flucker, Mr. Loring and Mrs. Martin. These I wait your 
directions before I apply for the Money. Mr Jno. Clarke told 
me he should write by this Opertunity. I have not seen Betzey 
lately. She was well a Few days ago. I intend to see her soon. 
Painting I am full off. Mr. Barrell going for Philedelphia 
afords me this Opertunity of writeing. By the way, I hope you 
and my sister have had a Pleasant Ride, you have become great 

177 1 Copley -Pelham Letters 163 

Travellers. I wish I could see the Original or a Copy of Mr. 

West's Letter to you. I have seen his to Mr. Hutchinson. I saw 

Mr. William to day. he told me that the two great American 

Artists Mr. Copley and Mr. West almost entirely engaged the 

attention of the Coniseurs in Britain. I am Obliged to conclude 

in great Hast with my most affectionate Love and Regards to 

my dear Sister and your Self. Your most Loving Brother and 

Humble Sert. 

Henry Pelham. 

P. S. every body desire their Compliments to Mr. and 
Mrs. Copley. 

Copley to Henry Pelham 

New York, the 29 of Sepr., 1771. 
Dear Brother, 

We have just arrived at this place after a very pleasant Jour- 
ney. Philadelphia, We thought a place of too much importance 
not to Visit when we were so near it, and perhaps might never 
be able to see it so conveniently if we missed this oppertunity. 
we sett out last Thursday week, the Weather very fine, and 
reach'd the City on Saturday Eveng. I have seen several fine 
Pictures with which you would have been Charmed had you 
been with us. at Mr. Allen's x (to Whom General Gage was so 
obligeing as to give me a letter) We saw a fine Coppy of the 
Titiano Venus, and Holy Family at whole Length as large as 
life from Coregio, and four other small half Lengths of Single 
figures as large as life, one a St Cecelia, an Herodias with John 
Baptists head, Venus lamenting over the Body of Adonus and 
I think a Niobe, 2 I cannot be certain. The Venus and Holy 

1 William Allen (i7io?-i78o), chief justice of Pennsylvania. 

2 This was first written Nioby. 

164 Copley -Pelham Letters 177 1 

Family I will give some account of, the others I will leave till 
I can give it you by word of mouth. The Venus is fine in Colour- 
ing, I think beyand any Picture I have seen, and the Joints of 
the Knees, Elbows, etc. very Read, and no Gray tints any- 
where to be found, the hair remarkably Yellow and I think 
the face much inferior to any other part of the figure in releiff 
and Colouring, there is no minuteness in the finishing; every- 
thing is bold and easey; but I must observe had I Performed 
that Picture I should have been happrehensive the figures in 
the Background were too Strong. The Holy Family is not Equil 
to the Venus in Colouring; it suffers much by the Comparison, 
tho I do not think it indiferent in that part neither, but might 
be pronounced fine in Colouring was not the Venus compaired 
with it. But what delights us in this picture is that universal 
finishing and harmoniseing of all parts of it. I have made a 
slight sketch of it which will give you a better Idea of the Dis- 
position when you see it than any thing I can say. in the Back 
and fore Ground every leaf and shrub is finish'd with the utmost 
exactness. The flesh is very Plump, soft and animated, and is 
possesed of a pleasing richness beyand what I have seen, in 
short there is such a flowery luxsuriance in that Picture as I 
have seen in no other. On our return we saw several Pictures 
at Brunswick. I have no doubt they are by Vandyck. the Date 
is 1628 on one of them, they were painted in Holland, it is 
without doubt, I think, Vandyck did them before he came to 
England. I should be glad you would see when he came to 
England, and let me know in your Answer to this, in those 
Portraits there is a freshness equeil to any thing you can con- 
ceive, they are x /2 lengths and on Board, with all the minuteness 
of finishing of the orniments belonging to the Dress which is the 
fashon of the Times, the painting has not suffered any thing 

177 1 Copley } - Pel bam Letters 165 

from the time they have been painted, they are now as perfect 
and fresh as ever as if painted but yesterday. I have just been 
informed Smith sails at 8 o Clock tomorrow and it is now ten 
o Clock, so this letter designed to go by the Post shall take 
passage by him ; but I promised to write to Mr. Green by Smith, 
but what can I do? I came to Town at 2 o Clock this Day, 
and Now hear he sails tomorrow Mora'g. do apologise to 
Mr. Green in the most Effectual Manner by telling him the 
truth, give Mrs. Copley's and my Love to Mrs. and Mr. Green. 

Sukey and myself are in good health and desire our Effection- 
ate Duty to our Dear Mother, to yourself; our Love and de- 
sire to be remembered to all our friends. 

please to inform Mr. Clark we are well, and give our Duty to 
him, etc., etc., etc. let Mrs. Startin know we left her better 
part safe and well in Philadelphia on Thursday Morng. Sukey 
has not time to write. Adieu and beleive me Your Affectionate 

John Singleton Copley. 

Copley to Henry Pelham 

New York, 12 of Octr., 1771. 
Dear Brother, 

Capt Montresor 1 going this Day for Boston give me an opper- 
tunity of informing you we are in good health, and desire our 
most Effectionate Duty to our Mamma and Love to your self. 
I received your favour by Mr. Barrell, by which I see who you 
have received money from, and think the amount to be about 
14 hundred pounds, which I should have thought sufficient for 
Capt. Joy till I return, as the work I suppose will not be quite 
1 John Montresor (173 6-1 799). 

1 66 Copley -Pelham Letters 177 1 

compleat. but be that as it may, I would have you get the 
money from Green if possable. I wrote you so some time ago 
and wonder you should weit my orders for that. I would have 
you be as urgent as possable for it, for I don't think it so safe 
as I could wish, you know there is an note of hand in the middle 
Draw of my Desk for it. Get Mrs. Martin's, [and] Mr. Loring's. 
I should not chuse you should ask Mr. Fluker. I hope you have 
got Mrs. Dawson's. Likewise some from Hudson, tho you have 
not menshoned it. I hope you will be able to make out till I 
return. I should have been Glad you had informed me how 
much you have paid Mr. Joy. the Bearer Capt. Montresor is 
a Gentlemen we have received great Civility from, his Lady is 
Daughter to Doer. Auckmuty 1 to whom I had a letter from 
Mr. Walter, 2 to whom make my Respectfull Compts. when 
you have oppertunity, and to all our other friends, perticu- 
larly Mr. and Mrs. Green, and beleive me your Effectionate 

J. S. Copley. 

I have parted withthe two small frames, but cannot yet 
give orders for more, because I would have none come but 
what are engaged, you must let me know the price of the small 
ones; I know that of the Large ones, let me know what you 
paid Welch for Carving and Whiting for Gilding and Give my 
compts. to Capt Joy. tell him I am very sorry for his re- 
peated indisposition. I am in extreem hurry adiew. 

1 Rev. Samuel Auchmuty (1725-1777), assistant minister of Trinity Church, 
New York. 

1 Rev. William Walter (1739-1800), rector of Trinity and Christ Churches 
in Boston. 

177 1 Copley -Pelham Letters 167 

Henry Pelham to James Putnam 

Boston, October 2, 177 1. 

The Superior Court stands adjourned to the 3d Tuesday of 
November at which time Mr. Copley hopes his Cause may be 
bro't to a Tryall. He desired me to enquire from you the time 
that will be most agreable for you to come to Boston, as I am 
directed to get that time affixed that will be most convenient] 
for you. My Brother desired me also to inform you that Mr. 
Otis's Health is such that he can have no hopes of his Assistance 
he has entirely given up all thoughts and expectations of obtain- 
ing it, and that Mr. Payne is the Gentleman that is to speak 
with you in the Cause. You will be pleased to give me as early 
notice as possable of the time you propose to come to Boston. 

If there is any Papers, etc. that you may want from this 
place, I beg you would inform me by a line per Post and they 
shall be immediatly forwarded. 

I am with Respect Sir your most obedient and Humble Servt. 

Henry Pelham. 

Henry Pelham to Miss Barrett 


Mr. Pelham presents his respectfull Compliments to Miss 
Barrett, acknowledges the receipt of 3 Guineas for her portrait, 
begs leave to return his thanks for the very polite Manner in 
which she sent them and for the fine present with which they 
were accompanyed, a present rendered more pleasing and to 
him most truly valuable by its being the ingenious Work of 
so fair an Artist. 

1 68 Copley -Pelham Letters 1771 

Mr. Pelham thinks the best way of apollogizeing for remiss- 
ness in so long neglecting to return his thanks is by telling what 
is real Truth, that he was ashamed to see Miss Barrett before 
he had finished the enclosed which he has had so long in hand 
being prevented by buisn[e]ss and not knowing what she would 
like. Such as it is Mr. P. now begs Miss B. acceptance of it at 
the same time wishing it was better. 

/. S. Copley and Susanna Copley to Henry Pelham 

New York, 17th Octr., 1771. 
Dear Brother, 

When I write you soon after my letter by Capt. Montresor 
you have neither reason to complain of my too long silence nor 
of remisness if I should not fill my paper, this Eveng. I have 
devoted to my Drawing, but a small request that you must 
grant calls me off a few minutes, it is this : if Smith sails by the 
first of Novr. Sukey would be glad to have the suit of Black 
that you[r] Mamma gave her sent by him. it is in the bottum 
of the Trunk that Contains her Linnen. She fears giving our 
Mamma too much trouble and think you may do it without 
troubleing her. as we are much in company we think necessary 
Sukey should have it, as her other Cloaths are mosly improper 
for her to wear, as she must put on some little mourn 'g for her 
Sister. 1 but if Smith is gone when this come[s] to dont attemp[t] 
to send it by any other way, nor if he dont sail till the latter 
end of the first Week in Novr: for we propose Leaveing this 
place by the last of that month or beg[in]ing of Deer, so that 
She will do without it as well as she can. 2 

Mr Copley is Call'd of Desirs me to inform you that we are 

1 Mrs. Barrett. 

2 The remainder of the letter is in Mrs. Copley's handwriting. 


fir-'ui^i 1«Sa-? J yfc-1 y t c/acy ZS> /Uwe ^C(1^kyU,w/ 

*V*-# fvL.. ^^ e^-U, ^y^-SVj^Z^ -tc.X&r, J?'<»,^ir b<g r .44&. 

->v«-9 ^ <v£^~ 


177 1 Copley -Pelham Letters 169 

well. I have nothing new to add but that I hope the time draws 
near when we shall have the Happyness of meating our Friends 
again, in the mean time please to present our Duty to our 
Mama, Compliments to Miss Maclavin, 1 and except of the 
AfTecti[o]nate Love of your Brother and Sister, 

Susanna Copley. 

Henry Pelham to Copley 

Boston, Octor. 22, 1771. 
My dear Brother, 

I shall not take up your time nor my Paper in describing the 
Pleasure we take in having a line from you and in hearing that 
you and my dear Sister are well after an agreable tour to Phile- 
delphia. As Mr. Flagg setts out tomorrow morning for your 
City and as my time is short I shall without further Circumlo- 
cution proceed to inform you that your severell Favours of 
Septmr. 20th and 29th and Octor. 12 came safe to hand. 
Captn. Smith did not arrive here 'till last Thursday so that 
your Letter by him was of an old Date. 

I shall answer them in their Order. I have wrote to Coll. 
Putnam and Mr Payne. Mr. Payne informs me he shall pay 
the utmost attention to your Cause, your Other Directions 
respecting it I shall follow. I have endeavoured since you left 
Boston to be as perticuler as possable in following your Direc- 
tions; but with regard to the Peazas, I have been obliged to 
depart a little from your Inclination. Captn. Joy informs me 
and I believe you will see it yourself, that if it is let alone till the 
next Season it will cost at least io£ Lawfull if not io£ sterg. 
more, and it will be impossable to do the Work so well. If they 
are not done now the House must be closed Boarded and Clap- 

1 Miss Peggy Mcllvaine. 

170 Copley -Pelham Letters 177 1 

boarded down to the Foundation and Water Tables put round. 
The lower Windows must be capped and Cornished. The doors 
either not cut out, in which Case it will make a great deal of 
Work, or if they are cut out the[y] must be closed at top and 
Caped, all which will be thrown away, he says it will not be 
possable to unite them so well to the House. He further says 
that he is quite disinterested in it, that he shall be but just able 
to make days Wages by them, and had much reather (for his 
own sake) that they had been left out entirely. As the case was 
so situated, as the time was short, and as by your several Let- 
ters I found it was your intention that they should be done 
some time or other, it left no doubt in my Mind but that you 
would think it was best to have them done. I have accordingly 
after the maturest Deliberation and advice given Orders for 
their being done, hopeing they would meet with your approba- 
tion. The Passage to your great Room is very convenient and 
worthy of the place it leads to. I don't think the Chinese you 
sent by Smith is so hansome as Mr. Vassell's. 

In yours of the 29th I have an Account of your Journey 
to Philedelphia and a discription of some capitall Pictures. I 
should be exceeding happy in having an Opertunity of con- 
templateing good Coppys after some of the best Artists that 
have enriched Europe. I have not been able to ascertain at 
what time Vandyck came to England. Fresnoy * and Depile 2 are 
entirely silent. Walpole amidst all his exactness has neglected 
to give us that date. I think it probable that the Pictures at 
Brunswick dated 1628, must have been done before Vandyck 

1 Du Fresnoy, De Arte Graphica. It was translated into French with additions 
by De Piles (1661). There are English translations by Dryden (1695), Wills 
(1754), and Mason (1783), the last with annotations by Sir Joshua Reynolds, 
and afterwards included in Reynolds's Works. ' 

2 Roger de Piles, The Art of Painting. 

177 1 Copley -Pelham Letters 171 

came to England, for Walpole says "Hearing of the Favour 
that King Charles shewed to the arts, Vandyck came to Eng- 
land, hoping to be introduced to the King," that "he was not," 
that "he went away Chagrined, but his Majesty hearing what 
a Treasure had been within his Reach, ordered Sir Kenelm 
Digby to invite him over he came and was lodged among the 
King's Artists at Black Friers. Thither the King went often by 
Water and viewed his Performances with singuler delight, often 
sitting to him himself, and bespeaking Pictures of the Queen, his 
Children and his Courtiers, and Confered the Honour of Knight- 
hood on him at St. James's July 5, 1632 " 1 4 Years after the 
date of the Brunswick Picture. I think we may reasonably 
conclude that those Pictures were done before his arrival at the 
British Court. It seems very unlikely that so distinguished a 
Patron of the Arts and so eminent an encourager of Artists as 
Charles, should suffer Vandyck to remain in his Service four 
Years without Confering that Mark of his Royal Favour. 
Your's by Captn Montresor is upon moneyd Matters, by the 
next opertunity I shall send you a state of your Acct. I should 
have sent it now but have not time. I must take this Opertun- 
ity to make great complaints of Mrs. Dawson, after several 
delays she has given me to understand that no rent shall be 
paid 'till you come home, and that you cant be so unreasonable 
as to expect any till the Place is put into good repair. Mr. 
Green has got your Letter, he say[s] three quarters of it consists 
of Apologies, that no printer would undertake to print your 
Life and Conversation but that in some leasure Hour he will 
write it. He further desires his and his Ladys Love to you and 
my Sister. My Mamma is rather unwell has a bad Cold she 
desires her kindest Love and Blessing to you and my Sister and 

1 Walpole, Anecdotes of Painting in England (1762), 11. 90. 

172 Copley -Pelham Letters 1771 

longs to see you. My Brother and Sister Pelham were in Town 
a few days ago, present their Love and Compliments. I have 
heard little Betzey was well a few days ago. she is a fine Girl and 
is almost able to walk alone. Your things are arrived from Lon- 
don in 13 Weeks from the departure of the Orders. The Glass 
is very good but 3 Squares out of 184 Broak, and those will cut 
10-8. The White Lead I have not opened. The Box contain'g 
Putty, Brushes, Chalks, etc., has gone down (by the Captns. 
Mistake) to Salem from whence I expect it every Moment. 
The Cloths are good. Inclosed is Copy of the Invoice and 
Letter. Would it not be best to send for some more Paint as 
200 lb will not be neer enough to finish both Houses. The 
Potatoes are dug and a prodegiou[s] Crop. Woodward and I 
have divided 80 Bushalls between us, that is 40 a peice. I 
imagine that the Field produced about a Hundred Bushall and 
most excellent ones they are. 

We had like to have had the Town blown about our Ears a 
few nights ago. A quantity of Oacum in the store Room of the 
Admiral's Ship adjoining the Powder Room in which was 500 
Barrells of Powder, by some Accident took fire and was burnt. 
The new powder house at the back of the Hill goes on briskly. 
I believe the Town will be perfectly Secure from it in that Situ- 
ation, it will be finished in eight Weeks. 

The Question is, as Mr. Fayerweather says, shall you be at 
Home this Fall or shall you not? I am dear Sir with my Love 
and Compliments to yourself and my Sister, Your Affectionate 
Brother and Humbl. Sert. 

Henry Pelham. 

P S. I have just found myself in a great Dillemma. I applyed 
to several Painters for boyled oyl to paint the outside of the 

v?7* Copley -Pelham Letters 173 

Houses, but to my surprise found that there is none to be had. 
Mr Gore has but about 30 Gallons, and wont spare a drop of 
that without I take a proportionable Quantity of Colour. As 
the Stages are up I have been obliged to bye a hundred lb. of 
White lead with a proportional quantity of Oil, to carry on the 
painting. If there is any Linseed Oyl to be had at New York, 
you had better send a Barrell as soon as possable. Or I think 
the better way would be to send and bye it at Philedelphia. 
As this is the time of year that Vessels, come from Philedelphia 
to Boston, it may be easily done. NB. There will be no Oyle 
to be had here till the Spring. Yours as above. 

H. P. 

Copley to Henry Pelham 

New York, 6th of Novr, 1771. 
Dear Brother, 

I have the pleasure to inform you your favour by Mr. Flagg 
came to hand, after a long silence of four months I had like 
to have said, but upon recollection find it to be four weeks. I 
am almost led to beleive you of a Revengefull Temper and that 
you mean to retaliate with interest, or do you Imagin it gives 
us no pleasure to hear from you ? if you think so I assure you 
are much mistaken, for be assured it is a pleasure greater than 
I can express to receive a Letter from you, and as great a 
disappointment not to receive one when the post comes in. 
but I must leave this Subject or I shall fill my Paper, and I have 
a thousand things to say. it gives me much uneasiness to hear 
our Dear Mama is unwell, but I hope she is better by this time, 
pray present our most EfTectionate Duty to her. We Long 
much to see you all. I work with extreem application to hasten 
that happy time which will be by Christmas at farthest, for I 

174 Copley -Pelham Letters 177 1 

now see all my work before me. But it takes up much time to 
finish all the parts of a Picture when it is to be well finishd, and 
the Gentry of this place distinguish very well, so I must slight 
nothing. I beleive you will think I shall do very well to finish 
the amount of thirty Busts in 20 Weeks, besides going to Phila- 
delphia which took up 2 Weeks of the 20; and this I shall do at 
least by the time I menshon, and you may be assured it is my 
determination to be at home at the time I menshoned tho much 
impertuned to stay. I have been obliged to refuse a great deal 
of Business here and in Philadelphia, I have done some of my 
best portraits here, perticularly Mrs. Gage's, which is gone to 
the Exibition. 1 it is I think beyand Compare the best Lady's 
portrait I ever Drew; but Mr. Pratt 2 says of it, It will be flesh 
and Blood these 200 years to come, that every Part and line in 
it is Butifull, that I must get my Ideas from Heaven, that he 
cannot Paint etc, etc. I am fatigued; must therefore draw to a 
close but say somthing first about my Lawsuit, the time Draws 
near when I hope there will be no impediment to its coming to 
Tryall. I am sorry you could find nothing on the Chambridge 
Records, but hope you have taken some thought about that, 
that is, if possable, by some means to assertain the fact, for it 
may be of great importance, as to Mr. Quincey I think it is 
rather Luckey my absence furnish's so good reason for the 
Lawyers settleing among themselves who shall speak, for you 
can with no propriety set any one aside to make room for a 
younger without my express orders, and I never gave you any. 
therefore they must do what is custommary, and if Mr. Q is 
so sett as to leave the Cause, you nor I can help it, tho in my 

1 Exhibited in 1772, and described in the catalogue as "a lady, half 

2 Matthew Pratt (i734-i8o5),whohad studied under Benjamin West. Dunlap, 
History of the Arts of Design, 1. 98. 

177 1 Copley -Pelham Letters 175 

absence it will be treating me ill in a pecular manner, do you 
attend the Tiyall and mark every point, observe every Surcum- 
stance, and sit at the Lawyer's elbow to be ready to remind him 
if he should be at a loss. 

The Peazas I would not have had done only on this acct, 
least they should not be done right. But if you are at a loss 
about any thing Capt. Montresor can and will sett you right 
with pleasure, one thing observe, that you make the boards of 
the floor run across, that is the end of the boards to but against 
the side of the house and let them have a decent of 4 Inches in 
10 foot which is the breadth in the Clear of the Peaza. but 
there is one thing I should chuse different from what Capt. 
Montresor would make, he would have the boards of the floor 
at a small distance from each other, to let any warter run 
through; but I would have them quite Close and as neat as pos- 
sable. I have been two much ingaged to send the Chinese but will 
as soon as possable. I am, Dear Brother, Yours Effectionatly, 

J. S. Copley. 

Copley to Henry Pelham 

Novr. 24, 1 77 1. New York. 
Dear Brother, 

I duly reed, yours of the 17 instan[t] am sorry to find you 
have been so unwell, hope ere this time you have perfectly 
recover'd your health; also our Mama, whom we hope ere long 
to see in her usual health, pray give our Effectionate Duty to 
her as also Love and comp'ts to all our other friends and 
acquaintances, etc. We have just come from Mr. Verplank's 
where we have spent the Even'g; therefore you will I hope 
excuse my Brevity, you say of my Action it is to come on the 
10 Day of Deer.; but why was it not try'd at the Novr. Adjourn- 

176 Copley -Pelham Letters 177 1 

ment? And suppose Coll Putnam should not be well anough, 
must I submit it to Mr. Pain and Josiah Quincey ? I should be 
loath to, if it be possable to help it. if the Coart met this 
month I shall think hard of Coll Putnam for puting it off. I 
design to write to him by Wednesday Post, but dont let that 
prevent your writing just as if I did not. I have now been weit- 
ing upwards of 12 Months for his assistance and shall think 
myself not well used if I am finially deserted by him; but I will 
hope better things and weither to advise for tryall or not, if he 
cannot attend, I am totally at a loss, do give my comp'ts to Mr. 
Goldthwait and beg him to advise you herein, tell him all 
Surcumstances, also advise with him about the fees to Mr. 
Pain and the Quinceys. I think Mr. Paines need not be so 
much as the Coil's, and S. Quincey wont expect more than an 
y 2 Johanees. Joh Quincey I suppose will not take any if he dont 
speak; and if Coll. P[aine] dont attend and you shall with 
advise of Mr. Goldthwait and my other friends bring it on, he 
was to have five Guineas as proposed by himself. But you must 
not Look on yourself Tied up by me in any of those matters. I 
am tired of delays, but I would do nothing rash, you will know 
more when you write to Coll. Putnam about the prospect there 
is of his attendance, do be attentive and let Mr. Goldthwait 
know I have rested the determination on him, and beg he will 
advise you in it. menshon the Danger of Losing Judge Cuishon 
and Linds, x who are boath old. perhaps my Antagonists wish for 
the Delay in hope to avail themselves of that advantage. You 
forgot the frame and Glass and to menshon Betsey. I am, Dear 
Sir, Your most Effectionate Brother, 

John Singleton Copley. 

1 John Cushing and Benjamin Lynde, judges of the Superior Court of Judica- 

— — — ""^ 

1 77 1 Copley -Pelham Letters 177 

P S : Sukey and myself are perfectly well, you have never 
menshoned in all your Letters Antonio. I am rather inclined 
to think it better not to have the Tryal without Coll. Putnam; 
although I know the consiquence will be lengthening out an- 
other year, yet I should think this the safest. Brother Startin 
promis'd me, if you stood in need of some Cash, 20 or 30 
Guineas, to supply you. We had some hopes of living this 
Winter in the upper house ourselves, but you may let Stutson 
live there if you please. 

Henry Pelham to Copley 

Boston, Novemr. 28, 1771. 
Dear Brother, 

. . . We have been most remarkably Lucky in Weather for 
carrying on the Works at Mount Pleasant. It has been and still 
continues very moderate Weather. The lower House was 
finished plastering yesterday. The upper House will be finished 
in a few days. 

In your great Room, instead of the common manner of fin- 
ishing with Arches at the side of the Chimnie I have substi- 
tuted a Couple of Niches, which have a clever effect and are 
quite uncommon. They are so large as to receive a Figure 4 
feet high. Politicks are reviving in full splendor. The Printer 1 
of the Spy has fallen under the censure of the Governor and 
councill, who seem to be endeavouring to revive the justly 
exploded method of Tryal upon Information, and have arbi- 
trarily ordered a Gentleman to appear at his Perrill before them 

1 Isaiah Thomas. In the issue of the Massachusetts Spy of November 14 he 
printed a piece signed "Mucius Scaevola" reflecting upon a clause in a late proc- 
lamation of the governor. Hutchinson ordered the King's Attorney to begin a 

178 Copley -Pelham Letters 1771 

to answer upon Interegatories. They have unfortunatly for 
themselves and the Publick ingaged Deeply in Measures that 
must end either in their own dishonor or be the source of 
the utmost Confusion to the Province. It becomes peculiarly 
necessary for the People to preserve inviolate what Laws we 
have already, as it is not likely we shall have any new ones, 
unless the House at the ensueing Sessions should, as a Writer 
in the Spy says, meanly give up every remaining Privilidge. 
Our commander in Chief has received instructions from his 
Lordship of Hillsboro' to consent to no Tax act or other Law, 
unless the Commissioners and all other Crown Officers are 
exempted from paying Rates. 

We have had several sudden Deaths this Morng Mr. Sheaff l 
the D. Collector died of a fit of the Palsey. He was taken ill 
the last Eveng. I have not time to add further than that with 
my best Love and Respects to yourself and my Sister I remain 
Your most affectionat[e] Brother and Humble Sert. 

Henry Pelham. 

P. S. Every Body present their Compliments to you and 
beg that you would come home as they want to have their 
Pictures done. Lord William Campbell, Govornor of Nova- 
Scotia, was at your Room a few days ago. he says, he wonders, 
that you bury yourself in this Country and that he thinks you 
are the greatest Geniou[s] in the World. 

Little Cousin Betzey was well and hearty a few days ago. 
I must now go and write a long story about Thomas Banister 
and his three Sons, Thomas, Samuel and John and their heirs 
forever. So I wish you a good Night. 

1 William Sheaffe. 

177 1 Copley -Pelham Letters 179 

Copley to Henry Pelham 

New York, the 15 Deer., 177 1. 
Dear Brother, 

I take this oppertunity of informing you, I have sent by 
Capt. Smith (who sails this Day) 51 Trees of the Best fruit 
this Country affoards, also some wild Laurell which I think a 
very butifull Flowering Shrub, the Laurell is in earth in a 
Barrell. also 3 Barrels of Newtown Pippens, and as many for 
Mr. Clarke which I beg you to inform him of, as I dont write 
to him by this oppertunity. and one trunk Directed to Mr 
Jonathan Clarke. Likewise the Large Box with the large 
Frames which I have not been able to Dispose of. your favour 
per Mr Glover came to hand, we are happy to hear you are all 
well, and that at last I can inform you this Week finishes all 
my Business, no less than 37 Busts; so the weather permiting 
by Chrismass we hope to be on the road; but you must not 
expect our journey will be less than a fortnight at this season, 
as we propose to take so much care of ourselves, and which 
we may very well do, as the Country is surprisingly settled 
between Boston and York, you scarcely lose sight of an house, 
you may omit writing any more as we cannot expect to meet 
another Letter here wrote after this reaches you. 
<., Give our Effectionate Duty to our Hond Mama and except 
our sincere Love yourself. I am your most Effectionate 

John Singleton Copley. 

PS. please to Give our Duty to Mr. Clarke, Love, etc. to 
our Brothers and Sisters, etc., etc., etc. 

180 Copley -Pelham Letters 1772 

John Hancock to Copley 

Mr Hancock 1 presents his Complimts. to Mr. Copley, has 
just rec'd his Message, is extremely sorry it so happens, but the 
Lady to whom he Refers has been some days Confin'd, that 
she is not in a Situation to wait on him to morrow but the 
moment her health will admit, Mr. Hancock will with pleas- 
ure inform Mr. Copley. Mr. Hancock hopes Mrs. Coply and 
Connections are well. 

9 Jan'y- I77 2 - 

[ ] to [Montresor ?] 

[January, 1772.] 2 
My ever Dearest Cousin, 

It has been a matter of great concern to me that I coul'd not 
send you the things I now do, by the Ships that went from hence 
the last Autumn; I did not receive your Letter dated 17 Augt. 
untill the 6th Novr. following. Captn. Stephens told me he had 
met with severe Gales, which had oblig'd him to put back to 
New York; at the time of his Arrival here all the Ships for 
America were gone. I must also appoligize for not having 
wrote by the Packet, which I shou'd certainly have done had I 
not been severely afflicted with the Rheumatism in my stomach 
and Bowels, under which disorders I still Labour tho not in so 
great a Degree and I have hopes of getting still better. I pur- 
chac'd a Lottery Tickett as you directed the No. 17 m 697, 
which I had secur'd as your property, by an Endorsment 
declaring it to be yours, and witness'd by two of your hearty 
well wishers, Henry Austen Esq., and Mr. Rd. Jones both of 

1 The name has been erased but the H and k are still legible. 

2 So endorsed by Henry Pelham. 

i77 2 Copley -Pelham Letters 181 

the Searchers Office; it had not the Sucess I ardently wish'd, 
yet you have your Money again, after remaining in the Wheel 
of Fortune untill the last Day of finishing, it was drawn a prise 
of 2o£, which I have sold for £17: 16. Goverment deducts £10 
per Cent on all prises, so that you are only a gainer of £4.6 by 
your chance, you will see by the inclos'd account and by the 
Bills and receipts which are pack'd up by my good Girl in one 
of the Boxes, that we have been obligd in several articles to ex- 
ceed the price Limited, but we were under a necessity of doing so, 
or not getting the things in 'which we have so exceeded agree- 
able to the opinion of my wife, whose judgment on these occa- 
sions I never contest; she writes to your beloved, and I hope 
will give a good account of her self, if one can judge, by the 
alacrity with which she sets about it, and the pleasure which 
seems to animate her she will succeed. I am under some 
apprehension in respect to the Liverys, the Hat and Cap, as 
you did not give any demensions for them, I have them [made] 
rather of the largest size, as it is more easy to take in, than let 
Out, in other respects I hope they will be as you desire; I do not 
send you a Brawn as I imagine it wou'd not be in proper 
season; but if you please I will by the next Autumnal Ships 
send one which will be in Time for Christmas ; I have several 
acquaintance in Oxfordshe which County is held famous for 
that meat, from thence I propose to send it. The picture 
frames are not of Carlo Marratti kind, they are at present not 
the Taste, the person I employ'd agreed to make them at the 
price propos'd, but with some hesitation. I insisted they shou'd 
be done very neatly and well Gilt or desir'd him not to under- 
take them, as I wou'd rather pay something more then have 
them clumsely executed, he promis'd they shou'd be well done. 
I hope they will prove so. Let me congratulate my Dear Friend 

1 82 Copley -Pelham Letters 1772 

on having employ'd so ingenious an Artist as Mr. Copley, our 
people here are enraptur'd with him, he is compard to Vandyke, 
Reubens and all the great painters of Old. I saw one of his por- 
traits at Mr. Wests, it was of a Woman x and a very ordinary 
one, and yet so finely painted that it appeard alive. West was 
lavish in its praises, pointed out its beauties, the natural fall 
of the arm and hand, the delicate manner in which the light 
was carried thro the whole, and many other things which I 
forget; in short he said Mr. Copley wou'd make no small figure 
in the World of Painters, and told me that your portrait ,was 
admirably well executed, and I wish you joy of it. I receiv'd 
some time ago a Letter from Coll. Montresor, in which he tells 
me he laments the expence he has been at, for his Lands in 
America, that they will never be of any advantage to him 
(unhappily what he only considers) and desires me to try if I 
cannot let them for him to some Merchant adventurer, on 
Lease of 99 Years at 6d per Acre, I have been so 111 that I 
could not answer his Letter, neither did I intend, farther than 
to amuse him, untill I had consulted you. I do not apprehend 
any Person will give 6d per Acre for Lands in America that 
must be settled and Cultivated at great expence; but I am 
afraid that the same consideration which induces him to wish 
to Let these Lands will also prompt him to sell them, if he can 
get £100 or so by them; in which case they wou'd be lost to you 
and your family to whom hereafter they may be of the greatest 
advantage; therefore if what I conjecture shou'd take place 
what Method cou'd be taken to put a stop to it? and if they were 
to be sold, wou'd it be not proper for you to be the purchaser 
rather than a Stranger? or supposing you wrote to him, telling 
him there was a better chance of Letting them in New York 

1 Mrs. Devereux? 

1772 Copley -Pelham Letters 183 

then in England; by which means you might gain time to 
deliberate what resolution to take, any instructions you can 
give me relative to it I will endeavour to execute, for I heartily 
wish he may not sell these Lands for the reasons I have men- 
tion'd. I have a Strang piece of News from Denmark. The 
Article says that the Young Queen has long been suspected to 
have carried on an Intrigue with her Physician (a Scotch Man 
who went from England when she married). 1 The Populace 
suddenly broke into the Palace imprison'd the Queen, and (it is 
said) put the Physician to Death; 2 Time only can clear up this 
Matter; perhaps it may be an Intrigue carried on by the Queen 
Dowager, 3 who jealous of the legal Power being soley in the 
hands of the Young Princess, might wish to [incomplete] 

Henry Pelham to [Miss Peggy Mcllvaine?] 

Boston, March ist. 1771 [1772]. 
Dear Miss Peggy, 

Your agreable Favour of Jany. 28 1772 came to hand but a 
few days ago. By it we have the Pleasure of finding that You, 
Your [Sister] Mrs. Billings and family were well. Had not Mr. 
Buttler told us that he saw you well at Falmouth, I should 
have been uneasy for you[r] safe Arrival at home. My Mamma 
who is tolerably well desires her kindest Love to [you] and Mrs. 
Billings and is exceeding glad to hear from you. We were really 
quite lonesome after you Left us, and much wanted your good 
Company. As my time is short I must briefly tell you some 
Peice of News. Brother and Sister Copley, have returned after 
seven Months abscence in Charming hea[l]th. they arived the 

1 Carolina Matilda, wife of Christian VII, and mistress of Struensee. 

2 He was beheaded April 28, 1772. 

3 Juliana Maria, widow of Frederick V. 

184 Copky-Pelbam Letters 1772 

Third of January. Left York Chrismass day, had a fine 
Season for Travelling and luckely finished their Journey, before 
the Weather sot in very severe, thejy] have spent a most 
agreable Summer abroad, and have been highly Carressed. 
they present their Comts. to all their Friends at Casco. While 
you was in Boston I think you was knowing to some of the 
difficulties] I underwent with regard to a Lawsuit my Brothejr] 
had with Banis[ter]. I have now the Pleasure of informing you 
that the Tryall Came on Last Thursday when the Case was 
determind fully in Mr Copleys favour. The Houses at Mount 
Pleasant are not yet finished. My Brother expects to get into 
one of them the Begining of next Month. Your Friend Mr. 
Hancock drew the day before yesterday 1500 Dollars the 
Highest Prise in the Present Lottery, he had seven tickets; 
one is not yet drawn, two were blancks, the other four p[r]ises. 
this is the second tim[e] he has drawn the Highest Prise. By 
the Papers I suppose you have seen that he has given the 
most generous sum of 750o£ l towards rebuilding Dr. Coopers 
Mee[t]ing house. To tell you that We have had a most severe, 
Cold, and disagreablfe] Winter will be telling you what I fancy 
you must know already. Little Cousin Betzsey is very well. 
Snap has behaved himself exceeding well. I have not time to 
ad further at present, than In my Mama's Name and for my- 
self to salute you wishing you Mrs. Billings and Family all 
Health and Happyness, and hoping to have the pleasure of 
your Company in the Spring, in the mean Time we beg that 
you would let us hear frequently from you. I am Dear Madam 
your sincer[e] Friend and Humble Sert. 

H. P. 

1 The records show that he gave £1000 and a bell. Lothrop, History of the 
Church in Brattle Street, 101. 

1772 Copley -Pelham Letters 185 

Mr. Copley and Lady present their best respect[s] to you 
your Sister and Family. 

We are exceeding sorry for Mr. Tyngs very considerable 

Isaac Smith, Jr. 1 to Copley 

[1772.] 2 

Mr Is. Smith jr. presents his compliments to Mr Copley, 
and begs leave to inform him, that he has met with an extract, 
whh. he made from Sir C's letter in Anderson'' s Hist, and Constit. 
of Masonry (as it was not his own), but that the principal cir- 
cumstance in it is what he has already mentioned to Mr. 
Copley, i.e. with regard to placing a pulpit, he observes, " a 
moderate voice may be heard 50 feet in front, 30 on each side, 
and 20 behind the preacher." Anderson's book may probably 
be found among some of the worshipful fraternity in town. 

James Bowdoin to Copley 


Mr. Bowdoin's respectful Compliments to Mr Copley. 

He thinks wth. Mr. Copley the Pilaster cannot be objected 
to on account of its projection and if the Comtee. shd. not think 
the Entablature too expensive, it probably may be the best 
Method to finish the Front: concerning wch. Mr. Copley is the 
best judge. 

Monday Eveng. 

1 Son of Isaac Smith, brother of Mrs. John Adams. 

1 Pelham had endorsed this note 48, the first one from James Bowdoin which 
follows, 49, and the extracts from the Records of the Church in Brattle Square, 50. 
The second note from James Bowdoin has no endorsement. 

1 86 Copley -Pelham Letters 1772 

{James Bozodoin] to Copley * 
Memo. [1772] 

Mr. Copley will please to delineate on the Plan eleven Pews 
on one Side of the Pulpit and ten on the other; all of an equal 
width viz : 3 feet and a little more than 3 Inches each. 

The Brattle Street Church" 1 

At a Meeting of the Committee for rebuilding the Meeting 
House in Brattle Street June nth, 1772. Present, the Honble 
James Bowdoin, Esq. Chairman, the Honble James Pitts, Esq., 
the Honble John Hancock, Esq. 

Mr. Smith Mr. Payne 

Mr. Newell Mr. Brattle 
Mr. Gray 

The Committee had laid before them the plan and Elevation of 
a Meeting House, with the Steple compleat, exhibited by Mr. 
Copeley, which was much admired for its Elegance and Grandure; 
but upon making an Estimate of the Expence that would attend 
the carrying the Design into Execution, it appeared that it would 
much exceed the Funds the Society depended on for the purpose, 
and for that Reason it was laid aside. Whereupon, a Motion being 
made and seconded, it was unanimously Voted, that Mr Storer be 
desired to wait upon Mr. Copeley and make him acquainted there- 
with; at the same Time to tender him the Thanks of the Commit- 
tee for the great Pains and Trouble he had been at, and so desire he 
would let the Committee know what would be an adequate Com- 
pensation for the same. 

At a Meeting of the Committee August 3rd, 1772, Present the 

1 This note is in the same handwriting as the preceding one. 

2 These notes are not printed in Records of the Church in Brattle Square. 

1772 Copley -Pe/bam Letters 187 

Honble James Bowdoin, Esq., Chairman the Honble James 
Pitts, Esq., the Honble John Hancock, Esq., 

Mr. Smith Mr. Gray 

Mr. Storer Mr. Payne 
Mr. Newell Mr. Brattle 

The Committe being informed that by Reason of Mr. Storer's 
Absence when they passed upon Mr. Copeley's Plan on the nth 
of June, he was not so fully apprised of their Determination, there- 
fore Voted unanimously, that Mr. Storer, together with Mr. Gray, 
be desired to wait upon Mr. Copley in Person, and present him 
with a Copy of their Vote passed the nth of June last, and to 
thank him in the name of the Committee. 

A true Copy, as of Record, Attest, 

Thomas Gray, Secretary to the Committee. 

William Carson to Copley 

Newport, 16th Augt., 1772. 
Mr. Copely,' 

Mrs. Gibbes and Mrs. Carson are arrived in that good health 
and beauty in which I wished to see them. The longer I look, 
the better I am pleased. I discover new beautys every day, and 
what was considered as blemishes, now, raises the most exalted 
Ideas of the perfection of the Painter "and painting to the life." 
Mrs. Carson's picture, which is by much the most natural and 
just painting I have seen of yours, only shews, what you are 
capable of executing. Your painting of the Squirrel was a 
modest production, and your picture of Mrs. Gray in Crayons 
could only testify, that in Boston there was one fine face, and 
you, a man of some Genius. Neither, could point out your 
Genius, qualitys or perfections as a Painter. You are unknown 

1 88 Copley -Pelham Letters 1772 

to the world and yourself. Rise but in your own opinion, and 
you will attempt something worthy of yourself, and then every 
judge will bestow on you that applause which you justly merit. 
A painter of faces gains no reputation among the multitude, but 
from the Characteristick strokes in the outlines. Life and expres- 
sion require judgement and knowledge. You really are and ought 
to consider yourself inf eriour to no Portrait Painter in England. 

I doubt much if there is your superiour in Europe. I use the 
term generally, as a Copier of nature, from any object, and I 
consider you can paint a Horse, Cow, Squirrel or fly as justly 
as a Man or woman from the life. Why do you not attempt it? 
Strange objects strongly strike the senses, and violent passions 
affect the mind. To gain reputation, you should paint some- 
thing new, to catch the sight and fix the attention. 

I must think, if you would paint such a piece, as a Child in 
the Cradle, sick. — the mother applying some remedy, her face 
and attitude expressing hope and fear, a Sympathizing nurse, 
officious in her duty, a Doctor standing by, of strong features, 
and wig in Character, recommending his Nostrums in a Vial, 
Bolus, or box, some female friend looking on with indifference. 
Contrasting the objects — Suppose your wife and child, the 
nurse old and black of complexion, the Physician long visaged, 
covered under a hideous wig, pale complexion and his baird 
two or three days old, and such a Young Lady looking on, eli- 
gantly dressed, as the youngest Miss Fitch; all, in a bed Cham- 
ber with such furniture as to show the mother and child of 
genteel rank. Such you could copy from the life and from such 
paintings, only, will your merit be known. Any piece of that 
kind, altho, it might cost you time and trouble will gain you 
more money and reputation than all you can get by face 
painting in Seven years. Send such a piece home before you go, 

1772 Copley -Pelham Letters 189 

it will be the best recommendation and you will be received 
there with Eclat. Be not afraid to make the experiment, for 
you will please and surprise the best judges, tho you may not 
immediately please yourself. You '11 readily forgive me for my 
presumption in giving advice, knowing, that I mean well, 
however unqualified. 

I wish to hear of your arrival in England; in the mean time 
would be glad to hear from you, and to render you every ser- 
vice in my power. 

I am, Sir, Your sincere friend and hum. Servt. 

Wm. Carson. 

Mrs. Margaret Mascarene to Henry Pelham 

Salem, Sept. 14th, 1772. 

My Sister told me some time since that she did not think you 
would be able to take a good likeness of my late Father, on so 
small a piece of Copper as I proposed to you. I write now to let 
you know that I had full as lives have it on a larger, the size 
enclosed I think a pretty one, I have one of this, that looks very 
well, and if a glass can be got for it I should prefer it to a smaller, 
but I submit to your Judgement in the Matter, a likeness is 
what I want, otherwise the picture will be of no value to me, 
save as a piece of paint. I was in hopes to have seen you before 
this, but it has not been in my power. I hope it will be finishd 
before Cold weather. My Complements to Mr. Copely. I 
am with regards your humble Servant, 

Margarit Mascarene. 1 

1 Margaret, daughter of Edward Holyoke, president of Harvard College, 
married John Mascarene (1722-1778), comptroller of the customs in 1760. He 
was son of Jean Paul Mascarene (1684-1760). 


190 Copley -Pelham Letters 1772 

Jonathan Clarke to Copley 

London, Deer. 20, 1772. 
Dear Brother, 

I reed, your obliging Letter of Nov. 8th, the subject of which 
is so important that you '11 excuse me if I put you to the charge 
of some shillgs for several answers ; there will be no Vessell sail 
from hence directly to Boston in less than two Months and 
having heard that the Qany.] 1 Pacqt. is detain'd by contrary 
winds, I took the chance of sending a Letter to Falmo. last 
Evening and there being one bound to So. Cara. I intend this 
per her, as its probable she may have a good passage at this 
time of year, but neither of those conveyances will be safe eno' 
for Mr. West to send an answer to your Lettr. to him. he will 
write you by the Jany. Pacquet, and if this should come to hand 
first let me acquaint you, thatMr. West approves and commends 
your resolution of coming to Europe and confirms the advice 
given you by Mr. Palmer as to going first to Italy in one of our 
Fish Vessells to Leghorn, he thinks that there will be nothing 
in England that will require you to take this in your way. you 
may depend upon the most friendly and disinterested advice 
as well as every assistance in his power that will conduce to 
make your travels beneficial and agreeable to you. for this end 
he will send you a Letter to a friend of his at Leghorn, who will 
give you Letters to the other places you pass thro', you will also 
receive from him a Lettr to a Gentleman at Rome who did him 
eminint services and who will be happy in doing the same for 
a friend of Mr. West's, he would advise you to tarry some 
months for a good conveyance to Leghorn rather than to take 
shipping for England, as it will save you a good deal of trouble 

1 Erased. 

177 2 Copley -Pelham Letters 191 

and some expence. Tho' I think this last article need not deter 
your comeing this way, if it is the only thing that will influence 
your bringing Sister with you. for besides your expences in 
London which will depend upon the time you tarry here, the 
charge of traveling from hence to Rome will be about 30 
Guineas, and when you have got there you'll find it a very 
cheap Country, you and your wife may live there genteely for 
about one hundred pounds per Ann. it cost Mr. West about 
that Sum and he had a companion much less agreable and he 
thinks as expensive as a wife, I mean sickness, altho' it is in 
general a healthy place, except in the fall of the year at which 
time you will go to visit other parts of Italy, where you '11 meet 
with entertainment and improvement, but Mr. West has an 
objection to your carrying Mrs. Copley to Italy with you, and 
that is the attention so good a wife will require from so good a 
Husband, and which it's probable will be so much as to retard 
you in the pursuit of the grand object, he says the eighteen 
Months or two years that he supposes you to be in Rome will 
be the most important period of your life, and will require a 
constant application, and perhaps your having a Lady with 
you will oblige you to cultivate such acquaintance in order 
to make it agreeable to her as will not be necessary on any other 
acct, or such as you would not if you were alone, for these 
reasons it seems to be his opinion that you had better go alone, 
perhaps Mr. West does not know what little trouble your wife 
will be. but however from him you will have a particular 
answer to your inquirys. When I first came to England I met 
with Mr. Hale 1 our former Collector, who I found was a friend 
of your's, and who spake highly of your Pictures and much 
encouraged your comeing to England, not doubting that you 

, * Roger Hale. 

192 Copley -Pelbam Letters 1772 

would meet with the greatest encouragement in this place 
where every thing gives way to the gratification of peoples 
fancy. When I came to London, I found Mr. West a great 
admirer of your Portraits, you seem to think by your Lettr to 
him that the one you last exhibited was not esteemed so good a 
one, but Mr. West thinks you was under a mistake, for Mrs. 
Gage's Picture was tho't a very fine one. only some of her 
friends who had never seen her tho't it was not like, because 
she had been represented as very handsome. Mr. West thinks 
you have a very good adviser in Mr. Palmer, as much so as if 
he was a great artist himself, he is. spoke of with the highest 
respect, as having employed his time and money very judi- 
ciously, and whose improvement has been great and made him 
very ornamental to his Country, all the objection we can have 
to our friends traveling is that after they have been some time 
abroard and much improved themselves, and been used to the 
society of Men of Literature and attached to the polite arts, 
upon their return they find our young Country don't furnish a 
great number of the same relish and therefore are obliged to 
seek them in older Countrys where it is reasonable to suppose 
they more abound, so that our Country is check'd in its im- 
provement, now I hope better things of you, than a disposition 
which is rather selfish. I hope Mr. Palmer will be so attached 
to his native Country as to settle there. Mr. West acquaints me 
that a Lettr. is about 16 days traveling from Rome, so that if you 
should leave Mrs. Copley at Boston she may hearfromyou as fre- 
quent as if you was in England, if there's no fault on your part. 
If my discription of Manchester, etc. give you any pleasure 
I am glad and I would willingly increase it by adding that of 
Londo[n], but its magnificence and grandeaur discourage all 
attempts of that sort. I lodge in St. Paul's Church yard where 

i77 2 Copley -Pelham Letters 193 

I have an opporty. to observe tho' not sufficiently to admire 
that grand and elegant Pile. 

I am glad to observe the progress you have made in finish- 
ing the Buildings, which you '11 wish you had not began before 
you had seen those in Europe as you have now a prospect of it : 
tho' perhaps it will make one more attachment to your native 

It will not be agreeable after having lived in Rome for about 
£100 to come into this Country to spend five, for Mr. West 
says it bears that 

proportion; but ^^^ ^^L* ° ^ */ 
you'll doubtless ^-' £*^*4&s •%^?% < s^ 
consider that the 

more you save 
there the more 
you '11 be enabled 
to spend here ; for here money will go and you Sons of Liberty 
will find some times without your consent. I am glad to find 
Sukey and your little family are well, give my love to them, 
and, Dr. Sir, pray accept of my hearty wishes for your health 
and happiness as well as success in all your enterprizes. 

Please to give my Duty to Papa. I was favor'dwith hisLettr: 
per Capt. Calef . I shall write him per Jany. Pacqt. my Duty 
and love to all and believe me to be, Your affectio. Brother, 

Jona. Clarke. 

P. S. 22d : the weather has been very fine from my first arrival 
in England till this day which is the darkest I ever saw. 

Endorsed : Charlestown, 4th March. Reed, under cover and 
forwarded by your most Humb Servt., 

Nathl. Russell. 

194 Copley -Pelharn Letters 1773 

Benjamin West to Copley 

Dear Sir, 

Some days past Your Brother Mr. Clark delivered into my 
hands your letter of the 8th of Novr., Which informed me of 
your intended Tour into Italy, and the desier you express'd of 
receiveing my Opinion on that Subject. I am still of the opinion 
the going to Italy must be of the greatest advantage to one 
advanced in the arts as you are, As by that you will find what 
you are already in possession of, and what you have to acquier. 

As your jurney to Italy is reather to finish a studye then to 
begin one ; Your stay in that country will not requier that length 
of time that would be necessery for an Artist less advanced in 
the Arts then you are; But I would have that time as uninter- 
rupted as possible. And for this reason I would have you make 
this Tour without Mrs. Copley. Not that she would be of any 
great aditional expance, But would reather bring you into a 
mode of liveing that would throw you out of your Studyes. So 
my Advice is, Mrs. Copley to remain in Boston till you have 
made this Tour, After which, if you fix your place of reasidanc 
in London, Mrs. Copley to come over. 

In regard to your studyes in Italy my advice is as follows: 
That you pursue the higher Exalances in the Art, and for the 
obtaining of which I recommend to your attention the works of 
the Antiant Statuary s, Raphael, Michal Angilo, Corragio, and 
Titian, as the Sorce from whance true tast in the arts have 
flow'd. There ware a number of great artist in Italy besides 
thoss, But as they somewhat formd their manner in paint from 
the above artists, they are but second place painters. The 
works of the Antient Statuarys are the great original whare in 
the various charectors of nature are finely represented, from 

1817 Copley -Pelham Letters 195 


u^M JtAsrt t£wj /fc/btrM&zsJ *m*>J£<£ r**- ^*' w 

196 Copley -Pelham Letters 1773 

the soundest principles of Philosophi. What they have done 
in Statuary, Raphael, seems to have acquiered in painting. In 
him you see the fine fancey in the arraignment of his figures 
into groops, and those groops into a whole with that propriety 
and fitness to his subject, Joynd to a trouth of charector and 
expression, that was never surpass'd before nor sence. Michal 
Angilo in the knowledge and graundor of the Human figure 
has surpass'd all artists, his figures have the apearance of a new 
creation, form'd by the strength of his great amagination. in 
him you find all that is great in design. Corragio, whose obscu- 
rety in life deprived him of those aids in the art which Michal 
Angilo and Raphael had, 1 and which prevented his acquiering 
those Exalances, which so charectoris'd them. But there are 
other beuties in the art he greatly surpass'd even those in and 
all others that came after him. Which was in the relieaf of his 
figures by the management of the clear obscure. The prodigi- 
ous management in foreshortning of figures seen in the air, The 
greacefull smiles and turnes of heads, The magickcal uniteing 
of his Tints, The incensable blending of lights into Shades, and 
the beautyfull affect over the whole arrising from thoss pices 
of management, is what charmes the eye of every beholder. 
Titian gave the Human figure that trouth of colour which sur- 
pass'd all other painters. His portraits have a particuler air of 
grandour and a solidity of colouring in them that makes all 
other portraits appear trifling. I recommend to your attention 
when in Italy the workes of the above artists, as every perfec- 
tion in the art of painting is to be found in one or another of 
their works. I likewise recommend your going directly to Italy 
by sea as that will carry you through in one voyage if you land 
in England first you will have to traval the Continant twice. 

1 The antique statues. [West's note.] 

1773 Copley -Pelham Letters 197 

I have not time, by this oppertunity to write your letters of 
recommendation, but another will offer in a few days when 
Mr. Clark has undertaken to send them. 

The Honor your workes have allways done you in Our 
Exhibitions is the very reason you should perservear in the 
Tour to Italy, the portrait of Mrs. Gage as a picture has 
received every praise from the lovers of arts, her Friends did 
not think the likeness so favourable as they could wish, but 
Honour'd it as a pice of art. Sir Joshua Reynold and other 
artists of distinguished merrit have the Highest esteem for 
you and your works. 

I Wish you all Happyness and success, and am with great 
Friendship Your Obedt. Humble Sert. 

Benjn. West. 

London, Jany. 6th, 1773. 

Benjamin Andrews to Henry Pelham 

Mr. Andrews presents his Compliments to Mr. Pelham, and 
would be greatly obliged if he could finish his picture in season 
to be brought home by Saterday; as Mrs. A, agreeable to cus- 
tom, expects much company next week, and would be glad to 
have our vacant frames occupied. 

The reason of this request is, on account of some Alteration 
in the Landskip which Mr. Copely said Mr. Pelham was to 
make; excepting which, Mr. A's picture was done, and Mrs. 
A's has been finish'd some time. 

Monday p.m. March, 1773. 

198 Copley -Pelham Letters 1773 

Henry Pelham to John Singleton 

Boston, August 3d, 1773. 
Dear and Honored Uncle, 

The difficulty of Conveying a Letter to Ireland perticularly 
to that part where you reside has hitherto prevented my 
tendering you those marks of my Duty esteem and affection 
which the distance between us will permitt and the duty I owe 
to the Brother of an honored and most excellent Parent 
demands. But a Gentleman Mr. Auch[mut]y going immediatly 
to Dublin affords me an opertunity of presenting myself with 
my most affectionate duty before you, as a Nephew who is 
exceedingly solicitous of obtaining your favour and Corespond- 
ence. My honored Mamma has been (as well as myself and My 
Brother Copley) very an[x]ious at Not hearing from you for 
near four years past. Indeed within that time Brother Copley 
had one Letter from Aunt Cooper by which we had the inex- 
pressable pleasure of hearing that all our Friends in Ireland were 
well. Distance of Place and length of time has not in the least 
abated that affectionate Concern she alwa[y]s entertained for 
a Friend so near and dear to her and for whom she expresses 
the most affectionate and tender Regard. For my self I can 
most truly say, that, till I can have the pleasur[e] of seeing my 
dear Fri[e]nds in Irel[a]n[d] and it would be my greatest happy- 
ness to cultivate even that imperfect acquaintance which dis- 
tance of Place only permitts by a regular Corespondence. 1 
H[e] proposes this fall or the next spring at farthest upon the 
recommendation of his numerouse Fri[e]nds both in Europ and 

1 What precedes and what follows were two widely separated fragments. 
There is nothing to show that they belong together except the context and the 
marked similarity in the appearance of the handwriting. 

1773 Copley -Pelham Letters 199 

America to make the tour of Italy France and England. When 
he arr[i]ves he intends if possable to take a turn over and 
see you and his other F[r]i[e]nds in Ireland. I intended to 
have given you a Larger and more perticular Account, but not 
knowing of this Opertunity of writing till a few hours ago, and 
the Gentleman who favours me by taking the care of this setting 
out before Sun Rise tomorrow morning for Portsmouth, where 
the post Vessell sails from, obliges me by shortining this Let- 
ter to lessen the pleasure I take in thus imperfectly convers- 
ing with you, a pleasure which I propose resuming the very 
fi[r]st opertunity I can get to convey a Letter to you, and 
my other Friends, but before I conclude this I am to present 
My Mamma's most tender and affectionat[e] Love with My 
Brother and our most affectio[nate] regards [to] you, My dear 
Aunt Singleton, Uncle and Aunt Cooper, and all our dear 
Cousins, and permitt me to join them in most Earnest En- 
treaties that you would write and give us a perticular Account 
of your and my Aunt Cooper's family. Requesting your 
Blessing I conclude Wishing you and connections all Health 
and Happyness by subscribing myself your Most Dutifull 
Nephew and most Humble Sert. 

Henry Pelham. 

Henry Pelham to [Stephen Hooper] 

Boston, Septmr. 9th, 1773. 

Agreable to your directions I have done your portrait in 
Minature and have had it sett in Gold. 1 

1 A fragment. 

200 Copley -Pelham Letters 1773 

Stephen Hooper 1 to Henry Pelham 

Newbury Port, 19th Sept., 1773. 

Your Letter, dated the 9th Instant, I did not receive untill 
last Evening; wherein I find you had compleated my Portrait 
in Miniature, and that it was ready to be delivered to my Order; 
for which I am obliged; and now enclose you an Order on Coll. 
Snelling, for the Amount, and should be obliged you '11 deliver 
the same to him, to be forwarded. I could wish Our Friend 
Mr. Copely, had made equal Dispatch with Mrs. Hoopers 2 
Picture, as we want it much; however, I suppose him much 
hurried, as I hear he has engaged his Passage, but hope he'll 
finish it ere he leaves his Native Place; Mrs. Hooper joins me, 
in our respectfull Compliments to him, his Lady and yourself; 
and believe me to be Your Friend, 

Stephen Hooper. 

Henry Pelham to Charles Pelham 

Boston, Novr. 5, 1773. 
My dear Brother, 

Amidst the Noise and disturbance of a turbulant and factious 
town it is with pleasure that I contemplate those of my Friends, 
who far removed from all the busy Sceanes arising from the 
Ambition, the Envy and the Vices of Mankind, have opertunity 
and Leasure calmly to enjoy the rational Delights of a Country 
Life, where uninterrupted by the Idle and the vicious, an 
universal Freedom reigns and social Happyness and Domestic 
Felicity are only to be found in perfection. The transactions 

1 See Currier, History of Newburyport, 11. 193. * Sarah Woodbridge. 

1773 Copley -Pelham Letters 201 

around me for several days past makes me wish 1 to taist the 
Happyness of that retired Life which I always pleased my self 
with the Hopes of being able at some future Pe[r]iod to obtain. 
The various and discordant Noises with which my Ears are 
continually assaild in the day, [the] passing of Carts and a 
constant throng of People, the shouting of an undis[c]iplined 
Rabble the ringing of bells and sounding of Horns in the night 
when it might be expected that an universal silence should 
reign, and all nature weary with the toils of the day, should be 
composed to rest, but inste[a]d of that nothing but a confused 
medley of the ratlings of Carriages, the noises of Pope Drums 
and the infernal yell 2 of those who are fighting for the posses- 
sions of the Devill. the empty Noise, useless Hurry imperti- 
nence and Ceremony attendant upon a town Life are a perfect 
contrast to the felicity of a rural retreat, which Pliny elegantly 
discribes. There, says he, I hear nothing that I repent to have 
listened to. I say nothing, that I repent to have uttered. No 
person under my Roof vents any Scandal. No hopes deceive 
me. No fears molest me; no Rumours disturbs me. My book 
and my thoughts are the only companions with whom I con- 
verse. Welcome thou life of I[n]tegrity and Virtue ! Welcome 
sweet and innocent Amusement! I am Led to these thoughts 
and these Wishes by the very disagreable situation of this Town 
in general and some of My Friends in perticular. I have been 
several days attentively observing the movements of our Son's 
of Liberty, which was wonce (like the word Tyrant) an honor- 
able distinction. A short Sketch of their procedings may not 
be disagreable as nothing in the Papers is to be depended 

1 This was first written: "almost makes me wish myself upon some Desert 

2 Erased: "of the Children of Satan." 

202 Copley -Pelham Letters 1773 

[upon.] Last tuesday Morng. a considerable Number of Printed 
papers was pasted up, directed to the freemen of the Province 
inviting them to meet at Liberty Tree at 12 oClock the next 
day to receive the resignation upon Oath of those Gentle'n to 
whom the India Company have consigned their Tea of their 
Commission and their promise of reshiping it by the first oper- 
tunity. The above handbills were signed O. C. sec'y. The next 
morn'g incendiary Letters were sent at 2 oClock to those 
gen[t]ln. sign'd O. C. sec'y? commanding upon their Perril 
their attendance at 12 oClock at Liberty Tree. This summons 
the Gentlemen took no other notice of than by assembling 
at Mr. Clark's 1 Store, where a considerable Number of their 
Friends mett them. A little before one o Clock, a Committee 
consisting among others of Mr. [William] Molineux, Wm. 
Denny, [Gabriel] Johonnott, Henderson, Drs. [Joseph] Warren 
and I think [Benjamin] Church came down (attended by the 
whole body, consisting of about 300 People) with a Message in 
which [incomplete] 2 

Thomas Palmer 3 to Copley 

Mr. Palmer presents his Compliments to Mr. Copley, and 
sends him two Letters wch he beleives will answer his Purpose 
in Italy. He wishes him success, and cannot but say he wishes 
him gone. 

Tuesd Morning. 

1 Richard Clarke and Sons. 

2 See 2 Proceedings, x. 79. The story of the notice served on Richard Clarke, 
November I, is told in Stark, Loyalists of Massachusetts, 405. A reply pre- 
pared by the merchants is reproduced from a copy in the Massachusetts His- 
torical Society. 

3 Thomas Palmer (1743-1820), a loyalist, died in London. He left his library 
to Harvard University. 






Relative to the New IMPORTATION of TEA. 

Addreffed to the Tradesmen arid Inhabitants of the Town and Province in. 
general, but to the TRADESMEN of BOSTON in particular. 

jj^p AVOID THE TRAP. Remember the iniquitous Non- Importation Scheme. =£# 

BOSTON, Nov. 3, 1773. I. That the prefent propofed Meet- 

ing is illegal and underhanded j and as" 
WHEREAS we Gave repeatedly it is our humble Opinion that it is fub- 
becn impofed upon by the Mer- verfive of that Constitutional LI- 
chants of the Town of Boston, arid BERTY we are contending for, and 
thereby incurred heavy Taxes upon us, that fiich Proceedings will tend to cre- 
larid we ftand unjullly charged with the' ate Diforder and Tumuli in the Town, 
blame : And as it is now propofed it is earnestly wifhed every well-difpofed 
by faid Merchants to prevent the Im- Member of the Community would ttfe 
portation of Tea from the India Com- his Endeavors to prevent -them in' fu- 
pany, whereby that Article may be fold ture. 
for lefs than half the Price they can af- 
ford it j who now call for our Atten- II. That the Method of notifying 
dance for that Pifrpofe at Liberty-Tree,, faid Meeting is mean and delpicable, and 
You arc hereby, advifed arid warned by fmeils cf Dm biffs and Deceit, as the No- 
no means to be taken in by the deceit- tificatiori.'for Warning the fame was not 
ful Bait of thofe who falfely ftile them- figned, and was ported in the Night. 
felves Friends of Liberty: 

III. We are rcfolved, by Divine Af 
THE fiftance, to walk uprightly, and to eat, 

drink, and wear whatever we can ho- 

Pn f~\ f ~T^ L' 1 O ' I N *eflfy procure by our Labour ;• and to 
X\_ K_y JL ■ ' ^3 X « Buy and Sell when' arid where we pleafe ; 

herein hoping for the Protection of qood 

We the TRADESMEN of the Government r Then let the Bellowing 

Town of BOSTON therefore PRO- PATRIOT throw out his thundering 

TEST againfl: faid Meeting in the Bulls, they wilt only ferve to footh our 

following Manner, Viz, Sleep.' 


■J* ■ -*^— ■— — — •«-!■ 11 1 ' 1 r j . ■ 1 ■. . . • — 1 1 111, ■ 

Printed by E. Russexi., next the Corijfeld, Union-ftrcet.. 

204 Copley -Pelham Letters 1773 

Thomas Palmer to James Byers x 

Boston, Novr. ioth, 1773. 
Dear Sir, 

This will be deliver'd you by Mr. John Singleton Copley, who 
proposes spending a year or two in Italy, to improve himself in his 
Profession as a Painter. His Character as a Gentleman is unex- 
ceptionable, as an Artist, you will soon discover his Merit I have 
advis'd him to spend the most of his time at Rome, and I hope 
you'll be so obliging as to introduce him to some of his Brethren 
in the Arts. I am with great Regard your Friend and humb. Servt. 

Thos. Palmer. 

Au Chevalier Hamilton Bart? ministre Plenipotentitiare de sa 
majeste Brittanique a Naples 

Your known Love for the Polite Arts, and the Encouragement 
and Countenance you give their Professors emboldens me to 
recommend to your Protection the Bearer of this, Mr. Copley, as 
a person of very great Merit, he was born, and has been bred 
entirely among us, and for what knowledge he has acquired in his 
Profession, he is indebted to the force of his own Genius only; I 
beleive he has never seen a good Picture but of his own painting. 
His Character as a Gentleman is unexceptionable, as an Artist 
I trust his works will very soon speak for him. I hope, Sir, you '11 
excuse the Liberty I take with you. 

Present my best Regards to Lady Hamilton and beleive me to 
be with the greatest Respect your much oblig'd, and most humble 

Thos. Palmer. 

Boston, Novr., 1773. 

1 See Dictionary of National Biography, VIII. 1 10. Now an architect at Rome. 

2 Sir William Hamilton (1730-1803). 

1773 Copley -Pelbam Letters 205 

Dr. John Morgan 1 to Copley 

Philadelphia, November 24, 1773. 

At the request of my particular friend Mr. Mifflin and of my 
Brother in law Mr. Stillman, I have taken the Liberty of writ- 
ing a few Letters to some of my former friends in Italy, where 
I with pleasure learn you are going for the sake of endeavouring 
to make further Improvements in your profession. I hope these 
Letters may be of use to you. I have delivered them to Mr. 
Mifflin to forward to you. If you approve of delivering them, be 
pleased first to seal them. If not, you will be so kind as to 
destroy them. 

That you may be enabled to form some Judgment how far 
they may be of use to you, it will be proper to acquaint You 
with the Characters of the several Gentlemen to whom they 
are written, and to explain on what footing they may be ser- 
viceable. Mr. Rutherfoord was a considerable Merchant at 
Leghorn, a Man of great Worth and politeness, and particu- 
larly civil to his Countrymen, the English. He can introduce 
you to Sir John Dick, Consul at Leghorn, and either by himself 
or friends procure you an Introduction to Sir Horace Man, the 
British Resident at Florence, which will be of great Use in 
obtaining easy Access at all proper times, to the Gallery of 
Paintings there, which contains one of the grandest Collections 
in Europe. Mr. Byers was bred to Painting, and reckoned a 
Connoisseur in Painting, Statuary, Sculpture, and very oblig- 
ing in the charge he undertook of conducting Strangers to visit 
whatever was deemed curious and worthy of Observation in or 
about Rome, and in explaining the History of what he shewed. 
' l See Journal of Dr. John Morgan, of Philadelphia, from Rome to London, 1764. 

206 Copley -Pelham Letters 1773 

The Abbey Grant was a Scotch Gentleman who, having fol- 
lowed the Fortunes of James to Rome, resided there. He was 
much esteemed by the English, and procured Access for the 
party I was with to Persons of the first Distinction at Rome. 

Mr. Jamineau, the British Consul at Naples, was very 
friendly to me, during my Stay at Naples, and has since hon- 
oured me with his Correspondence. His Patronage was I be- 
leive of use to Mr. West, and to Signora Angelica. 1 From his 
particular situation and disposition to please, I should think 
he might prove a valuable Acquaintance to you, in a great 
Variety of ways. 

I wish you success equal to your warmest Expectations, and 
still greater, equal to the Opinion I have of your great Merit. 
Tho' personally unknown to you, I am, Sir, with great Regard 
Your most obedient and very humble Servant, 

John Morgan. 

Dr. John Morgan to Mr. Rutherfoord, Esqr. 

Philadelphia, November 24, 1773. 


I did myself the Honour of writing to you a few Months ago in 
favour of Mr. Bingham 2 a young Gentleman of this City, who 
purposed to pay a Visit to Leghorn, in his Way to see some parts 
of Italy. I now take the Liberty of introducing to your Acquaint- 
ance the Bearer Mr. Copley, who goes over to Italy for improve- 
ment in the Art of Painting. He is a Gentleman of exceeding good 
Character, and, without a Master, or Oppertunity of seeing the 
works of eminent Artists, has himself become highly eminent for 
his Skill in Painting. 

I am perswaded there are many, who after all the improvements 
they have made from being conversant with the Works of the first 

1 Angelica Kauffman. 2 William Bingham. 

1773 Copley -Pelham Letters 207 

Masters in the World, when they leave Italy are not equal to Mr. 
Copley, at his first entering upon the study of those same Masters. 

Depending on your great politeness to myself, and your known 
readiness to oblige Strangers of Worth, I doubt not but the liberty 
I have taken of recommending Mr. Copley to your Acquaintance 
will be taken in good part, and that you will have a pleasure in 
rendering him all the good Offices in your Power, by giving him 
advice how to proceed, and introducing him to such Gentlemen as 
may be most likely to have it in their Power to Promote the design 
of his coming. 

With assurances of my great Esteem, I remain Dr. Sir Your 
much obliged and most obedient humble Servant, 

John Morgan. 

Dr. John Morgan to Mr. Byers 

Philadelphia, Novembr. 24, 1773. 


I make no other Apology for the Liberty I now take of introduc- 
ing the Bearer Mr. Copley to your Acquaintance than to say the 
knowledge I have of your desire to cultivate a friendly Intercourse 
with worthy Artists, and to shew every Civility in your power to 
Strangers that go to Rome for their Improvement, makes me 
think you will be pleased with it. He is, I durst say, already known 
to you by report, as you are not ignorant of those who have ex- 
celled in the Art, or of the Works of those who have gained a 
reputation by their Exhibitions of Painting at Spring Garden. Be 
that as it may, Mr. Copley is generally esteemed here to be the 
best Painter that has ever performed in America, without except- 
ing our American Raphael, as I have often heard Mr. West called, 
if we confine his Character to the Period of his being in America. 
Without other means of Improvement than what his own Genius 
has furnished Mr. Copley may be truly allowed, in my weak 
Opinion, to be a Master of his Art. Yet not content with that skill 
he has already acquired by dint of his Application to copy nature, 
he is fired with the laudable Ambition of studying the Works of 

208 Copley -Pelham Letters 1773 

those who have excelled in the same Employ, to discover what 
Lights they have struck out, and to avail himself of their Improve- 
ments, from which tis to be hoped he will derive great advantage. 

After what I have said, I need not use many Arguments to in- 
duce you to cultivate an Acquaintance with him, and to shew him 
every Civility in your Power. 

In a visit I lately made to Charles Town, South Carolina, I saw 
Mr. Bambridge, who is settled very advantageously there, and 
prosecutes his Profession with Reputation and sucess. 

Your Friend Mr. Powel x is well. With great Regard I am, Sir, 
Your most Obedient and Very humble Servant, 

John Morgan. 

A Monsieur UAbh'e Grant 2 

Philadelphia, Novr. 24, 1773. 

Tis now a long while since I did myself the honour of writing to 
you. tis much longer since I have had the honour of hearing from 

The Bearer Mr. Copley intending for Italy will probably see 
you. Glad am I of an Oppertunity of introducing him to your 
Acquaintance as an Artist in Painting. I put him on the same 
footing with my Country Man Mr. West, in which I believe it will 
be found I have not disparaged that now justly celebrated Painter. 

I think it an Honour to America that such an illustrious Pair 
have been produced in this Country; who by the strength of their 
own Genius, and without the assistance of able Masters have 
deservedly acquired Reputation amongst the first Rate Painters 
in the Mother Country. 

Mr. West has already enjoyed the benefit of improving himself 
since his Genius shone forth, in the Schools of Italy, and in Study- 
ing the best Models, and works of the first Masters. This is what 
Mr. Copley is now in persuit of. Time will make manifest whether 

1 Samuel Powel. 

2 Peter Grant (d. 1784). See Dictionary of National Biography, xxn. 400. 

1773 Copley -Pelham Letters 209 

he is as capable of improving those advantages. For my own part 
I have an exalted Opinion of his Genius, and think him even 
superior in that respect to some of those whose works he is now 
gone to study, tho' I am perswaded his Genius will receive great 
helps from the Works of Art, those almost super-natural Exhibi- 
tions to be met with in Italy of Raphael, Angelo, Corregio, Titian, 
Guido, Dominicino, Guerchino and others. 

I perswade myself you will be much pleased with Mr. Cop- 
leys Acquaintance, and that you will chearfully assist him, as far 
as lays in your power, to procure Access to whatever is most 
worthy of his Study, Observation or Pursuit. 

I have lately been on a public Mission from the Trustees of the 
College at Philadelphia to Jamaica to extend the knowledge of this 
Institution, and the advantages it may be of to such of the youth 
whose Parents may think proper to send them here for education, 
and to procure some Assistance towards establishing it on the 
most extensive and permanent foundation. I was there but about 
ten Months, in which time, I procured Subscriptions for carrying 
on the Design to the amount of between four and five thousand 
pounds sterling, and a Number of their Children are since come 
over to study at the College of Philadelphia, and others are pre- 
paring to follow. 

My fellow Traveller Mr. Powel is well and joins me in the warm- 
est Wishes for your Wellfare. I am with unfeigned Regard, Dr. 
Sir, Your much obliged Affectionate Friend, and most obedt. 
humble Servt. 

John Morgan. 

Dr. John Morgan to Isaac Jamineau 

Philadelphia, November 24, 1773. 

I did myself the Honour of writing to you about four months ago 
by Mr. Bingham from this place, which I hope came safe to hand. 
This will be presented to you by Mr. Copley a very celebrated 
Painter from Boston, who proposes very shortly to sail for Italy, 

210 Copley -Pelham Letters 1773 

with a View of improving himself in that art, from the help6 that 
are to be met with there, and from studying the works of those 
immortal Genii who have shone forth so illustriously for their skill 
and Imitation of Nature. 

Mr. Copley may justly be looked upon as the greatest Painter we 
have ever yet had in America. I do not mean to except Mr. West, 
who was doubtless far short of Mr. Copley at the time he left 
America, however considerable his improvments were after he 
had the advantage of Studying in Italy. Perhaps History cannot 
furnish a single Instance of any Person, who with so little Assist- 
ance from others, and so few Oppertunities of seeing any thing 
worth studying has by the force of his Genius and by close Appli- 
cation to study Nature, arrived to such preheminance in Painting 
as Mr. Copley. 

Although I have not the least acquaintance with Mr. Copley, 
nor ever seen him in my Life, yet from some paintings I have seen 
done by him, and Accounts of others who are no mean Judges, and 
have seen more of his performances, as well as from his excellent 
moral Character, I am perswaded you will be much pleased with 
his Acquaintance. Several of Mr. Copleys friends and my own 
have apply'd to me, without his knowledge, for Letters of Intro- 
duction to some Gentlemen of Weight and Character in Italy 
whose acquaintance might be the means of making his Merit 
better known, and thereby securing to him the greater Advan- 
tages and procuring him the best Oppertunities of gaining infor- 
mation of and access to what may be most worthy of his Study 
and Persuit. 

Knowing of none to whom I can with so much propriety recom- 
mend him on these Acc'ts as to you, I have taken the Liberty, my 
good Sir, of begging the favour of your Countenance and Patron- 
age of this worthy person, from whose Acquaintance I doubt not 
you will derive great pleasure. I should not wonder to hear some 
time hence, that others who resort to Italy to study the Labours of 
those departed for ages past, should be very ambitious to be made 
acquainted with this living Artist; and if some who are esteemed 
Masters, should condescend to study a little the works of one, 

1773 Copley -Pelham Letters 211 

appearing under the Character of a Student or Novitiate. But 
I leave it to yourself, who are so good a judge of Merit, to decide 
for yourself. Wishing you all possible Happiness, I remain, Dear 
Sir, Your most obedient and much obliged humble Servant, 

John Morgan. 

Copley to Jonathan and Isaac Winslow Clarke l 

[December I, 1773.] 
Dear Sirs, 

On my return to the Meeting (after making an apology for 
so greatly exceeding the time propossed by me when I left it,) 
I made use of every argument my thoughts could suggest to 
draw the people from their unfavourable oppinion of you, and 
to convince them your opposition was neither the effect of 
obstinacy or unfriendliness to the community; but altogether 
from necessity on your part to discharge a trust commited to 
you, a failure in would subject you to ruin in your reputation as 
Merchants, to ruin in point of fortune your friends having 
engaged for you in 
very large sums ; 
that you were un- 
influanced by any 
persons what ever, that you had not seen the Governor that 
Day (this last I urged in answer to some very warm things 
that were said on this head in which You were charged with 
acting under the Imediate influance of the Governor which in 
justice to you and him I undertook to say from my own 
knowledg was not true.) I observed you did not decline appear- 
ing in that Body from any Suspicion that your Persons would 

1 Sons of Richard Clarke and brothers-in-law of Copley. See Sabine, Loyalists 
of the American Revolution, 1. 316. 

212 Copley -Pelham Letters 1773 

not be intirely safe. But as the People had drawn the precise 
Line of Conduct that would sattisfy them, You thought your 
appear[an]ce in that Meeting would only tend to inflame it 
unless you could do what they demanded from you, which 
being impossable you thought they aught not to insist on; that 
you did not bring your selves into this Dificulty and therefore, 
aught not to be pressed to do an Act that would involve you in 
Ruin, etc. I further observed you had shewn no disposition to 
bring the Teas into the Town, nor would you; But only must 
be excused from being the Active instruments in sending it 
back, that the way was Clear for them to send it back by the 
Political Storm as they term'd it, raised by the Body as by that 
the Capt. could not unload it, and must return of Coarse, that 
your refusal by no means frustrated their plan. In short I 
have done every possable thing, and altho there was a unani- 
mus vote past Declaring this unsatti[s]factory yet it cooled the 
Resentment and they Desolved without doing or saying any 
thing that showd an ill temper to you. I have been told and I 
beleive it true, that after I left the Meeting Addams 1 said they 
must not expect you should Ruin your selves. I think all 
stands well at present. Before the temper of the People could 
be judg'd of, we sent Cousin Harry to your Hon'd Father to 
urge his Imediate Departure to you. You will see him this 
Day. I have no doubt in my own mind you must stay where 
you are till the Vessel sails that is now in, at least; but I beleive 
not Longer; Then I think you will be able to return with Hon- 
our to Town, some few things in the mean while being done on 
your part. I had a Long and free conversation with Doc'r 
Warren, which will be renued this afternoon with the addition 
of Col'l Hancock. Cousin Benj'n Davis is to be with us. I must 

1 This is doubtful. [Note by Copley.] 

*f ** ■;" * ■ „ / 

r J,,;,*. „,?. }>■*■""*■ "/*"* y- ■■"*■'■■, "■ 

^ ss?A s*,fee ■o r f-*sA?>A i *&pI ' 

£■ "1/ &4s?7'<#-- mAv77%£-* 

1774 Copley -Pelham Letters 213 

conclude with recommending that you avoid seeing the 

Govournor. I hope he will not have any occasion to go to the 

Castel; if he should do not converse with him on the subject. 

this, I think is the best advise I can give boath as a friend to 

you and Him. my reasons for it I will tell you when I see you. 

Mrs. Copley and my self went at 9 o'Clock to Mr. Lees and 

return 'd so late that I have no time to do any thing [but] 

Scrawl; but I hope you will be able to read this. I will see you as 

soon as possable. I am, Dear Sir, Yours 

J. S. Copley. 
Wednesday noon. 

Copley to [Richard Clarke] 

[Boston ca. February 15, 1774.] 1 
Hon'd Sir, 

I received your Letter of 11 Inst, incloseing one for Col'l 
Worthington which I have not Delivered, thinking it best to 
see Mr. [Joseph] Lee first, and after waiting till yesterday 
without his coming to Town I went to Cambridge and had a 
full oppertunity of converseing with him on the matter; but 
being detained all night by means of an unruly horse which 
gave Sukey and my self some trouble I could not get to Town 
this Morng time anough to write you by any oppertunity of 
this Day. 

The matter of a Memorial had started in my mind more than 
three Weeks ago but I had many objections to it which I could 
not get over, the most meterialwas this, that however Clear the 

1 See postscript at the end of this letter. Mrs. Thomas Hubbard died Febru- 
ary 15, 1774. Hill, History of the Old South (Third Church) n. 150. Mrs. Thomas 
Boylston died February, 1774. N. E.Hist. and Gen. Register, vn. 148. Copley's 
portrait of Thomas Hubbard, who was treasurer of Harvard College, from 1752 
to 1763, is now the property of Harvard University. 

2i4 Copley -Pelham Letters 1774 

facts may be yet they may be controverted, your conduct mis- 
represented, and what ever you either have or shall say mis- 
construed by the prevailing party in the House and a tryal 
brought on in which the House with the other Branches will be 
the Umpires and their desision should it be against you will 
confirm great numbers in their oppinions who are but too much 
disposed to beleive the Worst of you and are not at all solicitious 
to look into the facts and vew them with candor and impartial- 
lity : and this Judgment of the Court will stand on Record and 
conclude every thing against you, and render it more dificult 
than ever to bring People to think of you as they aught, not 
only in this province, but through the Continent and in Europe. 
Should this be the effect, as I really think it may, your principal 
intention would be defeated, that of doing justice to your 
Injured carractors, which, however, I think will be well effected 
in the way you propose, if it could be asertained, that the lead- 
ing Members in the House would take hold of such an opper- 
tunity to reinstate you, their ends being answered and having 
no advantage in prospect from keeping you at the Castle or 
Banishing you your Country, having taken up this oppinion 
and an oppertunity presenting itself when I was in Town on 
Tuesday I improved it to the purpose finding out the Senti- 
ments of some of the Heads and hope very soon to be able to 
asertain what the fate of a Memorial would be should it be 
persued. Should it [be] unfavourable it appears to me a News- 
paper Publication signed by the Agents would answer all the 
purposes of doing justice to your Injured carracters, that a 
Memorial would, without the disadvantages. 

I have no doubt that some of the many Callumneys in the 
Newspapers aught to be contradicted. This has been my 
oppinion ever since the dispute commenced; After I had fully 

1774 Copley -Pelham Letters 215 

weighed the whole of your d[e]sign the above was what struck 
me, and being the only sentiments I could adopt I saw your 
friend Mr. Lee who agreed in every perticular, only he thought 
me almost romantick in supposeing it a possable thing that the 
Leaders would countinance a Memorial in the Coart; but I 
think it may be tried. I own I think the prospect of success very 
small, but I dont dispair neither. Mr. Lee observed to me that 
although his own Sentiments were against the Memorial yet as 
they stood connected with yours he should be for your try- 
ing it, as he has often found your judgment better than his 
own where you had differed in oppinion. Should you on the 
Whole conclude to prefer a Memorial rather than publish in 
the Newspapers your justification, be pleased to let me know 

and I will deliver the letter to Coll W imediately. Mr. 

Green I would not see till I had been with Mr. Lee, but will 
see him to morrow. As it now grows late I must conclude 
with assureing you I shall not neglect any thing that will have 
a tendancy to remove every obstacle to your return and that 
will do justice to your Carracters as far as may be in my power. 
I am, Hond Sir, Your Most Dutifull Son 

John Singleton Copley. 

P S I have jus heard Mrs. Hubbard is Dead and Mrs. 

John Singleton to Henry Pelham 

Ballygerreen, Jany. 27, 1774. 
Dr. Nephew, 

I recid your favor of the 3d augt. Last and am hartley Con- 

sarned to find my Dr. Sister is still in a declining way and 

hope the gret God will prolong her days till she sees you all 

216 Copley -Pelham Letters 1774 

well provided and setled to her satisfaction. 1 I hope you 
will present my warmest Love and Sencer affections to her, 
and asure her the lenth of time and gret Distance has not 
abeted my love and sencear Regards for her and all her famaly, 
and belive me nothing but the Difacolty of Conveing lettrs. to 
you hinders My not writing oftner to you all, as I am serten 
maney of my Letters Niver Corns to your hands. 

I sincerly Congratulet you and your Brother on his Mator- 
amonall State and on the blesing God has given him by the 
increase of his famaly which is Sertenly a gret blesing when 
they are blesed with sence and the feer of God and dutey and 
love to their perants. Your acct. of his marrige is the first I 
hard of him. You mentioned in your letter that he intended 
to make the tour of Europ; if so I hope he will be so kind to 
Com to this Kingdom. I asure you It would give all his frends 
heer Infinet plesur to see him or aney of my Dear Nephews. 

pre what is becom of yr Br Charles? I have not hard of him 
sence he was in London and then I reci'd to Lettrs. from him the 
Last of them was Dated 27 Deer., 1759. I hope in your next 
you will give me an acct. of him and all the rest of my relesons 
in ameraco and that you and my Name sake will Continue a 
More Reglaur Corespondance with me as nothing would give 
me more rell plesur then heering from you all. I now will give 
you a shart acct. of my famaly. I have but four Child'n, two 
Dauters and two Sons — the youngest is mared 7 years ago to 
one Edwd. Palmer; he was bred to the Law and has a good 
Estate he has 3 Dauters and is very hapley setled in Birr in the 
King County. I gave him £1000 pounds Stg. with her. My 
Eldist dauter was mared 13th Instant to Antoney King, a man 
Bred to the Law who has a good Estate In Dublin. I gave him 

1 Mrs. Pelham died in 1789. 

1774 Copley -Pelham Letters 217 

£2000 pound Stg. his fathe[r] is an Alderman In Dublin and 
was Knighted by the Lord Leftnant for his actifety and Cli- 
fornes when he was Sherif ; I asure you I am gretly fitteged 
from the horey of this weding by receveing and paying visets 
which was finesed Yester Day; My Br. Cooper and his wife 1 
are all well and wants for nothing but Childer to make them 
happy. My Eldist Son is 19 year ould; me Second Son a bout 
10 year ould. 

I send this by Cap'n Kley who is bound to Lond'n and 
promises to forward it to you by som safe hand. 

[the youck you ware to be sadled with and tron of by the 
brafe Bostons is now the Stamp act past in a Law and to take 
place the 25 of March next, besides severall other Vilonos 
taxes lead on Yous by a Most Vilors and Coropt Parlement 
whos prinsoble part are bribed to sel there Contrey.] 2 plese to 
present my sencer Love to my Dr. Sister, yr. Brother and Sis- 
ter In Law, and all frends, and belive me to be Dr. Hary, 
Yours Most Sencerly and Affly, 

John Singleton. 

Copley to Isaac Winslow Clarke* 

Boston, April 26, 1774. 
Dear Sir, 

The Ladys after the pleasure of spending a most agreable 

day with you, got home about half past eight oclock all well, 

and at the usual hour retired to bed; about 12 oclock a number 

1 Ann, sister of John and Mary Singleton. 

2 The words in brackets have been erased so effectively that it is almost 
impossible to decipher them. There is nothing to indicate whether this was done 
by Singleton or by Pelham, to whom they must have given offence. 

3 From the Collection of Mr. Denison R. Slade. 

218 Copky-Pelham Letters 1774 

of persons came to the house, knock'd at the front door, and 
awoke Sukey and myself. 1 immediately opened the window, 
and asked them what they wanted ; they asked me if Mr. Wat- 
son l was in the house. I told them he was not, they made some 
scruples of beleiving me, and asked if I would give them my 
word and honour that he was not in the house. I replied yes. 
They than said he had been here and desired to know where he 
was. I told them he had been here, but he was gone and I sup- 
posed out of Town as he went in his chaise from this with an 
intention to go home; they than desired to know how I came to 
entertain such a Rogue and Villin, My reply was, he was with 
Coll'l Hancock in the afternoon at his house and from thence 
came here and was now gone out of Town; they seemed some- 
what sattisfied with this and retired a little way up the Street 
but soon returned and kept up the Indian Yell for sometime 
when I again got up and went to the window; and told them, 
I thought I had sattisfied them Mr. Watson was not in the 
house but I again assured them he was not and beg'd they would 
not disturb my family, they said they could take no mans 
word, they beleived he was here and if he was they would know 
it, and my blood would be on my own head if I had deceived 
them; or if I entertained him or any such Villain for the future 
must expect the resentment of Joice. a great deal more of such 
like language passed when they left me and passed up the street 
and were met by a chaise which stoped as in consultation by 
Mr. Greens, which in a little time turned and went up with 
them, by this you must see my conjectures with regard to you 
are not ill founded, nor my cautions needless. I hope you will 
be continually on your gaurd when you are off the Island; what 
a spirrit ! what if Mr. Watson had stayed (as I pressed him to) 

1 Colonel George Watson, of Plymouth, a mandamus counsellor. 

1774 Copley -Pelham Letters 219 

to spend the night. I must either have given up a friend to the 
insult of a Mob or had my house pulled down and perhaps my 
family murthered. I am, Dear Sir, Your Affectionate Brother 
and Humble Ser't, 

John Singleton Copley. 

Addressed; For Mr. Isaac Clarke at Castle William. 

Joseph Webb to Henry Pelham 


Your's of the 26th Ulo. I Reed, per last post, and am much 
surprizd at the Contents. I wish you wou'd take the trouble to 
call on Mr. Hyde, the Hartford Post Rider, to whom I paid the 
Mon[e]y on the Receiving the Picture, which was last fall. I 
was in Boston last February and shou'd hardly have come out 
of Town, had it not have been paid ; and was sorry that I was 
in such hurry as not to be able to wait on Mr. Copley out of 
Complisance. for I found Him vastly polite and genteel when 
He did the Work for me. I can't say but I am much displeased 
with the post, for of all debts, I shou'd never consent to one 
like this. I am, Sir, with compliments to Mr. Copley and His 
Lady, and to Your Self, Your most H. Servt. 

Jos. Webb. 1 

Shall be much Obliged to know what Mastr. Hyde says. 
You shall soon have the Affair put to rights as I Expect to be in 
town in the Course [of] 4 Weeks. 

Wethersfield, June 3d, 1774. 

1 Brother of Samuel Blatchley Webb. 

220 Copley -Pelham Letters 1774 

Henry Pelham to [Helena Pelham] x 

Boston, June 8, 1774. 
Hon'd and dear Aunt, 

A diffidence of appearing in a proper manner before you 
has hitherto prevented me from tendering you those marks 
of duty, Esteem and Affection which the distance between 
us will permitt and the Regard I owe to the sister of an 
Hon'd and dear Father demands. By so favourable an opper- 
tunity I take the liberty of presenting myself before you 
with my most affectionate duty as a Nephew who is exceed- 
ingly solicitous of obtaining your favour and Blessing. 

This will be delivered you by my very dear and tender 
Brother Mr. Copley who I hope will obtain your favourable 
Notice. He is a Gentleman possessd of all those endearing 
qualities which are respected by the Virtuous and good and 
adornd with those accomplishments that attract the notice and 
esteem of his Friends and Acquaintance. In his profession he is 
very capital, the many testimonies of Respect he has received 
from abroad evincing his fame to be very extensive. To him 
I am under the greatest and most perticular Obligations for the 
early and continued Mark of his kindness to me. By him I am 
fixed -in a Buisness which by the blessing of Heaven upon 
Industry and application will render my future Life easy and 

The difficulty I find in speaking of myself forms the pro- 
priety of my refering you to Mr. Copley for a more perticular 
Account. My hon'd Mother begs your acceptance of her best 
Wish[e]s for your Happiness her kindest Love and Regards. 

1 See Copley to Pelham, August 5, 1774, infra. 

1774 Copley -Pelham Letters 221 

Affections she has always bore you, and hopes for your excuse 
in droping a Corespondence with you 1 which her very ill state 
of Health 2 has prevented her many years from continuing 
with her nearest Fri[e]nds. 

My Brother Chas. Pelham I had the pleasure of seeing this 
Morn'g. He and my other Fr[i]end[s] with him are well, except 
my sister Pelham, who has not yet entirely recovered from the 
violent Disorder with which she was some time ago attack'd 
but which I hope time will Eradicate. Requesting your Blessing 
and asking the favour of a line from you which be assured will 
much add to My Happyness, I conclude with wishing you 
health and every felicity. I am with regard Your very Duti- 
full Nephew and Humble Servt. 

H. P. 

Captain John Small to Copley 
Dear Sir, 

Your father in Law Mr. Clarke told me you are at the Eve of 
Departure for England; and that Letters of Introduction would 
be agreable to you. I have therefore troubled you with the 
inclosed to a Gentleman whom without Partiality I can ven- 
ture to say you'll find a most worthy Benevolent sensible 
Judicious regarder of Men of Merit. 

I have only time to wish you a good passage and to assure 
[you] I am, Dr. Sir, Yours very Sincerly, 

John Small. 

Dan vers near Salem, June 9th, 1774. 

1 Erased: "owing to trouble and Illness occasioned by the death of the dearest 
and most affectionate friend." 

2 Erased: "renders very difficult and painfull to her." 

222 Copley -Pelham Letters 1774 

Captain John Small to Alexander Small 

Dear Brother, 

I left New York so suddenly I had no time to apprise you by the 
last Mail (I mean that of June) of my departure for this Country. 

I have at present every reason to suppose that my coming here 
will be of some Service to myself and of no loss to the Publick 
Service; my extensive acquaintance with the People of New Eng- 
land enables me to be so far of use, as to distinguish those who 
are well dispos'd, from those that are otherwise (and of course 
Enemies to their Country;) and I doubt not from the general 
appearance of Tranquility at present, that the Province from 
having been consider'd one of the Least; will soon appear one of 
the most Loyal, (and of course one of the most happy and flourish- 
ing) in America. I hope I shall soon be able to confirm this asser- 
tion and shall be truly happy if it can be in any shape in my poor 
power to contribute thereto. 

I herewith beg leave to introduce and recommend to you a most 
ingenious and deserving native of this province, Mr. Copely the 
Gentleman I have frequently mention'd to you of so high merit 
and distinguish'd a Character as a portrait Painter. He is in my 
oppinion one of the first Geniouses of the Age; and as such I'm 
very sure you'll take great pleasure in protecting recommending 
and introducing him to People of Taste of knowledge and of 
Judgement of which your extensive and Valuable accquaintance 
and Friends chiefly consist. 

Mr. Copely drew a portrait in Crayons, about six years ago; 
which you are now possess'd of. He has hardly us'd his Pencil 
where the Performance has not been universally admired; so that 
his own works will speak far more in his favour than any thing 
[that] can be said by, Dear Sir, Your most dutifull and affectionate 

John Small. 

Salem the residence of Genl. Gage, June 9th, 1774. 

[Addressed:] To Alexander Small, Esquire, in Villars [Filliers] 
Street York Buildings, in the Strand, London. 

1774 Copley -Pelham Letters 223 

A Bill for Portraits 

Boston The Honble Thomas Fluker Esqr. 

to Jno. S. Copley, Dr. 


June To his own Portrait £14. .0. .0 

To his Sons. Do 14..0..0 

£28. .0. .0 

To two black and Gold Frames at £1.8 2. 16. .0 

Total £30.16. .0 

Copley to his Wife l 

Dover, July 9th, 1774. 
My ever Dearest Sukey, 

Through the Divine goodness I am now in safe at this place 

and shall take my departure for London where I hope to be to 

morrow, it being but one Days ride from this, it is not possable 

to have a better passage than I have had, the weither during 

the whole time being very moderate and winds fair except about 

six hours calm. Capt. Robson has been his whole life passing 

the seas and never knew any thing like it. however after 29 

Days at Sea the land is a most greatfull sight. I was two Days 

very sea-sick, ever since which I have my health very well and I 

trust in the Mercys of God that it will be continued to me to 

yourself those dear little Babes (and our other friends) and that 

we shall long enjoy a happy union when this blank in life for I 

can call it no other is passed, in the mean time remember you 

cannot shew your love to me in a stronger manner than by 

takeing the utmost care of your own health. I am very ancious 

to hear from you how you all are, and what state the Town is in, 

and how Brother Harry has proced'd in my affairs. I hope my 

1 Chamberlain Collection, F. 4.10, in the Boston Public Library. 

224 Copley -Pelham Letters 1774 

Hon'd Mother did not take it hard: that I did not see her, or 

Brother or Sister Bromfield before I left em. I hope you have 

taken care to let them know how it happened that I did not. 

do let me know if my Dear Betsey missed me much, be very 

pellicular when you write at all times, give her and the other 

dear babes a tender kiss for me and as soon as I can I shall send 

some pretty things to gratify them, give my Duty to my Dear 

Mother, love to Brother Harry, and love to Brother and Sister 

Bromfield, Couzin Nabby, Sally, Betsey, etc., and best respects 

comp'ts. Love etc. to all my friends as you shall judge fit and 

proper, To your Hon'd Pappa my Duty, love to Sister Lucy, 

Brother Isaac, when you shall have an oppertunity. if Brother 

and sister Startin are yet with you remember me to them in the 

Most Effectionate manner. My best Wishes ever accompany 

you, my Dearest life, and my prayers for your happiness health 

and safety shall at all times be offerfed] up to the throne of 

Divine mercy for you and our Dear little ones, and trusting in 

Gods goodness that we shall not long be seperated I conclud 

with assureing you I will make the time as short as it is possable, 

and am My Dearest love forever most Effecly your tender and 

Loving Husband, 

John Singleton Copley. 

I forgot to tell brother Harry when Mr. Startin came to town 
to see Mr. (I forget his name, he to whom the bill on Mr. 
Startin was sold to) and see if the overpluss money can be 
recoverd. he must well remember he took the Bill in Ster'g, 
purely as he said that I might not suffer by the Difference of 
Exchange, Guineas being at twenty one shillings, this he did to 
oblige me. the Bill Drawn on Mr. Mifflin was for fifty two 
pounds ten shillings sterling, and that shurely aught to admit of 
my Drawing for the same without loss. 

1774 Copley '-Pel ham Letters 225 

Copley to Henry Pelham x 

London, July nth, 1774. 
Dear Brother, 

I am now begining that corraspondance from which you will 
no doubt receive much pleasure, and altho you will not find 
much to entertain you in this first Letter, yet that defect will 
be amply supplyed by its giveing you certain intelligance of 
my safe arrival in this City after a most easy and safe passage, 
and that I am in perfect health, through the Divine goodness 
I have been so ever since I left Boston except two Days of sea 
sickness. I landed at Deal, not at Dover, as I informed Sukey 
in my first Letter, that Letter being wrote on board and left 
with the Capt. to send if he should find any Vessell in the River 
as he went up. at that time I was in expection of a boat from 
the shore, of which I was disappointed, and so saild in the ship 
to Deal where I landed and took a post Chaise and came to 
London through a most enchanting Country, of which no part 
of North America that I have seen can give you the least Idea 
of. my Post Chaise and Horses were as genteel as any Chariot 
that roals through your Streets, with a Postilion well Dress'd 
as any you have seen in the service of the first gentlemen of 
fortune with you. My living on the Road of the best kind, 
Double refined Shugar, best hison Tea, and all things in propor- 
tion, no gentleman with us has things better or more Genteelly 
served than is in all the Houses where I stoped to be met with, 
and this Journey of 72 Miles cost me but three Guineas, when 
with us the Carriage would have cost more money. Sunday 
Even'g I arrived at the New England Coffee House, and soon 

1 An extract from a letter of the same date to Mrs. Copley is given in Amory, 
John Singleton Copley, 27. 

226 Copley -Pelham Letters 1774 

found Brother Clarke, 1 who is very well, this Morn'g at his 
Lodgings I devote to write to Mrs. Copley and you, as a 
Vessell will sail in a Day or two and I cannot go abroad till I 
have procured some things to be Decent in. 

July 15th. I have been to see my friend Mr. West, and find in 
him those amiable quallitys that makes his friendship boath 
desireable as an artist and as a Gentleman, on Wednesday he 
introduced me and Brother Clarke to Sr. Josha. Renolds's, 
where we saw a very large number of his portraits, and a 
fine collection of Other Masters, yesterday, or Thursday, for 
I think it better to pursue by the Days of the week in my 
Cronology than by other Dates, I had the superlative pleasure 
of Visiting the Royal Accademy where the Students had a 
naked model from which they were Drawing, the front of this 
pallace, designed by Inogo Jones, is Very magnificant. The 
Collection of the Statues Bassorelevios, etc., is very fine. I 
have seen Mr. West's Death of General Wolf, which is sufficient 
of itself to Immortalize the Author of it. there is a fine print 
of it ingraveing, 2 which when done you shall see. I find the 
practice of Painting or rather the means by which composition 
is attained easyer than I thought it had been, the sketches 
are made from the life, and not only from figures singly, but 
often from groups. This you remember was have often talked 
of, and by this a great dificulty is removed that lay on my mind. 
Mr. West proposes to Carry me to the Queen's Pallace to Day. 
I must not be very pellicular in my Acc'ts of what I see in this 
place yet, for they come so thick my time will not permit me 
to be so at present, this Mor'g I have to deliver most of my 
Letters of Recommendation which will encrease my Acquaint- 

1 Jonathan Clarke. 

2 By William Woollett. The plate was not issued until January, 1776. 

1774 Copley -Pelham Letters 227 

ance. this is really an astonishing City; many parts of which, I 
mean, the buildings, are so exactly what I had conceived that I 
am surprized at it. I find I am like to have a companion to go 
to Italy with me, a Gentleman who is about forty lately ingaged 
in painting and our pursuits will be the same. 1 he has the french 
and Italian Langage and only weits for the best season, that 
will be in about three weeks, in this I think I am happy. I have 
from Mr. West, that I need coppy very little, that fifteen 
Months for me will be equel to as many years to young Stu- 
dents, so that my time will not exceed what I talked to Sukey, 
and desire you to tell her so. the last night I slept in my new 
Lodgings. I have the first floor, very Genteel, for which I pay 
a Guinea a week, it consists two Chambers, with small room 
to powder in. I find my breakfast and have an invitation to 
dine always with Mr. West when not otherways ingaged; Capt. 
Scott sails in about a week, when I shall write more at leasure 
than I am at present, and hope to send your things by him. 
Give my love and Duty to my Hon'd ^nd Dear Mother, 
Comp'ts, etc., etc., to all Friends, observe this letter is several 
Days later in the Date than Mrs. Copley's, which I put into 
the bagg least it should be taken down, so you must communi- 
cate (if you can read it) to her, I never had my health better. 
I am sorry Brother Clarke and I are so distant from each other, 
but he is in the City and I at the Coart End of the Town, about 
two Miles or somthing more from each other. I am within a 
few Doors from Mr. West's, 2 but shall see Mr. Clarke every 
Day; for two Miles here is not what we think them with us, 

1 Carter was the artist's name, and his companionship is shown in the extracts 
from a diary kept during this journey. Printed in Cunningham, Lives of British 
Painters, and in Dunlap, I. 112. 

2 West lived at 14 Newman Street for forty-five years before his death in 1820; 
before that he was in Castle Street, Leicester Fields. 

228 Copley -Pelham Letters 1774 

and I might as well have stayd at home as in the City. Lord 
Gage 1 is out of Town this Week, so have not seen him. so is 
Lord Dartmouth, to whom I shall be introduced when he 
returns, but I must break off. remember to be Active to do 
with Spirit what you have to do. I long to hear how things go 
with you. I am, Dear Brother, Most Affecly your 

J. S. Copley. 

July 15, 1774. Direct to New England Coffee House. 

Henry Pelham to Copley 2 

Boston, July 17, 3 1774. 
My dear Brother, 

A Vessell sailing tomorrow for England from Dartmouth 4 

affords me an oppertunity of presenting you with my most 

sincere and hearty wishes for your Happyness and welfare. 

The weather since you sailed having been remarkably fine, 

your affectionate Friends here felicitate themselves in the Idea 

of your having before this arrived in England after a safe, 

quick and ple[a]sant Passage. I hope this will meet you placed 

agreably to ours and your own wishes in health Peace and (as 

far as possable) in the enjoyment of all Earthly Happyness. 

My Honor'd Mamma desi[r]es me to present you with Blessing 

and kindest Love, and to assure you that you shall allways have 

her prayers at the throne of Heavenly Grace for your temporal 

1 Thomas Gage, first Viscount Gage in the peerage of Ireland. 

2 There are two drafts of this letter, with numerous corrections in both of 
them. The first draft is shorter and has nothing about the dispute with Edward 

3 June 25 changed to July 17. 

4 First draft: Providence. Second draft: Providence changed to Dartmouth. 

1774 Copley -Pelham Letters 229 

and eternal welfare. I am happy to inform you that her Health 
is rather better than when you left us. 

My Pear Sister and her little family are well, she has wrote 
you by the Admerals' Ship, which sailed a few Days ago. I 
must make an apollogy for not having wrote myself by the 
same Conveyance]. I fully intended it but the Vessel sliped 
away before I was apprised of the time of her Sailing. Mr. and 
Mrs. Bromfield, my Sister and myself, spent a day or two lately 1 
at Salem where we had the Pleasure of se[e]ing Mr. Clarke and 
our other Friends with him in health and Peace, once more 
enjoying the Blessings of social and domestic Life. By this 
Oppertunity I propose writing to aunt Cooper, Uncle Singleton 
and my Cousin King. I received a few days after you sailed a 
most tender and affectionate Letter from my Uncle, a few 
extracts of which I beg leave to incert. it is dated January 27, 
1774 . . . 2 

I must now leave a pleasing to enter upon a disagreable 
Subject, a Subject I sincerely wish I had no accasion to men- 
tion, Viz. the Conduct of Mr. Green 3 with respect to the settle- 
ment of hi[s] Account. I shall not repeat what passed previous 
to your sailing, for that cant but be recent in your memory. I 
think it was to[o] remarkable to escape it. shall therefore] con- 
fine myself to what has since occurred. The 4th of July I went 
in to him and told him I came from Mrs. Copley, with her re- 
quest that he would settle his Account, as she was in want of 
Money to support her Family, he told me that he had not got 
the Accou[n]t and cou'd not get it from you, tho he was very so- 
licitous to for a month before you went away. I gave him the 

1 First draft: "spent the last Sunday." 

2 The whole letter is printed p. 213, supra. 

3 Edward Green (1733-1790), who married Mary Storer. 

230 Copley -Pelham Letters 1774 

Ac[c]ount. He read it, and objected to the price of his Brother's 
Picture, spoke largely of Mrs. Copley's solicitude to get some 
articles of Ferniture from him, said he did not care for the 
Pictures being paid for two years before hand, woud not have 
objected if it had been three, would not mention these things 
only to give me an Accou[n]t of how the matter stood, he said 
you had charged 25 per Cent upon the glass. I told him no 
that I had paid for that very Glass 16/. well, sais he, these are 
mere trifles. The Rent is the main article, your Brother has 
over charged that. I was to give but 4o£. I told him I was 
much surprised to hear him say so. That It had been always 
understood that He was to give 46£ 13/4 a year and that you 
had refused 40JE, which was what Mr. Startin had offered you. 
here he gave me an Explination which as well as I knew the 
man I must Confess astonished me coming even from him. 
that was, that He was to give 4o£ for the House and 6£ 13.4. 
for the barn, if he chose to occupy it. but, sais he, I never had 
the barn, the Key of it indeed was sent into me, with a Desire 
that I might make use of it if I had Ocasion; but in two Days 
after it was sent for again and I have never had it since, to this 
I exp[r]essed my great Wonder, and told him that the barn 
was certainly occupied by him, that you had frequently put 
yourself to Inconven[i]en[ce] rather than trouble him for the 
Occasional Use of it. No, he said, so far from it that you had 
let the Barn to other People. He asked me what Directions 
you had left respecting a Deduction for the House not being 
finished etc? I told him that you had left directions about it, 
but that it was proper for him to say what he expected, he 
said he mentioned one Article of Damage, that of his wood. 
He was obliged to give 20/ a Cord for 30 Cord, by which he 
lost io£ Lawfull Money for want of a Wood House being 

1774 Copley -Pelham Letters 231 

bu[i]lt in season. How in nature he got 30 Cord of wood into a 
place that can hold but 20 is beyond my sagacyty to find out. 
After a long harrange in which he spoke of breach of engage- 
ment and not being well treated he told me that he had not 
made out his Accounts, which he promised to do the next day 
and send it in, and expected to receive some bills from Salem 
that Even'g, or at farthest the next Saturday, when he would 
settle the acc't some how. upon the Whole I collected that he 
did not mean to pay for the Barn, and that he means to have a 
very large Deduction for the other things. 

A few Days ago I again called upon him and asked weithe[r] 
he was now ready to settle, the only answer that I got from 
him was that he had not drawn out his account owing to want 
of time, he being engaged in very important buisness; that he 
did not know when he should, perhaps next week, or the week 
after that, he must first post up his Books, etc. 

There are several Gentlemen of the Army solicitous to get 
the House, among others Coll. Wallcot, 1 who bears a good 
Character, has a Wife and one child, he is to see the House 
this day. I am in expectation that he will give 5o£ L. M. for it, 
as he wants it very much. Thus at present stands the matter 
respect'g Mr. Green and his house, upon his Conduct I shall 
not remark, to you it wants no Comment. I would observe 
respecting the Barn that it is very remarkable that he should 
not have mentioned the matter before you left Boston, espe- 
cially as he knew long before what rent you charged. It is also 
worthy of notice that he should have lent the Barn to several 
People, perticularly Coll. Hancock, to keep his Chaise in, to 
Mr. Fenno to keep fowls in, to Redman for the same use, and 
his constantly calling it his Barn. I shall pursue the matter 
1 William Walcott, lieutenant-colonel of the 5th Regiment of Foot. 


232 Copley -Pelham Letters 1774 

with him till I bring him to some explicit Determination, and 
shall constantly give you the Earliest Information of what 
passes, and should be glad of your Advice respecting him, as I 
find It is not lik[e]ly to be settled soon if at all. I find it very 
difficult collecting money. I have not yet made the progress 
that I could wish or that you expected. Coll. Hancock I have 
not yet been able to gett an audience of, tho he is so well as to 
talk of Heading his Company in a few Days. I have always the 
misfortune to go there x when he has a Violent Headack, or 
when he is laying down. I am very sorry I have not collected 
money eno to make you a Remittance, but hope to do it before 
you have Occasion for it. I was in hopes to have been able by 
this time to inform you that this Town was restored to its 
former flourishing State. 2 But alas! delusive hope still spreads 
its fascinateing Charm over the minds of a once happy but 
now too fatally deluded and distressed People. A Congress 
of the Colonies is to meet at Philadelphia the ist of Septem'r. 
This and the large assistance] the other Colonies affords to the 
Poor of this place keeps up their Spirits, and has hitherto pre- 
vented the Town from doing any one thing towards a removal 
of those Difficulties, which sooner or later will be most severely 
felt. Four Regiment[s] 3 and the Artillery are quietly encamped 
on the Common. They behave very peacebly and well. The 
Common wears an Entire new face. Instead of the peacefull 
Verdure with which it was cloathd when you left it, it now 
glows with the warlike Red. The fireing of Cannon, the Rat- 
tling of Drums, the music 4 of the fife, now interrupt the pleas- 
ing silence which once rendered it so peculiarly deligh[t]full. But 

1 Erased: "(which has not been seldom)." 

2 First draft: "its former Reason." 

3 Erased: "two Regiments." 4 Erased: "shrill." 

1774 Copley -Pelham Letters 233 

still all this Noise all this confusion are incomparably to be pre- 
fered to the infernal Wistle and shout of a lawless and outragious 
rabble. The strictest disciplin[e] is kept up in the Army and the 
greatest order preserved. After nine oclock in the Ev[en]ing 
there is not a Soldier to be seen nor a whisper to be heard in the 
Camp, Excepting the Centries. The solemn League and Cove- 
*nen[an]t which has been issued out by our Committe of Core- 
spondenc[e], and for Which they have been sever[e]ly handled 
in some of our Papers, I would give you some account [of], but 
It would exceed the Compass of my Paper, [and would] prob- 
ably be as disagreabl[e] to you in the reading as it would be 
painfull to me in reciting. 1 

I have only time to again express my ardent Wishes that 
every happyness may attend you and to assure you that with a 
grea[t]full Since of your Kindness I remain immutably your 
affectionate Brother, 

Henry Pelham. 

P. S. I beg you would present my affectionate Regards to 
Mr. J. Clarke, of whom I entertain the most pleasing Remem- 
brance, and to whom My Mamma desire[s] her Compliments. 
We beg you would write soon and often. A Gentleman, a 
Captain in the 43 Regm. told me yesterday that Sir J. Rey- 
nold[s] said to Him I would give iooo£ Str. that I could paint 
white equal to Mr. Coply, and that Mr. West told him that he 
was asshamed to have one of your Pictu[r]es placed by his as 
they intirely eclipsed his Performances. I would just caution 
you about Coll. Hall's Letters, for he has been crasy and I 
beleive is not now intirely well. 

1 It was framed in June and circulated for signatures. Copies are in the Massa- 
chusetts Historical Society's collection of broadsides. 

234 Copley -Pe/bam Letters 1774 

Copley to Henry Pelham 

Dear Harry, 

I have sent you on this leaf an exact plan of part of those Iron 
fences that is in front of all the Houses in this City, that in case 
you should be obliged to plan one for Mr. Green's house you 
will have nothing to do but have recourse to this, for I think it 
will be strong anough if the pales are made of Oak or some tuff 
wood, with the Addition of thickness to the peace the pales go 
through has given to it, in the Draught which I have made with 
Read chalk, by this you will see that it is only the hollow I have 
marked with Chalk that you may know what my addition is, 
and not confound it with what I meant to give you, Viz. the 
Iron Fences generally used here, those pales are about five foot 
high to the poin[t] at the top from the Bottom; the bottom is 
let into stones which are neatly laid together, and ranged so 
that a peace of ranging timber of about 9 Inches broad on the 
Top and 4 Inches high on the side would well Imiatate, as I 
have Sketched on the inclosed paper, this timber will not be 
more subjected to rott than the cant that the pales are incerted 
into in all the open fences in your Town. I think I like to have 
the pales all of a length, and those here drawn are a good dis- 
tance from each other, you are to take notice about every 18 
or 20th or at highest 25th, there should be one barr larger, 
perhaps x / 2 as large again. I have markd it with Chalk, mind I 
do not mean to add this to each side : it would make them too 
thick. They must have some support as drawn in the plan, 
this must be on the Inside and of Iron, and not thicker at most 
than the small pales, as to these large pales the house must 
regulate their Distance from each other as it would the Posts of 
a Piazza; that is, one opposite each peer, or any way that they 

1774 Copley -Pelham Letters 235 

will be made to turn out regular, if you should think oak would 
be strong anough, but I think it will not, it would be much 
Cheeper than Iron for the braces that support the fence. Cer- 
tain I am all the other parts will be strong anough if made with 
Oak, and if Mrs. Copley should think proper to have any fenc- 
ing done, I should chuse it exactly of this kind, I mean front 
fence, and the barrs of this thickness, as to the hight of the 
fence you must determin by the eye what will be best; and the 
hollow I have added (to give the barr through which the pales 
pass, more strength) I do not determin the size of, only, I 
would make it as small as possable. nothing can be cheeper 
than this kind of Fence, indeed in this place they do not make 
any object of their fences, if they are sufficient to keep Creat- 
ures out, they do not consider the fences as giveing any beauty 
to their building or gardends; and since I have been in this 
place I have not seen such a thing as a showey fence, neighther 
in town or Country. But I think the Post and the Gateway 
must be about 10 or 12 Inches thick, and only about 6 Inches 
higher than the pales with a flatt peace like a Cap on the top, 
as I have sketched it on the inclosed plan, this fence aught to 
be painted a light Lead Colour, all but the Gatepost[s] and 
Ranging Tim[bers]. I think should you exicute a fence of this 
kind you could not mistake any part, I have been so exact. I 
hope if you must do Mr. Green's you will follow every pellicu- 
lar, and be not afraid that the Stuff will be weak for I am sure 
of its sufficient strength and its neet look. I have sent you 
Colours for Painting the Houses, and Directed them by this 
oppertunity to Mr. Clarke at Salem. I send you your Cloaths 
and fine Colours, pencils, tools, paper, Chalk, etc. I shall send 
them under the care of Mr. Wheatly, who will see that you 
have them. I shall put them in one box, if I can; I inclose a note 

236 Copley -Pelham Letters 1774 

of them altogether. I cannot give you any pellicular Acc't. of 
the things that I see for want of time, you perhaps think it 
strange I should want time when I have nothing to do, but I am 
constantly imploy'd one way or other, and find so much Civility 
in this place more than equil to all I have ever received in 
Boston in my whole life, if I except what a few friends have 
shewn me, which I shall ever retain a greatfull remembrance of. 
I shall have business when I can engage in it. several have 
spoke to me, but I am determined not to do any till my return 
from Italy, for any one less than the King's or Queen's, such a 
thing as that might tempt me to stay a month longer than my 
time. Lord Gage has been very polite to me, and on my return 
to this place will imploy me. he would have done it now, if I 
had been willing to take up the Pencil. I dined with him last 
week and was very much urged to take his Country house x in 
my way to France in such a manner that I am constrained to 
think it more than mere compliment, at this season all the 
Nobillity is out of Town, so that I have not seen many of them, 
and this End of the Town is said to bee quite Dull, though I 
think it brisk anough. There has not been more than 2 or 3 
Days since I came here that I have not had perticular invita- 
tions to Dine, tho it is now 3 weeks since I came here a stranger, 
many persons have desired Brother Clarke to bring me to Dine, 
tho they had never seen me nor I them. Mr. West when I first 
came would have had me to lodge at his House, but was just 
prepaireng to move to his New house and could not accomodate 
me; but had this not been the case I should have declined it; 

1 Furle or Firle, in Sussex. "Lord Gage has a noble seat; the house was built 
by a Sir John Gage (in the reign of Henry the 8th), the first ancestor of whom they 
have any memorial. Of him there is a very fine picture." Diary and Letters of 
Thomas Hutchinson, i. 223. This portrait was painted by Holbein. On Sir John 
Gage, see Dictionary of National Biography, xx. 351. 

1774 Copley -Pelbam Letters 237 

but he desired I would always come to dinner when I was not 
ingaged, with the same freedom as I should at home, indeed, 
he is extreemly friendly and I am under great obligations to 
him. I have the same invitation from Mr. Rook, an old 
Gentleman, father to General Gage's Aid decamp; 1 and I assure 
you those are not mere peaces of ceremony, but from a real 
Desire they should be excepted of. so I am never at a loss, tho 
I have not yet improved Mr. Rook's general invitation, but 
when I dined there the last week he made me promise that I 
would come the first Day that I was not ingaged, and that I 
should always find a Dinner at 4 oClock, and when I went out, 
his Son, who I think a very polite Genteel Man, told me his 
Father was hurt that I had not gone in that friendly way and 
taken a Dinner with him before, and that it would give him 
great pleasure if I would without the least ceremoney, and 
made me promise that I would certainly do it. I mention this 
so pellicular to show you how friendly those people are into 
whose acquaintance I have fallen, and that when they had 
made a Dinner, they do not think it a trouble they are glad to 
have done with, but wish to see me with a friendly freedom that 
precludes all suspision of incincerity, or mere ceremonial com- 
plisance. you cannot Immagine how much it adds to my 
pleasure having Brother Clarke here; he is so used to the place 
that I am already allmost inneciated into all the manners and 
Customs of the City. Yesterday I dined with Gov'r Hutchin- 
son, and I think there was 12 of us altoge[the]r, and all Bos- 
tonians, and we had Choice Salt Fish for Dinner. 2 I have not 
yet been able to see your Aunt, 3 for I beleive I shall be obliged 

1 Harry Rooke, a captain in the 52c! Regiment. 

2 He had already dined with Hutchinson on July 30. Diary and Letters of 
Thomas Hutchinson, 1. 198. 

3 Helena Pelham was living at Chichester at this time. 


238 Copley -Pelham Letters 1774 

to go on purpose to Chichester. I am very sorry you did not 
give me a Direction by which I might have seen the person that 
transacts her business, you intended it but forgot it. however, 
I will do the best I can. remember me in the most tender and 
Affectionate manner to my Dear Mother. I intend if possable 
writing to her by this Vessell. Love to Brother and Sister Pel- 
ham, and All others as they stand connected, and beleive me 
your Affectionate Brother, 

J. S. Copley. 
London, August 5, 1774. 

Nathaniel Hatch to Henry Pelham 


Be so good to let the Bearer have a sight of your plan, in 

order to lay out the street called Sewall street through Captn. 

Erving's ground, 1 which he has consented to. 2 I am your most 

Obet. Servt. 

Nathl. Hatch. 
Boston, 15 Augt., '74. 

Copley to Henry Pelham 

London, Augst. 17, 1774. 
Dear Brother, 

This Evening I devote to you and Mrs. Copley. I shall there- 
fore not write you a long Letter, as the evenings are very short 
and it is now time to go to bed. you will perhaps think it 
strange I did not give some of the Day to this business, but 
you have no Idea how time is filled up in this great City. I get 

1 John Erving, whose property lay between Copley's and George Street. 

2 Sewall Street, thirty-five feet wide, was laid out from George or Belknap, 
now Joy Street, to Coventry, now Walnut Street. It ran through Sewall's "Elm 
Pasture" and the Copley property. The street was discontinued at an early date. 

1774 Copley -Pelham Lettets 239 

up in the morn'g, dress, go out see such a variety of objects, 
that the Day is spent before it seems well begun. I am invited 
to dine allmost every Day. since the Day I arrived in this place 
not more than three or four Days has passed that I have not 
had a perticular invitation to Dine, and from Mr. West and 
Mr. Rooke I have a general invitation at all times that I am 
not otherwise ingaged. I am fallen into a much larger Circle of 
acquaintance than I could have expected, at this season all the 
Nobillity are out of Town, or I should no doubt be known to 
more of them than I am at present. I have been treated with 
great politeness by Lord Gage. Lord Grovesnor has been very 
polite to me, also. I dined with him last Sunday week, at his 
house in Town, the next Day he went into the Country. Lord 
Gage is also gone to his seat at bright Hamsted, where his 
Lordship pressed me to go in my way to France, he told me the 
stage came within 4 miles of his seat, and if I would write him 
a line to acquaint him with the time I should be there, he 
would send a Servant to fetch my baggage and desired I would 
bring any Gentleman I might have as a companion in my Tour, 
to his house, there is a great deal of Manly politeness in the 
English, there is somthing so open and undisguized in them that 
I can truly say exceeds rather than falls short of my expecta- 
tion. Sr. Thos. Rich is married, he came to Town a few Days 
ago and called on me. on mon[day] I breakfasted with him 
went to see some Pictures and than Dined with him on the 
same Day. To Morrow I have an invitation to breakfast with 
Sr. Joshua Reynolds, than go with him to see the Ceiling of 
White Hall, Dine with a Mr. Watson, etc., etc. I menshon this 
to give you some Idea of the politeness of my Friends in this 
place and the manner of my Life while I am thus Idle : I might 
have begun several Pictures if it would have consisted with my 

240 Copley -Pelham Letters 1774 

plan, but I must see Italy first. I am therefore determined not 
to take anyone subject the King has got till I visit that place, 
if nothing meterial should prevent me I shall very soon leave 
this place. I wish I could have a letter from you first. Sukey 
says in one I have had from her that you wrote by the same 
oppertunity, but it has not come to hand, you must Direct to 
be left at the New England Coffee House. I suppose you 
expect I should say somthing on the Pictures I have seen, but 
the field is so large I cannot yet begin it. I see so much that it 
is impossable to know where to begin, but do you go on as you 
are in your practice; but observe one peice of advice, to turn as 
much as possable Delicate Womens faces so as to have as little 
shade on them as may be. dont make it faint, but let it fall 
from the front of the face into those parts of less importance, as 
you will find it in Bentivoglio's portrait, and I think it is so in 
Mrs. Sidley's Picture at Capt. Phillips's, which by the way I 
believe the face to be painted by Van Dyck's hand by what I 
have seen here. I would have you very carefull to preserve as 
much as possable broad lights and shadows, only turn the face 
so that it shall be all aluminated, or as much so as possable. 
at the same time let the shade fall some where else, what if you 
should try somthing for an Exhibition ? I would have you also 
observe to get into your Picture an hew of Colours that is 
rather gay than otherwise, at the same time rich and warm like 
Bentivoglios. but be carefull that you intersperse some cool 
Colours of the Green and white with yellow, etc., so as to give 
it the Colouring (when the whole mass of the Picture is taken 
together) of the Rainbow and be carefull as you go towards the 
bottum of your Canvis to mannage your objects that they do 
not take the eye. Scumble them down so that when you Vew 
the Picture the Center shall predominate. I think in Diana's 

1774 Copley -Pelham Letters 241 

figure in your Room you have an Example, observe her leggs 
how they seem to run out of observation, from her head and 
breast Downwards how gradually her figure seems to lose it 
self, but I must wish you a good night, in the Morn'g I will add 
a little more if I can. 1 I would send you Sir Josha. Reynolds's 
Lectures if I was sure you had not them; but if you have not 
they are well worth your possesing. I think them the best 
things of their kind that has been wrote, in my next I will send 
you a receipt for making a retouching Varnish, and wish you 
to send mine for making Spirit Varnish by the next oppertunity. 
I have not seen your Aunt, but shall to morrow write to her and 
send your letter. I am sorry you did not give me a Direction to 
the Person that transacts her business. She lives 72 Miles from 
this and I have been loath to take such a tour unless I could 
take it in my way to somthing else at the same time, however 
I will write and shall hear from her no doubt in a few Days. I 
will not neglect your Interest any more than my own and hope 
you remember what I left in Charge with y[ou] and will conduct 
your self agreable to it. I have your well being as much at 
heart as you can possable have it yourself, be very Active, 
Study incessantly, and practice continually, and you will find 
your advantage, remember it is [not?] anough to be a painter; 
you must be conspecuous in the Croud if you would be happy 
and great, and you must learn to rid off work. Inclosed is some 
Acct. which you will take care of. I have not been able to write 
to our Dear Mother but will do it soon, tho I consider my Let- 
ters to you the same thing only differing in name. I beg she 
will accept my most Affectionate Duty and Love. I am, Dear 
Harry, your Affct. Brother, 

J. S. Copley. 

1 The handwriting changes. 

242 Copley-Pelham Letters 1774 

Copley to Henry Pelham 

London, Augt. 25, 1774. 
Dear Brother, 

Please to send enclosed to Gov. Hutchinson the drawing I 
took of him with a pencil some years since, you may if you 
please keep a copy of it. 

I shall set out in about four hours for Brighthemstone and 
from thence take shipg. for Diepe in France etc., etc. God bless 
you. Your affect. Brother, 

John Singleton Copley. 

Copley to Henry Pelham 

Paris, Sepr. 2d, 1774. 
My Dear Harry, 

I have now the pleasure to inform you of my safe arrival in 
this City that I am in Spirits, am grown much fatter than you 
have ever seen me. I know not how it happens, but I beleive 
there is somthing in the Air of France that accilerates or quick- 
ens the Circulation of the fluids of the Human Body, for I 
already feel half a Frenchman in this respect. I left London on 
the 26 of Augst. and reached Bright Helmstone in the Evening 
of the same Day, and was there detained by bad weather till 
the 29th, when I and my companion imbarked on board one 
of the Packets, and in about 1 1 hours we arrived at Dieppe in 
Normandy, from thence we set out Imediately and reached 
Torst 1 at noon, from thence to Rouen where we Slept. Rouen 
is the Capital of Normandy, and you might expect I should 
give you some account of it; but we did not reach it till dusk, 
and at four oClock the next morning left it to pursue our rout, 
so I can only say the Streets are so narrow and the buildings so 

1 Totes. 

1774 Copley -Pelham Letters 243 

high, all of Wood and in the Gothic or rather no stile, that in 
passing through the streets it seem'd like going through an 
Arch, for the Houses seem almost to meet at their Tops their 
oposites ; But we pushed on our Way, resolved to lose no time 
and reached Vaudrieul 1 to Breakfast, and for the first time 
missed the Tea. we were served with Eggs, Chese, and Wine, 
etc. from this place we went on to Gaijon 2 where we dined in 
the true French stile, or we would have Dined if we could ; but 
the Victuals was so badly Dressed that even Frenchmen com- 
plained of it. however this did not move us in the least, we 
went on after Diner to Vernon, there made a short Stop, thence 
to Bonnieres, where we had a good Supper and good Beds. 
We now live altogether in the French Stile. Deserts are 
brough[t] after meals as regular as the Table is laid, at 4 
oClock next morning we went on to Roboise, 3 from thence to 
Mentes, 4 than to Meaulen 5 where we dined, than began our 
last Stage to this Great City where we arrived in the afternoon, 
we passed many Towns which would be tedious to mention, all 
Normandy through which we passed is very fertile and full of 
delightfull Landscapes. The hills are covered with Vines. I 
think from Normandy to Paris not so rich a Country, though 
it is rendered more butifull by the many Towns and Seats that 
are interspersed through out it, and the fine River Siene, by 
which we rode many miles, adds much to the beauty as well as 
convenience of the place. We provided a Knife and fork for our 
Pockets before we left London, for the People always Carry a 
knife about them in this Country, so none are laid on any 
Table. Wine is drank out of Tumblers; but you must know 
those French Wines are not so strong as our Cyder, no other 
liquor except a little Warter is drank sometimes mingled with 
1 Vaudreuil. 2 Gaillon. 3 Rolleboise. 4 Manset. 6 Meulan. 

244 Copley -Pelham Letters 1774 

Wine. The Peaches are Very good in this Country and very 
plenty. We are now in very Clean Lodgings in this place, which 
we reached the 1st of Sepr. I beleive you will think we made 
Dispatch to go from London to Paris in 4 Days and 3 Nights 
which we did, allowing for 3 Days detention by bad Weither. 
This Day my first in this place, I have seen the Church of St. 
Sulpice. it is rather grand from its quantity than the Eliganc 
of proportion, and the Pallais Royalle, in which I saw a very 
fine Collection of Paintings, and this Evening went to the 
Opera, the Subject was Orpheus serching for his Wife in the 
Infernal Regions. I was much entertained; tho a strainger to 
the Language, the Musick Charmed me. but it now grows late, 
so wish you a good repose and an earley attention to business in 
the morng., and a Care to Cultivate your knowledge of the 
Languages, this will make your future Life happyer than any 
thing in this World, do let me from my own feelings intreat 
of you not to Idle, or misapply, one moment, for they are Inn- 
estimiable. I feel what I Now write and Injoy the effects of 
my application in such a manner as no words can express; and 
this you will feel yourself if you will purchase it with Industry, 
as I know you may and you have a pleasure above me in having 
such a foundation for the Languages which will be of great 
use to you when you come abroad, my wishes for your happi- 
ness carrys me beyond my intention at this time, but it is so 
momentious a thing to you that I could not excuse myself, if 
I should let any time pass before I pressed it on you ; lest by my 
delay some of those precious moments might be lost that this 
earley advice might have saved, let me just recommend to you 
to keep the faces of your portraits, perticularly your Weomens, 
as Clear of Shade as possable, and make broad Masses of Lights 
and shade, practice continually. Draw Landscapes, Dogs, 

1774 Copley -Pelham Letters 245 

Cats, Cows, horses, in short I would have you keep in your 
Pocket a book and Porto Crayon — as I now do — and where 
ever you see a butifull form Sketch it in your Book, by this 
you will habituate your Self to fine formes. I have got through 
the Dificultys of the Art, I trust, and shall reap a continual 
Source of pleasure from my past Industry as long as it pleases 
God to give me health and life, but yet I lament I had not 
saved more of my time than I have done, you have it now be- 
fore you and if you are determined you will accomplish it. 
Study those Works of Raphael which you can procure, the 
Cartoons in perticular. Draw them not in a finished manner, 
but to habituate yourself to the manner of combineing your 
figures. I trust you will take this in a manly manner and feel 
its force. I write under a Kind of impu[l]se, and would per- 
swade you from inactivity as I would a near friend from plung- 
ing into certain destruction. Adieu, good night. I again take up 
the Subject (this morning) of my Observations on what I see 
in this place and hope you will excuse my long digression, as I 
think it is so important to your happiness. I shall return to the 
Pallais Royalle, which We saw yester Day or 2d Sepr. In this 
Pallais there is a very great Collection of Pictures by various 
Masters, some very fine, some indifferant, some bad. In the 
Chamber of Poussins are his seven Scacraments. the prints 
you have seen in Mr. Palmer's Vollumn of Italian Masters, 
they are very Dark, much more so than his Scipeo at Smibert's, 
and about the same size of that, these are however esteemed 
his best Works, but I should have liked them better if they had 
been coloured in a more brilliant manner, he has been som- 
times very beautifull in his colours, light and warm in his 
Shawdows somthing resembling the Light of the Sun, his 
Shadows broad sharp and transparent, you possess an Accad- 

246 Copley -Pelham Letters 1774 

emy figure or two much stumpt. I think there is two on one 
paper, one on each side, much in his manner of treating his 
figures, you cannot mistake them, as you have none like them, 
one of them I think is puling a rope or in such an action; add 
to this kind of musseling the colour of Shade you see in the 
Camera which are in some parts very blew, in some a kind 
of readish or sandy tint. The out lines of his figures are not 
blended with the ground, but Sharp and determined, his 
expression is charming, his Men, Weomen, and Children, 
laugh, Cry, Grieve, and indeed express all the passion of the 
Soul surpriseingly well. I would have you draw some of his 
heads, that you may lern of what forms and Lines they are 
composed. I wish I could convey to you a more perfect Idea 
of what I see, but study the Camera for human figures and in 
short every Peice of Nature if possable, and you will go on in 
the way you are in and Diligence will make you an Artist, as 
you proceed invent Historical Subjects, possess Sr. Josa. 
Renolds lectures as soon as you can, — some of the Book 
Deallers will send for them for you — and they will tell you how 
to proceed in the management of those great Subjects. I dont 
mean to alter your pursuit in portraits, but you aught to be 
capable of treating every Subject, you have some Drawings] 
of Albonius's in bister which show how much is to be done 
from Imagination, only when you have got thus far, the Life 
is to be made use of for hands, feet, heads and for each figure 
Drapery sett on the Layman, broad and eligant. in this Way 
you make your finishd Drawing, which when done the Diffi- 
culty is over. There is several Titians in this collection, but 
shall forbear remarking on them till I see others that I am sure 
will give me a just Idea of his merrit in all respects. I am your 
Affecte. Brother, j g< CoPLEY . 

1774 Copley -Pelham Letters 247 

Robert Hooper to [P. Thomas?] 

Call on Mr. Copeleys Brother up above the Orange tree, and 

desire him to put my son Stephens Picture into this Case and 

bring it without fail. 

Rob Hooper. 1 
Endorsed: Receid. the within 

P. Thomas, Boatman, 

Sepbr. 5, [1774?] 

Copley to Henry Pelham 

Paris, Sepr. 7, 1774. 
My Dear Harry, 

I was obliged to break off my last Letter somwhat abruptly 
as I found the Post was to go sooner than I expected, and I was 
loath you should miss of the most earley inteligence of my safe 
arrival in this place and of my health. I have given you the 
best Idea in my power of the Works of Poussin which I saw on 
the 2d Sepr. the same Day and in the same collection I saw 
many of the Works of Raphael, Corregio, Titian, Paul Ver- 
oneise, Guido, etc., but as I do not think I have yet seen their 
most perfect Works I shall suspend my remarks upon them 
till I have that pleasure. I do not think it is important to send 
you catalogues of the Pictures I see, but such an account of the 
Masters as will give you the best Idea of their Works in General 
and their merrit. as I write to one who has not seen any Works 
of Art I shall indeavour to adapt my Language to answer that 
end in the most effectual manner. In my way to the Palace 
Royalle I stoped at the Church of Notre Dame where I saw 
many Paintings, and much Sculpter. the Church is a very 
1 Of Marblehead, and known as "King Hooper." 

248 Copley -Pelham Letters 1774 

beautifull Pile of Gothick Architecture, and perticularly men- 
shoned by Mr. Addisson. it was founded by Robert one of the 
Kings of France in a.d. ioio, but a pellicular disscription of 
every peice of Art would take up too much time. I shall only 
mention one peice of Sculpter which I think very fine. It is the 
Alter behind the High Alter, it is in form of a Niche and com- 
posed of four Figures ; in the middle sits the blessed Virgin 
Looking towards Heaven with an Air of Holy Grief, if you will 
allow me the expression, her Arms extended, her Drapery flow- 
ing, and supporting on her Lap the head and part of the Body 
of a dead Christ, the Christ lays partly on the Ground and is 
very fine, behind is the Cross from which the Christ has been 
taken down, with a flowing peace of Linen hanging over it 
which makes the whole more pleasing in its form than it would 
have been without this continuation of the Mass of Art. it 
plays off from the Group and as a flame loses it self insensably 
first into a readish soft colour than tapers into many serpentine 
streaming points and gently steals unperceived into reaths of 
Smoke, so in this manner the mass is melted away. And 
observe, all lights in Pictures aught so to be mannaged. the first 
great ligh[t] ought to be followed by some suxceeding ones less 
powerful than the first that let the eye off by gentle degrees, 
this is effected by Colours as well as lights and shades, for 
instance read Will lead the eye from bright yellow, and black 
from Read, Green from White, etc., etc. but to return to the 
Alter, on one side is a figur of an Angel Kneeling, his Wings 
partly extended, holding the Crown of thorns in his hand, 
another Angel on the other side supports the hand of Christ, 
there is a great sublimity of expression in the whole Group, the 
heads perticularly that of Christ is very lovely and of a divine 
carractor perhaps not to be surpassed by any thing in Art. 

1774 Copley -Pelham Letters 249 

This Group is of white marble much larger than the life and 
exicuted by Coustoux the Elder; in 1723. In this Church is 
the Royal Vault. 1 There is many Paintings by Cheron, 2 Ant. 
Coypal, etc., as large or larger than life, but I do not mean to 
give catalogues of the Pictures, for it would be an endless 
thing, and tend but little to your profit, my intention is to give 
you as just an Idea of the Works of the first Masterfs] as I pos- 
sably can without giving the Carracter of those that are infe- 
rior, nor shall I labour to Discribe perticular Pictures even of 
the first Masters, unless it is some of exalted Merrit, such as 
the Transfiguration, for this reason I shall not say any thing 
of Coypal or his works, nor shall I observe on Lebrun till my 
return to France for his Capital Works are at Versails which I 
shall not Vissit till my return from Italy. But I will endeavour 
to convey to you a just Idea of Raphael from the body of his 
best works taken collectively, the same of M. Angelo, Cor- 
regio, etc. I have now inform'd you of my plan and shall pro- 
ceed without more preface, there is Building in this City a 
Colledge for Surgions. I think this will be a very beautifull 
building, there is a fine Corinthian Portico Wonderfully beau- 
tifull. in the Pidiment is a fine Bass releif of Sergery joining 
hands with learning cross an Alter, on one side some boys 
bringing forward Books, etc., on the other another group 
of boys inspecting a Dead body, the whole is built of free 

Sepr. 3d. Vissited the Luxemberg. this Gallery is intirely 
Painted by Rubens, but I think the Pictures very unequel in 
merrit. you have seen the prints ; they give you the design, so I 
shall not enlarge on that; only observe, that it is of a great car- 

1 Erased: "In it will be depossited in a few Days the body of the late King." 

2 Cheron. 


250 Copley -Pelham Letters 1774 

ractor. you must take notice how he combines his objects, with 
what an easey flowing out line he Draws his figures, smooth and 
easey as the flow of Homer's Verse, all this you have before 
you, but you have not the colouring, it is very brilliant, rich 
and tender, when you vew Poussins Sippeo you must have 
observed one general tint runing over the whole Picture, as if 
the Painter when his work was done had immersed it in a 
brown Varnish, but when you see one of Rubens's you cannot 
say his Picture is of any one Colour, so happily has he divided 
his Colours over his Picture, that it is neither read, blue, yellow, 
or Green, but one agreable whole, pertakeing of many tints so 
well proportioned to each other that none predominates. The 
head at Mrs. Hancocks give[s] you a tolerable Idea of his men's 
flesh, only I think it a little too Raw. When he paints a River 
God, or Satire, Or an old man, such as Lot in the Picture you 
have, he colours the flesh very yellow and makes the half tints 
very green, these carractors I think he makes a litt[l]e of the 
Gumbouge copperry Colour, in the Dark shadows of those 
complections he puts almost pure Vermilion, expecially if a 
Read Drape[ry] should come in contact with it. I think the 
Shoulders and back of Pan in the Pan and Sirinks at Mr. Char- 
don's comes neigher the mark than any I can think of; only if I 
remember right the tints in that are more Grey and broken than 
Rubens's and darker. I beleive those figures in the Deluge at 
Mr. Chardon, I mean the Group that is most principal, that is 
clambering up the bank, may come nearer the mark than pan, 
especially if a little yellow is added to the tints. Rubens is very 
carefull not to let any part of his Pictures look sad or heavy, 
nor does he make them gaudy, but brilliant Clear and har- 
monious, his Weoman are very clear, but I know not what to 
refer you to by which you will form to yourself the Idea I wish 

1774 Copley -Pelham Letters 251 

to convey to you. I think the head of Bentavoglios comes the 
nearest to it. he seems to me to have mixt his tints first very 
clean and Rich in colour, than to have lay'd on his lights as they 
were mixed on his pallet, than the next pure tint in like man- 
ner and all the little musseling in the light parts of the body 
is only express'd by tints somthing reader, avoiding the gray 
tints, he only darkens with read those soft mussels and lines 
that fall in the mass of Light, even the extremitys next the 
back ground ar[e] carried off as much as possable by those clear 
Readish tints. I mean on the light side of his figures, for when 
he carrys his flesh into the shade, his first tint,, after he leaves 
the pure carnation or the second tint above menshoned, he lays 
on one that pertakes of the blew, than follows his warm shade. 
but observe, the Demi or blew tint must be so far rendered 
harmonious by pertakeing of the Read and yellow that it makes 
an agreable whole. I think when he comes to the feet and hands 
he seems loath to Dray the fingers or Toes but scumbles them 
as much as possable in to a readish mass, this management is 
esspecially in his feet, tho somewhat so in his hands or rather 
fingers, the head of the Nimph in your Picture of Dianna has 
a great deal of this management, I mean her in the fore 
Ground, he never divides the Toes by any Dark lines so that 
when you are near the Picture you can scarcely make them out. 
The tone of his flesh, take an whole figure together, of one of 
his Weomen, and it is full and rich, about as much so as the 
head of Vandyck at Mrs. Hancocks. 

I think it would be worth your while to paint a Picture 
from one of his prints to try the effect from this Acct. of his 
Colours. I would further add that when the musling is so deep 
that read would Appear too flaming and make the flesh 
look need, he puts between the read in the bottum of the 

252 Copley -Pelham Letters 1774 

-■■ — ... — ■■ . ..-,.. 1 - » - — ■- 

hollows and the Second tint above menshoned the blewish 
tint, this keeps the mass of flesh soft and harmonious in its 
Whole body. 

Sepr. 4. Vissited the Church of St. Roch, Hospital for Inva- 
lids, Place Victoire, the Collisee, etc., etc. I saw many paint- 
ings and much Sculptor, but shall pass them without any 
perticular remarks, as I can say nothing that I think will be 
important to you. only that the Chappel in the above Hos- 
pital is a most Magnificent peace of Architector. the Richness 
as well as purity of Stile is amasing. I shall now end my Letter 
to you — I beleive you think it a pretty long one — unless som- 
thing should occur to fill the paper before I send it off. 

Sepr. 7. I have just returned from takeing a second Vew of 
the Luxembourg where I and my friend spent the afternoon, 
and I find my above observations all confirmed with respect 
to Rubens's colouring, only that somtimes, he has thrown some 
little dashes of blewish tint (to take off a rawness that might 
otherwise arrise). I mean in the Light masses of his flesh, he 
has been however very sparing of all but the pure Carnation. 
Mr. Carter thinks this Account I have given you is so just that 
it is equel to your seeing the Pictures, and that you cannot mis- 
take his Colouring, the Day after tomorrow we set out for 
Lions, you cannot imagine the pleasure that this Tour afloards 
me, but I miss the Language extreemly. I find was my stay 
here any length of time, I mean 2 or 3 Months, I should pos- 
sess a great Deal of it. but Adieu, Dear Harry, and believe me 

J. S. Copley. 

1774 Copley -Pelham Letters 253 

Copley to his mother 

Paris, 8th of Sepr., 1774. 
Dear and Ever Hond. Mamma, 

I did not think it would have been so long be[fore] I should 
have wrote you, but I know you will excuse me in this when I 
inform you I have found it dificult to write those letters to 
Brother Harry, it being necessary they should be the result of 
great attention and Study, and that although I painted nothing 
in England, being resolved on making the tour first, yet I had 
a great deal to do in attending to the Art. by which means on 
my return to London I shall not have this to do, knowing at the 
same time you received every inteligence by the Letters to 
Harry and My Dear Sukey relating to me, for I have been very 
pellicular to them, and have let no oppertunity of Wrighting 
to them for your Sake as well as theirs, for I consider'd my 
letter[s] wrote for you as well as them though addressed to 
them. I arrived in this City the first of Sepr. and shall leave it 
Tomorrow. We had a very fine tour to this City, we left Bright 
Helmstone on monday afternoon, and reached this place the 
Thursday following. Mr. Carter [is] well versed in traveling, 
has the languages, boath Italian and French, this makes [it] 
very convenient and agreable. he is a very polite and sensable 
man, who has seen much of the World, it is most probable one 
house will hold us boath at Rome, and the same Coach bring us 
back to England in a twelve month from Our leaving England. 
I desire to bless God I never had my health better in my [life], 
and I am really grown fatter than you ever saw me. I find this a 
great City containing many Superb Buildings, altho I do not 
like the Architecture in General in their Old buildings, yet 
there is a Chappel in the Hospital for Invalids, beautifull, 

254 Copley -Pelbam Letters 1774 

grand and rich, allmost beyand disscription. There is a number 
of NewBui[l]dings arecting of a very magnificient Kind. I am 
assured there is a Capital Architect in this place. We are fixed 
in very Clean lodging, this you may think strange in this place 
for Paris is generally thought to be a Dirty place; but tho that 
may be true, yet people may live Clean and well if they please, 
there is Hotels in Paris in which there is appart's, that let for 
50 and 60 Luisdores per Month, these are very grand, my 
Companian and myself give but a Guinea per Week for the 
Appartments we have, they serve us boath and we find a great 
saving in being together, in many things, we dine at a publick 
house, which is the best in Paris. I am told they lay tables for 
an 100 People per Day. the Cumpany are very genteel, they 
lay Table in differant Rooms; at each there may be about 15 
Persons or 20. I think seldom more sit at the same Table. 
sinc[e] I have dined there several Knights have been of the 
Cumpany; none but Gentlemen of Carractor dine in this 
House. The Tables are mostly served with plate. Soupp is the 
first thing brought and this in Silver Turenes ; than is brought 
the Bully; that is the Beef of Which the Soupp is made; than 
the Tables is served with two Courses of everything that is in 
season, and of the best kind ; than a Desert, a pint of Wine is 
set to each plate, and is I think sufficient for one person, there 
is a Roal of bread of a very good quallity containing as much at 
lea[s]t as a 15 penny loaf, this is for one person, a Silver spoon 
Silver fork and knife and Towel, at each Corner of the Table 
a large Decanter of Waiter. I think their bread far better than 
the London, or than any I have met with any where, in this 
House they never bring any thing a second time to table (not 
even the Linen) without Wash'g; but what is left is given to the 
poor, it is said the fragments feed 50 poor per Day. the attend- 

1774 Copley -Pelham Letters 255 

ance is excellent and the order of decoram of the Table so well 
preserved that you would rather think it a select cumpany of 
private friends met at a private House, than a mixed cumpany 
in a publick House, now I have given you this Acct. of the fare, 
what should you think is the Charge for this ? not more than 
two shillings Sterling. I am sure you think this very Cheep 
indeed, but it is really no more, and I have not enlarged in the 
least. As it was my intention to stay in this place place but a 
week, so I did not think it worth while to seek for any acquaint- 
ance or introduction to any persons. Mr. Carter thought it not 
worth while, he has no acquaintance here, tho he has been two 
or three times before in Paris. The Pallaces are open, so We 
Vissit them; and the Churches. I have now seen all that is 
worth seeing, so shall lose no time but push forward towards 
Rome, it [is] curious to observe that in all the places that I 
have [been] in, Men seem to be the same sett of being rather 
disposed to oblige and be civil than otherwise. I can scarsely 
reallise it that I am now in this City, as it has seem'd so like a 
Dream to me when I have though [t] of coming to it; but I find 
all the Dificulty is in seting about such business. I have enjoyd 
a fund of Delight in this excursition and hope it will fix me in 
such a way as will ennable me to provide for my Dear Children 
in such a way as to bring them into the great World with repu- 
tation, as it now grows late I shall close this letter, with my 
best respects to all those Friends who shall inquire after me, 
and with my constant wishes for your health and happiness, 
and desires of your blessing constantly to attend me in all the 
moments of my life. I am, my Dear and ever Hon'd Mother, 
your Dutifull and truly Affectionate Son, 

John Singleton Copley. 

256 Copley -Pe /ham Letters 1774 

P. S. I hope Snap continues to behave himself well, if he 
Does I shall be glad to hear it, and shall certainly reward him 
for it. I shall be very Glad to hear from Boston. I have 
received only one letter (which was from Mrs. Copley) since I 
lift it. it gave me a pleasure I cannot express when I received it, 
and shall be very constant to write to some or other of them 
every oppertunity, because I know they will receive the like 
pleasure from my Letters. 

Copley to his wife 1 

Lyons, Sepr. 15, 1774. 
My Ever Dearest and beloved Sukey, 

My constant attention to your happiness, induces me to 
improve every oppertunity that offers to inform you, of my 
health; and that I know nothing irksom (as yet) in my tour but 
the painful seperation from those friends I so tenderly love, 
being sure of your sincerity, when you wrote me your happi- 
ness so greatly depended on mine, you are in return to receive 
the only best and surest testimonies that is in my power how 
much mine depends on yours, that is, releaving your anciety 
as much as possable by constantly writing to you, and being as 
soon as possably I can, in London again. I am as certain as I 
can be of any thing, that if it pleases God to bless me with Life, 
and health, I shall not exceed the time I menshoned, that is, I 
shall be in England the next Sumer. If you knew how great my 
desires were to be with you, you would not think it necessary to 
say one word to hasten that happy time; I am sure I shall think 
that an hour of happiness that brings us together beyand any I 
shall enjoy till it arrives. I feel myself epsorb'd, in those tender 

1 Chamberlain Collection, J. 3.8, in the Boston Public Library. 

1774 Copley -Pelham Letters 257 

feelings to that degree that I must restrain myself till the time 
of Banishment is expired; yet, my Dear life, I assure you such a 
fund of pleasure attends me in all the sceens through which I 
pass, that it is an ample recompence for all the time, and 
expence, that attends such a Tour. I do not find those dangers, 
and dificulties, in the exicution of such a Voyage and Journey 
as this I am now prosicuting from America to Rome so great as 
people do that sit at home, and paint out frightfull Storys to 
themselves in their Imaginations, their is no part of the way 
from London to this City, but what is so traviled, that the 
number of people one must associate with is rather burdensome 
than otherwise; tho it is very genteel Cumpany one meets with, 
and no other, as there is a subbordination of People in this 
Country unknown in America. We left Paris last friday at four 
in the Morning and reached this City last night, it is reckened 
three hundred miles and we performed it in five Days, we came 
in a conveyance called a Diligence; it is like one of our Coaches 
only large anough to contain ten persons with conveniance, tho 
we were but seven, with four or five without side, we set out 
by four o Clock every morning and at certain stages stop to 
dine at n or 12 o'Clock; at those Houres there is always a 
Diner provided for the Cumpany that are in the Coach and no 
one else, unless that Cumpany chuse to invite any that maybe 
at that time in the House, we were all exceeding sociable, tho 
I felt some degree of mortification in not having the Language, so 
as to join in the conversation, we were drawn by eight Horses ; 
and what with the size of the Coach, the bagage before and 
behind it seemd a moving House. I cannot say much in favour 
of the Country through which we passed the four first Days, 
but the fifth Day such it was as was really inchanting. I forgot 
to tell you that the last Day and half we came by warter. the 

258 Copley -Pelham Letters 1774 

price is paid at Paris for a seat in the Diligence, and for that 
you are fed on the road and very well indeed; but when we got 
as far as Chalon, a City on the River sone, which is within a 
Day and an half of Lyons, the proprierters of the Diligence, 
have a Vessel into which they put us with our bagage. in 
this Vessell or boat there is two Rooms, one of which is very 
comfortable, seats all round with Cushons, and very neat in- 
deed; so that we were as comfortable as in any Room, this 
Room is always reserved for the passengers that come in the 
Coach, than by a long roap from the mast Carried to the 
Shoar and fixed to Horses she is Drawn down the River (which 
is as Smoath as Glass) and on each side [we] were delighted 
with such fine prospects as no pen can discribe. the vast variety 
of Towns, Churches, Villas and castles, together with the lovely 
variety of the Hills on each side, covoured with Grapes and 
Gardens, and the beautifull windings of the river which is very 
narrow and gave us a very perfect vew of the smallest objects' on 
boath sides, the waiter so shoal that I think in general it did 
not exceed two or three feet take one part of it with the other. 
The Principal Villages and Towns by which we passed and 
that lay on each side of the Soan 1 are, Essaune, Fontain bleu, 
Moret, Villeneurs la Guyare, Sens, Villeniuve le Roy, Joigny, 
Auxerre, Vermenton, Rovere' Auxere, Arnelduc, Challons, 
Tournett, 2 Macon, and a Multitude of others that inriched the 
prospects and varied them so continually, that it is vain to 
attemp to give you an Idea of it. in this way we reach this City, 
tho not large is from its natu[ral] situation very lovely, it lays 

1 Seine, Yonne and Soane. 

2 Essonnes, Fontainebleau, Villeneuve la Guyard, Villeneuve sur Yonne, 
Pouilly en Auxerre, Arnay le Due, and Tournus, are conjectured to be the places 
not easily recognized by his spelling. 

1774 Copley -Pelham Letters 259 

on each side the River Soan, over which there are several Bridges, 
on the south side of the City is the famous River Rhoan men- 
shoned by many Historians and Poets, this afternoon I passed 
the Street that is bounded on one side by this River, and saw 
its windings a considerable way. On the north side of the City 
the Hills are very high and bound it. we assended in going on 
this high ground a flight of Stone Steps, the number about 120. 
those Steps lead from [one] of the Streets, when we had got to 
the Top of the Steps we still assen[d]ed till we reach the Sum- 
mit, where there is several [buildings] one of them a Church. 
But such a prospect my eyes never before beheld; such an 
extended Country so rich and beautifull ! and at the utmost 
reach of sight could see the Alps riseing like Clouds above the 
other Hills, we could see from this the Mountains of Savoy and 
Switserland very Distinktly, and the City of Lyons right under 
our feet with the two beautyfull Rivers one on the Side the 
other running through the midst of it. Brother Harry can 
convey a very perfect Idea of our rout by my maps. I design 
staying in this City only two Days to rest and see what there is 
to be seen, and than with Diligence go on. I believe you must 
think we have not loitered on the road when we have go[ne] so 
far in so short a time, but we want to get on as fast as we can, 
and the sooner will be the return that I trust will put me in 
possession of my Dear Family. I am very Ancious for you, 
my Dear, and our lovely Children, for I know not what state 
you are in, in Boston ; but I pray God to preserve you and them. 
I beg you will not be uneasey for me, for I take all imaginable 
care of my self and find it an happy event the having a com- 
panion, by this everything goes on easy. We shall I trust soon 
be at the utmost distance from those I so tenderly [love] that I 
propose, after a few months tarry there, every remove will 

260 Copley -Pelham Letters 1774 

bring us nearer together. my Angel ! had it been convenient 
for you to have been with me, how happy should I have been ! 
I am ancious to know how my Dear Mother does, and [whether] 
she is easey or not. I know she must be ancious for me, but 
I hope it does not make her unhappy, do give my tenderest 
Love and duty to her. I wrote to her to you and Brother Harry 
from Paris, which I hope you will duly receive, you must 
continue to Direct to Brother Jackey * at the New England 
Coffee House my Letters, and he will forward them to me. 
Give my Duty and Love to our Hond. Papa, and to all my 
friends remember me in such a way as you shall judge proper. 
I hope you meet with no dificulty in the settlement of those 
Accts I left in your hands. I shall be much distresed if you are 
put to any dificulty of that kind, do write by every oppertu- 
nity. I am impation to know how things go in Boston, if my 
Brother wrote by the Vessell that brought your welcom Letter 
to me, it is lost. I have never seen it. give my blessing to my 
Dear Babys, and a thousand Kisses, tell my Dear Betsey not 
to forget he[r] Papa. I finish this 1 6 tho I began it 15 of Sepr. 
it give[s] you one Days later inteligence. But I must bid you 
Adieu, my Dear life. I shall write to you from Marsells as soon 
as I arrive there if the[re] be any oppertunity; if not do not be 
ancious. I shall watch every oppertunity. in the mean time 
may the good God keep you and your little one[s] in continual 
Peace, and beleive [me] your Most Affectionate Husband, 

John S. Copley. 2 

1 Jonathan Clarke. 

1 The omissions in this letter, indicated by brackets, are due to the writ- 
er's haste, not to defects in the manuscript. 

1774 Copley -Pelham Letters 261 

Copley to Henry Pelham 

Marseilles, 25 Sepr., 1774. 
My Dear Brother, 

From this place I write you, altho I have so lately sent you a 
long Letter, for I assure you I dont know a greater pleasure 
than writing to my friends. But I should if it was possable fill 
my letters with matter that differed, so that each should con- 
tain somthing percular to itself, for I consider those I write to 
you not only yours but belonging to our Dear Mama, and my 
Dear Sukey; but it is dificult, as we take only a cursory vew of 
those places through which we pass, however I shall as much 
as possable avoid repetitions. I arrived at this place yesterday 
afternoon, and now begin to see the end of my long but most 
pleasing Tour, big with pleasure of various kind and instruction. 
You must think we have made great Dispatch to reach this 
place not less than eight hund. and fifty miles from London in 
four weeks, and made a week's stay at Paris, two Days at 
Lyons, and four Days and an half at Avignon ; but I assure you 
there is no more Dificulty in traviling th[r]ough this Country 
than in your going to Cambridge; nor is there any dangers 
attending it but those to which human nature is exposed at all 
times and in every place, my last Letter was Dated at Lyons. 
from thence went to Avignon and reached it in 2 Days and an 
y 2 . we went down (in a kind of Vessel) the River Rhone carried 
by the currant, which although rapped is for the most part like 
a Glass, the River is not wider than that of Cambridge full of 
winding, many small Islands in it, and on its borders many 
Vilages and the most romantic Country on each side that you 
can conceive. Quite from Lyons to Avignon there is one con- 
tinued range of hills which are very high, and in many places 

262 Copley -Pelham Letters 1774 

there is ruined monestrys, Towers, Castels, etc., which give 
such an effect that it exceeds all Discription. those kind of 
Boats or Vesells is continually Stoping boath to Land and take 
in passingers. it is so safe and so easy a mode of conveyance 
that people go in them, if it is not more than two or three 
miles they want to go. there is certain places where they Stop 
to Dine, and there is allways an eligant Diner provided of three 
Coarses, consisting of Fish, Fowls, Beef, Mutton, small Birds, 
etc.; and after this a Desert of Grapes, Peaches, Almons, Wall- 
nuts, figgs, Cakes, Chese, etc., and as Genteely served as you 
can Imagin. the forks are all Silver and at every plate a Napkin 
neetly folded and lying on it. these Napkins are never brought 
a second time, no more is the Table Cloath. I must do the 
French the jus[tice] to say in their Table Linen they are very 
nice. I suppose you will wonder if I tell you I never wish to live 
more eligant than I do at those Houses, the Linen of their Beds 
is also very clean, their plates are a kind of earthan but quite 
white, and I think very Clever: their bread is very good; and to 
every plate a Roal is laid; and a Tumbler set with a silver Fork 
and spoon; and you would wonder to see with what ease the 
Cumpany is tended and how very genteel every thing is. how- 
ever it is to be observed we have lived in the first manner that 
France affoards. there is a Vast variety of made Dishes brought 
besides the above mentioned, their suppers are just the same 
that their Diners are. Through the agreable windings of the 
Rhone we passed till we arrived at Avignon, where we had 
a little English Colony which was compossed of Gentlemen 
and Ladys to the number of fifteen, and at the play we made 
no small Figure, we spent 4 Days in this place very happily 
indeed, in this English assosiation. Avignon is a very pretty 
place, and I beleive may contain as many Inhabitants as Bos- 

1774 Copley -Pelham Letters 263 

ton. it is in the Pope's Dominions and divided from the French 
Kings only by the Rhone, which is very narrow as I before 
menshoned. there is on the other side of the Rhone, two Con- 
vents, one of Benedictines situated very high and commands a 
very noble prospect, the other at a little distance in a small 
Vilage of which I have forgot the name, it is surprisingly rich 
in painting, Guilding, etc. it is very Clean throughout and 
Eligent. from Avignon we came in a Chaise to this Seaport, 
which is a very fine one. yesterday as soon as we arrived, we 
weited on Mr. Burbeck the British Consul, Who treated us 
with the greatest politeness Imaginable, Kept us to Tea, called 
on us this morning, carried us throughout the Town, which he 
thinks contains an hund. Thousand Souls. I prefer this place to 
any I have seen sence I left London, the Harbour is a very fine 
one, secured from the Ocean every way; the Buildings very good. 
We were at the play the last Eveng. and have been this also, 
but I sit up to write, as the Consul will send this Letter for me, 
and must have [it] by 9 oClock in the morning, he intends 
carrying us to the Concert to morrow Evening, and the next 
Day we set out for Antebes in a Chaise which we have taken 
for that purpose. Allow me before I conclude to intreat you to 
get the Languages, it is of the greatest consiquence to you 
Imaginable. I have lost a vast pleasure in not having the 
french but am surprised to find I have got so many words in so 
short a time, was I to stay 3 Months I should be able to speak 
a little. I can now ask for many things, but I shall soon be in 
the midst of Italian, as I have now trespassed on the las[t] 
page I shall be oblige[d] to inclose it in Sukeys and I shall not 
put a Covour, because there is nothing but what your Sister 
may see and I shall save some postage, this I know you will 
excuse, pray give my Effectionate Duty to our ever Dear and 

264 Copley -Pelham Letters 1774 

Hond. Mama, my love to Brother and Sister Pelham, and to 
all Friends. I find an amaising fund of Pleasure and improve- 
ment in my Tour and feell no other anciety but that of 
being so far from my Dear friends, remember my injuntions 
of Dilligance and unremiting Ardour in the Pursuit of your 

I am, my Dear Brother, Your Most Affectionate Brother and 
Sincere friend, 

John Singleton Copley. 

Charles Reak and Samuel Okey x to Henry Pelham 


It wou'd have given mee singular Pleasure to have seen you 
on my Excursion when wou'd have explained my Intention of 
scraping some Plates in Metzotinto from Desines of yours or 
Mr. Copeleys. I have carried with mee A Picture of Dr. Cooper 
by Copley but cou'd have wisht it had been that, that is in Mr. 
Hancocks Collection. I have likewise A Picture of Mr. Addams 

1 Stauffer mentions three plates published by Reak and Okey, "Printsellers 
and Stationers on the Parade, Newport, Rhode Island." I. October 28, 1773, a 
mezzotint of Feke's portrait of Rev. Thomas Hiscox, late pastor of the Baptist 
Church in Westerley; 2. November 2, 1774, a mezzotint of Gaine's portrait of 
Rev. James Honeyman, late Rector of Trinity Church, Newport; and 3. April, 
1775, one of Mitchell's portraits of Samuel Adams. A fourth, without name of 
publisher, of Joseph Warren, he believes to have been made by Okey, and a plate 
of Hals' Burgomaster is known to have been his. Okey was the engraver and 
Reak a printer, and the two were associated in London before coming to the 
United States. $ee Dictionary of National Biography, xlii. 80; Stauffer, American 
Engravers, II. 391. An advertisement of Reak and Okey in the Newport Mercury, 
January 30, 1775, offers the "Much Admired Royal Clove Drops," and "New 
Books, among which are the Vicar of Wakefield, a work highly esteemed by the 
learned, Evans's poems, Macaronic Jester, Amorous Buck, being a collection of 
jocular songs, with a variety of curious watch-papers, etc. Prints and pictures 
neatly framed and glazed, portraits taken in chalk, miniature painting, and 
every kind of drawing, as usual." 

1774 Copley -Pelham Letters 265 

wich I purpose Imediately on my return to put on the Copper. 
I saw yours at Mr. Reviers which I admire, how unlucky for 
mee I cou'd neither have the Pleasure of seeing you or him. 
I cou'd have wisht for the best Picture of Mess. Hancock and 
Addams. you have A Fine Picture of A Lady in Car of a 
Sheperd or Nymph, it wou'd make a Good Metzotint. at 
presant wee cou'd not undertake it. we shou'd beg your Interest 
some time hence to get Mr. Hancock's and interim shall ven- 
ture to work from this Picture of Mr. Addams by Mr. Mitchell. 1 
tho shoud be glad if Mr. Revier wou'd send us Imediatly the 
small one of yours from which wee wou'd scrape the Face. I 
wish to have this Plate done in about Two Months when will 
send you A Proof, in Interim am your Most hum. sets. 

Chas. Reak and for 

Sam. Okey. 
Boston, Octo. 5th, 1774. 

beg you '1 let Mr. Heard have the Proofs I think Seventeen 
left I beleive in your hands and Mr. Mumford of our Town will 
forward them to us. 

Henry Pelham to Copley 

Philadelphia, Novr. 2d, 1774. 
Dear Brother, 

A letter filled with appologies would perhaps as much require 

an excuse as the long silence it was meant to extenuate I shall 

therefore leave the subject hoping your candour will attribute 

the omission to any cause but neglect or want of Regard for be 

assured that not a day passes but I think of you with the most 

tender and grateful Remembrance. 

1 J. Mitchell. 

266 Copley -Pelham Letters 1774 

Your welcome and pleasing Letter of July 15 is now before me; 
welcome, as it gives me the happy account of your Safe arrival 
after an agreable Passage upon which I congratulate you, and 
pleasing, as I find I have a distinguish'd Place in your Regards. 
When in that Letter you say "you begin a Correspondence 
from which I shall no doubt receive much pleasure" you judged 
Very right, tho' had you substituted Happyness instead of 
Pleasure it would have given a truer discription of those feel- 
ings which I enjoyed upon the commencement and expect in 
the continuance of that Correspondence. 

The Account you give of your Health and agreable Journey, 
your interview with and Character of Mr. West, your having a 
Companion with you in your tour, etc., give all your friends in 
this part of the world infinite satisfaction. I promise myself 
much pleasure in a Sight of Mr. Wests print of the death of 
Gen'l Wolfe. You will doubtless want to know why this is 
dated from Philadelphia. Alass! I wish I had a more satisfac- 
tory account to give than that I have taken this Journey in 
search of lost Health ; but still Happy should I be could I say I 
had entirely recovered it. I have been for near 10 Months past 
very subject to nervous complaints which shewed themselves 
in an almost continued Dizziness, Headack, Loss of Appetite, 
Trembling of the Nerves, and Lowness of Spiritts. for these I 
early put myself under the Care of Doct'r Perkins, who ordered 
me a course of Steel and frequent Riding, and recommended a 
long journey in the fall which my friends much advised too. 
Mr. and Mrs. Startin returning home, I thought it a favourable 
time for the excursion, and have come thus far in Company 
with them and Judge Lee and Lady, our Cambridge Friends, 
who propose passing the winter here. In a few days I intend to 
sett out for home, stoping for about a fortnight at New Haven, 

1774 Copley -Pelham Letters 267 

where Mr. Babcock 1 has engaged me to do two or three mina- 
ture Pictures. The effect my Ride has had is a great lessning 
of all the symptoms except the Headack and lowness of Spiritts ; 
they still seem to continue inveterate. 

I left my Friends as well as usually they are, my Mamma 
anxious for my Health and solicitous for my taking this Journey. 

The State of Publick Affairs in Boston you are desirous to know. 
How pleasing would it be could I inform you that Peace and mu- 
tual Confidence, Mercy and Law had resumed their Sway, but 
Alass! my Dear Brother! Discord and Distrust, Cruelty and 
Anarchy, have banish'd them from this unhappy Land. I am 
glad My Paper will plead an excuse for not decending to Pertic- 
ulars in a subject to me so Distressing. From the fatal publick 
Movements of the last Winter I date my present Disquietude, 
and much fear that will be the iEra of my future Unhappyness. 

Buisness of a private Nature next claims attention, here 
likewise they are far from being as I could Wish. 

My own entirely Stopped, yours not in that forwardness that 
you expected. Money people are very loth to part with. Our 
Common Friend Mr. G[reen] has entirely dropped the mask and 
by his conduct avows himself to be that fmish'd Scoundrel 
I always thought him. He will neither pay his Rent nor remove 
out of the House, so that it is continually increasing, and 
Heaven knows there is now no Law to compel him to either. 2 
We take no more notice of each other than if we were perfect 
Strangers. 3 Your Hon'ble Coll. 4 that was, for he is now dis- 

1 Adam Babcock. 

2 Erased in first draft: "Not the least Civilities pass between us now." 

8 The letter thus far has been neatly copied. What follows is from a very 
confused first draft, which has here the following erased sentence: "He has 
treated Mrs. Copley and myself in a base and unhansome Manner." 

4 Hancock, who was colonel of the Cadet Corps. 


268 Copley -Pelham Letters 1774 

missed, has scarc[e]ly behaved better than Mr. G., tho much 
more Complesantly. 3 times a day for a Week together have I 
attended him upon his appointment, as often Disapoint[ed], 
either by his absence or buisness or having lost the Account, or 
some such trifling excuse, here again the temper of the times 
forbids my doing other than taggle after his plagey heels when- 
ever he is pleased to appoint it. my tongue of [ten?] itches[?] 
to tell him that I think he is a very trifling Fellow. I should 
certaintly do it was he a less Man, or I a greater, or the times 
more favorable. 

My Crazy Coll'l 1 has left me without settling with me and I 
find he has nothing to settle with. 

I shall not attempt a discription of this City or New York, 
where we spent 9 Days. Such a Discription to you who have 
seen them would be unnecessary, and had you not, would after 
your English and Italian Tour be totally uninteresting. I have 
been lucky in forming some very agreable Acquaintances and 
valuable Fri[e]nds in Both Citys, perticularly in Mr. Curson 2 
and Mr. Seaton 3 in New York, and Doct'r Morgan in this City, 
from them I have rece'd great Civ[il]iteys and find them much 
disposed to promote my coming among them as an Artist, 
most People with whom I am acquai[n]ted are desirous of my 
exercising the Pencill, and I have half promised to make another 
tour in the Spring, but this is a matter that will entirely depend 
upon contingancies. Those Gentlemen have promised to find 
me some Buisness, and Kindly offer to introduce me to more. 4 

1 Elihu Hall. See Proceedings Col. Soc. Mass., v. 199. 

2 See Mass. Hist. Soc. Proceedings, xlvii. 232. 

3 William Seton, a merchant, with a store on Cruger's Dock. He was after- 
wards in the Bank of New York. 

4 Erased: "I saw those Pictures at Mr. Lows at Brunswick and was really- 
charmed, your discr[i]ption by no means gave me an adequate Idea of their 

1774 Copley -Pelham Letters 269 

I have only Room to add that a continuance of your regard 

is the Wish, And that the almighty would bless you in Health, 

Peace and Content, is the Prayer of your ever affectionate 

and Obliged 

H. P. 

You are much talked of here. I was really surprized at find- 
ing you so well known. Scarcfe] a person but has your name as 
patt and speaks with a[s] much fluency of you as of Mr. West. 
Mr. and Mrs. Startin from whom I have rec'ed the polites[t] 
marks of attention and Regard, present their kind love to you 
as do also Mr. Lee and Lady. I am with affection as above, 

H. P. 

I just heard that our Friends at Boston are all well, and that 
a letter from you was arrived with my things etc. I also hear 
that Mr. Molineaux 1 was dead after 3 days illness of an inflam- 
ation in his Bowels. 

Novr. 2d., 1774. 

Henry Pelham to John Singleton 

Philadelphia, Novr. 10, 1774.^ 
Dear and Hon'd Uncle, 

I am at last happy in an Opertunity of acknowledging the 
recei[p]t of your very welcomfe] and kind favour of Jan'y 27, 
which is now before me. accept my gratefull thanks, for the 

Bea[u]ty. Doct'r Morgan has a few clever Coppys, and an Original Portrait of 
Angelica painted by her self. This I was so pleased with that I have taken a 
coppy of it in Minature." 

1 William Molineaux, a "noted merchant" of Boston, and an ardent defender 
of the liberties of America. A tribute to him is in the Essex Gazette, October 25, 

2 This letter was first dated Nov. 2, then Nov. 4, and finally Nov. 10. 

270 Copley -Pelham Letters 1774 

Pleasure you have given me, and for the tender regard you 
ther[e]in express towards me. The Gratification I experienced 
upon receiving a letter, from so near and dear a Fri[e]nd, makes 
me sincerely Regret the uncertainty and frequent miscarriages 
attending a Correspondence, to so remote a part of the globe 
as yours is from this. I must appologize to you, for not answer- 
ing your affectionate favour before, but doubt not your excuse, 
when I inform you that this is the first Opertunity I have had, 
since the receipt of yours, which did not come to hand till the 
middle of Last June. Your kind Congratulations upon my 
Brother Copleys Marriage I receive with greatest Pleasure, and 
return the Compliment with the most heartfelt Satisfaction, in 
wishing you joy of the marriage of my Cousin with a Gentle- 
man of Mr. King's Fortune and Character, and hope you will 
find in the Connection every possable Satisfaction and Happy- 
ness. I pray Heaven you may. The Acount you give of your 
family is very pleasing to me, as is your kind wish for a more 
regular Correspondanc[e] with me. this be assured is what I 
most ardently desire, as what would add much to my Happy- 
ness and seem to shorten that distance at which Providence 
has placed us. those Letters you or my other Fri[e]nds in 
Ireland, may do me the Honor of writing, if Direc[t]ed to me in 
Boston, New England, and put on board any Vessells (of 
which I am told there are many continually sailing from 
Limeric and Cork) bound to Philadelphia, will come to hand 
in the directest and speediest manner. A Gentleman of this 
City, 1 who married a Sister of Mrs. Cfopley], and in whose 
pellicular Friendship I am hon'd takes the Care of my Letters, 
both to and from Ireland. So that I now Hope I have found a 
Channell of Conveyance that will afford me the Greatest 

1 Mr. Startin. 

1774 Copley -Pelham Letters 271 

Pleasure and Happyness, the Happyness in your Correspond- 
ance. You desire some account of your friends in America. 
My Hon'd Mother still continues in that declining way she 
was in, when I wrote you last; she still retains the warmes[t] 
Regard for you; And I fullfill her (often repeated) desires, in 
presenting her kindest Love and most sincere affection to you, 
and our other dear friends in Ireland. Her Heart ever glows 
with undiminish'd tenderness for those whom nature has placed 
nearest it. She much interests herself in her Neice's Marriage, 
and unites with me, in my Congratulations, and in wishing that 
every felicity thro' time and Eternity, may attend you, the 
new married Couple, and all your and their Conections. My 
Brother Cha's 1 Alass ! unhappy Man ! sailed from Boston for 
Carolina, where he arrived abov[e] 8 years ago, since which I 
have not heard the least thing concerning him, and am entirely 
ignorant where he is, or weither alive or not. My other Brother 
yourdearnamesakelhadthe Pain of Parting with the begining 
of last June when he embarked for England, on his way for Italy 
where he proposes spend 'g 15 or 18 Months for his improvement 
in an art, for his excellence in which he has already received 
from Gentlemen in England the most distinguishd marks of 
applause and Friendship. His Wife, a most amiable and fine 
Woman, remains in Boston with the[i]r three Children, Named 
Elizabeth Clarke, John Singleton, and Mary, three as noble 
Children as are in America. I have not room in this to give you 
any account of my tour to this place, 350 miles from home, 
which I left about 2 months ago for the recovery of my Health; 
impaird by Nervous Disorders, with which I have been for 
some time troubld. By the middle of Decm'r I hope to have a 
happy sight of my Hon'd Mother in Boston. I conclude with 

1 Peter. 

272 Copley -Pelham Letters 1774 

requesting your Blessing and Prayers, and a Contin[ua]nce of 
your Regard and Correspondence] . I am, Dear and Hon'd 
Uncle, your Dutiful Nephew and Humble Ser't., 

H. P. 

P. S. My Dutiful regards attend my Aunt S[ingleton] my 
Uncle and A[unt] C[ooper], my Love to my Cousins. I write to 
aunt Cfooper] but am at a loss for a direction. I have directed 
to her at Coopers Hill near Limerick. I pray you to favour me 
with a perticular direction for yourself, as also for her, for fear 
my Letters to her in which I request it should miscarry. 

Nov. 10, 1774. 

Henry Pelham to his mother 

Dear and Hond. Madam, 

In my last to you from Philadelphia I informed you that I 
should sett out in a few days, when I expected soon the Happy- 
ness of seeing you and my other Fr[i]ends in Boston in Health 
and Peace. Mr. Mifflin 1 a Gentleman of great influence in the 
City upon my arrival there was so ingaged with the Congress 
of which he was a Member as this precluded him from giving 
me (which he was much inclined to do) an introduction to 
Governor Penn 2 and his Collection of Paintings, which is very 
great and Eligant, and to Governor Hamilton's 3 and Judge 
Allen's 4 Family. These Gentlemen [are] the first in America for 
fortune and Character, and highly distinguish'd for their love 
and Patronage of the Polite Arts and Artists, and who have it 
very much in their power to do me a Kindness either here or in 
Europe. I thought it imprudent not to be introduced to, espe- 

1 Thomas Mifflin. 2 John Penn (1729-1795). 

3 James Hamilton (c. 1710-1783), of Bush Hill. 

4 William Allen (c. 1710-1780). 

1774 Copley -Pelham Letters 273 

daily as it was offered 1 for these Reasons, and at the earnest 
solicitations of Mr. and Mrs. Startin, and by the advice of 
Doctor Morgan, who much interests himself in shewing me 
every mark of Civility in his Power, I have been induced to 
make my tarry at Philadelphia a fortnight Longer than I at first 
intended, now I have the Happyness of presenting you with 
my duty from this place 2 which is abov[e] half way between 
Philadelphia and Boston. Yesterday and today I have begun 
20 Guines worth of Buisness here, the Heads and hands of 
which only I shall finish here, and send the Pictu[r]es home to 
finish the other Parts. I have found it extremly difficult to 
procure meterials here for oil Paint'g, but have after some time 
got them. I have only time as the Post is just setting out to 
recommend myself to your Blessing and Regard, and after 
present'g my Duty to you, and Love and Compliments to my 
other Friends and Acquaintances] to subscribe Dear and H. M. 
Your dutifull Son and affection'e Servt., 

H. P. 

I dont expect to remain above a fortnigh[t] in this Place, 
indeed am certain I shall not, and am pleased in having Com- 
pany a Son of D. E. home with me, which is very pleasing upon 
the Road, Especially this season of the year. 

Nov. 18, [1774]. 

Henry Pelham to Charles Startin 

N[ew] H[aven], Novr. 21, 1774. 
Dear Sir 

The very solitary ride I have had for a few Days past forms 

a very disgusting Contrast to the amusing Scenes I have for 

1 Erased: "and could not well be refused." 2 New Haven. 

274 Copley -Pelham Letters 1774 

some weeks past enjoyed, and makes me remember with 
redoubld ardour and Regard the agreable Company I left at 
Philadelphia, in whose Conversation and Friendship I recently 
took so much Pleasure. The kind manner in which It was 
desired prompts me to take up the Pen with peculiar readiness 
to acquaint you of my arrival here, but Gratitude more imme- 
diatly commands it to return you and Mrs. Startin those thanks 
which I shall ever think due for these kind polite, and very 
friendly marks of attention and Regard I have experienced from 
your Family since I left home, accept my sincere[s]t thanks, 
and believe I shall ever seek and ever think myself happy in 
Opertunities of shewing the gratefull sence I entertain of your 
civilities and of retur[n]ing the Obligation] I am under. I have 
had six of the most disagreable days I ever spent in my life. 
But of this I dont complain, considering that a motley Mixture 
of Pain and Pleasure is Mans lot, how unreasonable how absurd 
would it be to repine at four [six] unpleasant days when I have 
just finish'd as many Week[s] which I shall ever rank among 
the Happyest of my Life. The weither was very fine and pleas- 
ant during most of my ride, the last day it clouded up, and I 
had not arrived here half an hour before it rained very smartly 
and so continued for 24 hours, a Days confinem't upon the Road 
would have made me quite Malencholly. News I can collect 
none, in Boston; every thing Remainjs] quiet, but God only 
knows how long they will continue so. in New York people 
are very uneasy at the Proceedings in Your City, nobody can 
find the reason of the Carolinas Exporting Rice. 1 many there 

1 In its "Association," October 20, the Continental Congress pledged its 
members to export, after September IO, 1775, no "merchandise or commodity 
whatsoever to Great Britain, Ireland, or the West Indies, except rice to Europe." 
Journals of the Continental Congress (Lib. Cong, ed.), 1. 77. 

1774 Copley -Pelham Letters 275 

th[i]nk it will oversett the whole scheme, and be productive of 
general Murmering and discontent. Some late procedings in 
this place are the subject of altercation but it would perhaps be 
deemed improper in me a Stranger here to enter into a Detail 
of Perticulars; but if proper might be unsafe, for tho this 
Lett[e]r is directed to you and intended soly for your perusal, 
there is no knowing who may take the very innocent Liberty 
of peeping, and then we well know they claim unbounded 
freedom of Publishing, further that it can not be justified upon 
any principles that so far from distressing Great Britain it is 
entirely calculated to ruin the town of Newport by throwing 
that valuable Branch of trade into the Hands of the Merchants 
at Liverpool and Bristol. While I am writing this I hear that 
the town of Newport is in the greatest Confusion owing to the 
proceedings of Congress, perticularly the part respecting The 
African 1 Trade, many of the merchants seem much inclined to 
refuse obedience to their determinations, nay say they will if 
York should, tho they dare not be singular; say that their 
Deligates 2 have sold the Town to gratify the Quakers of Phila- 
delphia, this is intelligence you may rely upon and which con- 
sidering all Circumstances gives me much uneasiness. Should 
the Continental Association be broke thro it will still tend to 
prolong that unhappy dispute which is so subversive of the 
publick Tranquillity of this Country, and is so inimical to the 
private Peace of its Inhabitants, will deprive us of a fair trial of 

1 Erased: "the slave." The "Association" further pledged the members of 
the Congress: "We will neither import nor purchase any slave imported after the 
first day of December next; after which time, we will wholly discontinue the 
slave trade, and will neither be concerned in it ourselves, nor will we hire our 
vessels, nor sell our commodities or manufactures to those who are concerned in 
it." Ibid., 77. Newport was the leading port engaged in the trade. 

2 The delegates from Rhode Island were Stephen Hopkins and Samuel Ward. 

276 Copley -Pelham Letters 1774 

its utility, and will not save us from any disagreable Conse- 
quences which may arise from the Resentment of Britain to 
that measure. 

The smallpox is among the Troops in Boston, this calls to 
Remembranc[e] the pleasing event of Mrs. Lees recovery from 
that disagreable Disorder, and from the as disagreable appre- 
hension of it, of which I sincerely congratulate her; to whom and 
Mr. Lee I beg my respectful Compliments may be made. I shall 
ever think myself Honourd in Your Friendship and Corre- 
spondancje]. my affection[a]te Regards ever attend you and 
Mrs. Startin. I conclud[e] with requesting a line from you. 
wishing you and Connections every Happyness attendant 
up[on] the Happiest, I am, my Dear Friend, your affect, and 
oblige [d] Hum. S. 

[No signature.] 

[Charles Startin] to Henry Pelham 

Philada., Deer. 3d, 1774. 
Dear Sir, 

I duly receiv'd your much esteem'd favour from New Haven 
of the 20th. Ulto. and should have answer'd it sooner, but have 
been confined with a severe Fit of the Asthma. You much 
overrate the trineing Civilitys shewn you here, believe me 
sincere when I say that much more was due to your merit and 
the esteem I hold you in. it will always give me real pleasure 
to render you any acceptable Service, and I hope you will 
command me with the Freedom of a Friend. 

I wish I could send you any News but we have none here 
worth relating. Politicks run extremly high indeed. Our Lords 
and Masters, the high and mighty Committee Men, have now 
enter'd upon their department to put the Non Importation 

1774 Copley -Pelham Letters 277 

agreem't in force; So that as a wity writer observes, instead of 
being devour'd by a Lion, we are to be gnawed by rats and 
Vermin. Mr. and 

Mrs. L[ee] are W\ * / m ^ 

both well, and />U^^ M-^^ A 

nothing further / < ^ J^/^tZi^^t^ 

has transpired in 

the Squib way. they with my wife Join me with proper Re- 
spects, and good wishes for your health and welfare. 

I shall always be happy to hear from you, and remain with real 
regard, Your Sincere and Affectionate Friend and H'ble ser't. 

P. S. As I have wrote with some freedom on Publick affairs 
I thought perhaps, the Signature might be as well Omitted. 1 

Henry Pelham to Dr. John Morgan 

N[ew] H[aven], Deer. 4, 1774. 

To the many favours already confered on me I must beg you 
to add one more if consistantwith your time and inclination. 

A little minute of the Ladys name, who painted the charm'g 
portrait in your Possesion which I so much admire, and of 
which, by you[r] kindness I have a Copy, with he[r] age and the 
time when and the place where she did it, and any other pertic- 
ulars you maypleas[e] to add, will (by putting it upon my Copy) 
ennable me to gratify some antiquary into whose hands time 
may threw it, some future Walpole who may think its want of 
meritt happyly attoned for by being the Portrait of the justly 
celebrated An[gelica], and being an authentick tho deficient 
Copy from an original painting of that truly ingenious and 

1 This letter is in Charles Startin's handwriting. 

278 Copley -Pelham Letters 1774 

Capital Artist. The Perticulars you did me the favou[r] to 
relate of that Picture and the Lady have so far sliped my 
memory as to preclude my giving with certa[i]nty that infor- 
mation I could wish. 

I am induced to trouble you with this request from recollect- 
ing the regret Mr. Walpole warmly expresses in his Anecdotes 
of Paint'g at the Artists' neglect of giving on the back of their 
Portraits the name and other perticulars of the Persons for 
whom they are done; an Indeferent Artist he observes by doing 
that may often stamp a considerable] Value upon an otherwise 
indefere[n]t Picture. 

Your Letters to Doctr. Jones and Mr. Bossley I had the 
pleasure of delivering to those Gentlemen. A few days I hop[e] 
will give me the Happyness of seeing Mr. Stillman and deliver'g 
his Letter. 

My thanks are due for the many Civilities I reed, from you 

in Philadelphia] and for the Hand of you[r] Friendship accept 

them with my respectfull Com[pliments] to yourself and Mrs. 

M , and believe me to be with Esteem Sir, You[r] Obliged 

and most Obdt. humbl. Sert. 

H. P. 

P S. Mr. Startin will take the Care of and transmitt me any 
answer you may Honor me with, but whi[c]h I beg may not 
intrude upon you[r] time and important Buisness. 

Henry Pelham to Charles Startin . 

New Haven, Decmr. 12, 1774. 
Dear Sir, 

I am highly pleased in having a place in your memory and 
friendship. Your very kind and esteemed Letter of the 20 

i»w« t/lt> oiicrt'tifx/ /im'ii fi/i ri /■,/ fjn/i/iii 
MV/t/it < StOd<ie.J<jioM/,of>^ //'/. oo/i/rii sji/trit ii 

1774 Copley -Pelham Letters 279 

Decem'r is an addition to the many favours already Rec'd and 
a fresh Instance of your politeness, and of the agreable manner 
in which you render your friends easy and happy. Could I find 
words adequate to my Ideas to thank you with, I would use 
them, as I cant I must content myself with simply saying that 
I highly value your Friendship, and am honord in the enjoy- 
ment of your good Opinion and Regard. I am too well ac- 
quainted with you in the least to doubt your Sincerity. But 
even my Vanity raised as it is by the Politeness and marks 
of attention I have experienced since I left home, cant pre- 
vent my denying your assertion that I much overrate the 
Civilities shown me at Philadelphia and that much more was 
due to my Merit. I am willing you should think I have 
more than I really have as I reap a material benefit from your 

Some of the inclosed Letters are to me of considerable 
Consequence, you will do me a great kindness if you will for- 
ward them by the first Vessell sailing for Ireland. 

I must solicit your and Mrs. Startins Interest to induce Mr. 
Clark 1 to sitt for his Picture. I consider this as the only chance 
of doing it. Brotr. Cfopley], it is very probable, will remain in 
England, and where I shall be nex[t] Summer Heaven only 
knows. I pray it may n[o]t be a worse place than Boston. I 
shall be much restrained from urging Mr. C, fearing he will 
think me differently interested from what I really am. I wish 
sincerely wish to gratify myself in having an Opertunity to 
please some of my perticular friends, and to preserve the 
likeness of a Gentleman whose distinguish 'd Merit has 
attracted my Veneratiofn] and Respect. Can I but admire 
the man whose Virtues have silenced the envenomed tongue of 

1 Richard Clarke. 

280 Copley -Pelham Letters 1774 

party Malice, and whose Character in every shape has re- 
mained unempeach'd by the Gall dipt pen [of] Faction ? 

I inclose a rough sketch for a picture frame, which I think 
would be very pretty and neat if made of metal washd like 
some of the washed buckles. I have seen one in Gold of 
exqu[i]site Workmanship nearly like this, that pleased me very 
much. Those who are used to things of that kind might pos- 
sably invent a neater pattern. They must be Well fmishd, well 
gilt and be very neat, or they will not answer the purpose of 
orniminting a minature picture. It would be best to have two 
diffei;e[n]t sizes, as I have drawn them. I would be glad to have 
half a Dozen of each, and doubt not I should want more. 
Should only one size be made I would chuse the largest, and 
that exact to the pattern which, if you app[r]ove, please to send 
it to Birmingham. 

I conclude in a great Hurry, as I am just setting out for 
Boston, my Disoblegiant 1 now waits at the door. God Grant 
you and Mrs. Startin Heaven's choicest Blessings Health and 
Peace: Remember me kindly to her, and believe me my dear 
Friend to be yours entirely and afectionately. 

H. P. 

N B. two or 3 Request[s] mor[e], and then I have done. Be 
carefull of your Health. Please to present my respectfull 
Comp's to Mr. L[ee] 2 and Lady. Be kind eno when you favou[r] 
me with a line, which I hope will be soon, to mention what 
Postage you pay for this Pacquet that I may pay you as you 

1 " Carrage," erased. 2 Joseph Lee. 

1774 Copley -Pelham Letters 281 

Adam Babcock to Henry Pelham 

New Haven, Deer. 24th, 1774. 
Dear Sir, 

The Business at Town-Meeting was so very arduous that 
I could not leave it a moment to take leave of You the Day 
You left us. I hope You will be good eno' to excuse me in this 
n[e]glect which was unavoidable, the main Point in View — the 
demolition of Liberty-Pole-Committee, — we could not come 
to, on that Day, and the Town-Meeting was adjourned to the 
Tuesday of this Week, and with great perseverance and not 
without some noise on their side, we obtaind a Vote from the 
Town to dissolve that meeting, so that I hope matters will go 
on quietly with us for some time at least. 

I designd to have given You money eno' to have bot. me 76 
Coper plate Tiles for my Chambers, and 5 ps. of neat paper, 
blue Ground with a proper proportion of Bordering for one 
Chamber. I beg You would buy me these things and send them 
by one of the Providence covered Wagons, directed to the Care 
of Doer. Jabez Bowen at Providence, to be forwarded by him to 
Mr. John Bours at New-Port, if You are so good as to send 
these the Day after You recieve this, they will doubtless come 
time eno' for my Little Sloop to take them at New-Port; but 
if it puts You to any inconvenience, I beg You would omit it, 
as I shall hardly make use of them till Spring, the Glass for the 
little Picture You will please to forward to me at any Rate, 
and in that way that You judge best, and an accot. of all with 
the Case for the pictures. I shall embrace the first safe hand to 
send You the Money. 

I hope You had an agreeable Journey, at least as much so as 
the Season would allow of, and that You found Your Friends 

282 Copley -Pelham Letters 1774 

and Connections well. Mrs. Smith presents Her Compliments 
to You. be pleased to accept those of the Season from me to- 
gether with my best Wishes, and when You write Mr. Copeley 
don't forget mine to Him, nor to his amiable Lady neither, 
when You see Her. and believe me to be most sincerely and 
cordially Yours, 

Adam Babcock. 

P. S. Mrs. Smiths Picture I shall send You by my Sloop. 
I should chuse the Tyles all of different Figures — and not 
one side of the Fire Place like the other, if there is variety eno\ 

Dr. John Morgan to Henry Pelham 

Philada., Deer. 27, 1774. 

In answer to your favr. of the 4th Inst. I am to inform You 
that the Portrait in my Possession which I lent You to copy is 
an original Portrait of the justly celebrated Painter Angelica 
Mariana Kaufman, done by herself at Rome, at the Age (as 
nearly as I can recollect at this distance of time) of about 19 
Years. It was done by her and sent to me at my own desire. 
She had been labouring for some time under an Indisposition 
for which she was pleased to take my Advice. The seat of her 
Disorder was in her Stomach and proceeded from Indigestion. 
I believe it arose from her sedentary Life and close Application 
to Painting, to which she was so attentive, that sometimes, 
when employ'd in copying the Paintings of Great Masters that 
were hung up in the Palaces at Rome to which she was admitted, 
she would not eat the whole day. 

I suppose her to be at this time about 28 or 29 Years of Age. 
On my leaving Rome she wanted to pay me for my Advice. 

1774 Copley -Pelham Letters 283 

I refused taking any Money from her on which she insisted on 
making me a present of a piece of painting, of her doing, and 
desired I would pitch on some piece of any of the great Masters 
that she could conveniently copy, and she would execute it for 
me. I thereupon begged her own Portrait, as of an Artist I 
greatly valued, and on asking her Father's 1 permission, which 
he readily granted, she promised to send it to me, which she did 
about a year after when she came to London 2 with a Letter 
accompanying it, — being induced to visit England from the 
great Encouragement given to her by the english Nobility and 
Gentlemen then at Rome. 3 

Other Particulars of her History since she came to London 
may be better learned from Mr. Copley. Thus I have gratified 
you in what you requested to know of this most valuable Lady. 

At the Age of 10 Years, she spoke English and French as 
familiarly as if they were her Native Language, which she 
learned chiefly by conversation. She could read Spanish with 
equal ease, tho' for want of Opportunities to practice it, did 
not pretend to be Mistress of it; but she was quite Mistress of 
the Italian, and of German which was her native Tongue. She 
had an agreeable person, a sweet and open Countenance, of a 
very modest engaging Deportment, and was no small proficient 
in Musick. At her first coming to England she was soon pre- 
sented to the Queen 4 and employed to take her Majesty's 
Portrait. In short she was in a fair way of rising to fame to 
honour and fortune, but an unlucky Marriage was a great Clog 
to her. 5 

1 Johann Josef Kauffmann. 2 She went to England in 1766. 

3 This portrait is probably that in the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine 
Arts, deposited by Miss Elizabeth Powell. 
* Queen Charlotte. 
5 To Count de Horn, an impostor of many aliases. 

284 Copley -Pelham Letters 1774 

As she is an Acquaintance I highly esteem I do not expect, 
by satisfying your request, You can think I would have these 
particulars known to any but Persons of Merit, Prudence and 
delicate sentiments. Should it be known to Angelica that I had 
thus attempted to sketch her Character, it might be taken amiss, 
as it could not fail to hurt her delicacy, of which you will be 
pleased to take Notice, nor let any person Copy a feature of her 
Character from this Letter, which in every particular falls infi- 
nitely short of her. With this caution I conclude, wishing You 
all Happiness and remain, Sir, Your Most Obed't humble Serv. 

John Morgan. 

A Bill for Portraits 

Boston The Honble. Isaac Royall Esqr. to J. S. Copley Dr. 1 

£ s d 

To a packg Box omitted in former Acct o.. 9.-4 

To a portrait in Crayons of Miss Polly Royall 5..12..0 

To gold carved Frame for Do 4. . 4..0 

To London Crown Glass for Do 19. . 12. .0 2 

To his Lady's portrait half Length 19. . 12. .0 

To his own Do Do 19..12..0 

To portraits of Mr. Mackintosh & Lady 14.. 0..0 

Henry Pelham to Copley 

Boston, Jany [27], 1775. 
My dear Brother, 

With eagerness I embrace each Opertunity to testify the 
pleasu[r]e I take in your Remembranc[e] and Correspondanc[e] 
and to give you those assurerances of affection and Esteem 
which this imperfect mode of intercourse will allow and which 

1 In Pelham's handwriting. 2 Obviously an error in copying. 

1774 Copley -Pelham Letters 285 

I flatter myself you will accept, as flowing from the sincerest 
Emotions of a tender and greatefull Heart. I cant omitt this 
Conveyance tho' it is very Circuitous to wish you the greatest 
Joy upon the pleasing and most happy Event of my Dear Sis- 
ters being safe abed, and upon the enlargement of your family 
by the Birth of another Son, who I pray Heaven may be a 
Blessing and a Comfort to you. Certain I am, was it possable 
by Words to give Ideas of material Objects, you would expect 
a discription of your little Son. Be assured, for I can with 
safety affirm it that when you see the finest Child ever ani- 
mated by the Pencill of Guido, it will give but an imperfect 
Idea of the fineness of my new Cousin. 

I ardently Wish this Letter may have a speedy Passage to 
you as I am perswaded its contents will make you very happy 
and releive many and anxious hour, and prevent many a dis- 
agreable Thought. My Sister was brot to bed the 13th Inst, 
has been and is now as well as could possably be expected for 
a person in her situation.] The weather has been remarkably 
favorable for her, being very warm and pleasant, one of the 
finest Winters I Remember. I was honord by her appointment 
with presenting in Company with Mr. Clarke and Miss Lucy, 
the infant at the font, a Candidate for Baptism in which Mr. 
Walter officiated and named Him Clarke. 1 I must now, my dear 
Brother, return you my most greatefu[l] thanks for the great 
Happyness you have afforded me by your very tender instruc- 
tions and entertaining Letters. It makes me really feel 
asshamed that I have reced 7 Letters from you since I wrote 
to you last; and have been fearfull you might take it amiss and 

1 This child, left in America when Mrs. Copley embarked in May for Eng- 
land, being too young and feeble to bear the passage, soon after died. The 
child was named Clarke Copley. 

286 Copley -Pe /ham Letters 1774 

think me neglegent; but I console myself, that as impossabili- 
ties are not to be effected you[r] candour will attribute it to 
some material Difficulty. There has been no oppertunity that 
have come to my knowledg[e] since I left Philadelphia. Indeed 
I have been much out of the Way of the London Vessels, as 
none sail from Connecticut wfhere] I spent a Month, and the 
Boston port Bill still continues. 1 

I sincerly Congratulate you [upon your] Arrival at Rom[e] 
and please myself in the expectation of soon receiving your 
discription of that seat of Sciencfe] with an Account of the 
Pa[i]nting of Raphael, Michael Angelo, etc., which [with] you[r] 
discription of places of less consequencfe], assure me will be 
very entertain'g and highly instructive to me. Whenever I 
think of your Letters I cant but feel the most gratefull sensa- 
tions, for the great Kindness you show me. I want word[s] 
fully to express myself upon the subject. 

As the limits of my paper shortens I must omitt till my next, 
which will go in Cap'n Robson, who sails in about a fortnight, 
an Acount of Publick Affairs, Replys to some parts of your 
several Letters, an Acct of my Phila'a tour etc. But before I 
conclude mu[s]t not omitt acquainting [you] that Dear Hond. 
Mamma 2 continues in her usual Health. She desires me to 
present you her Kindest Love and Blessing, and to assure you 
she takes part in the Joy arising from Mrs. Copleys present 

1 The sheet containing the first part of this letter has been folded as though for 
wrapping — and upon it is written Messalenious Medals. What follows, together 
with the first draft of the note to Jonathan Clarke, January 28, 1775, is written 
upon hand-ruled music paper bearing the date "Sepr. 30, 1747," probably in the 
handwriting of Peter Pelham, the artist. There is a third small piece of paper 
with phrases to be inserted in the two fragments, which is the only indication 
that they are parts of the same letter. 

2 Erased: " has been rather unwell for some time past but has again recov[ere]d 
her usual Health." 

1775 Copley -Pelham Letters 287 

Happy Situation and desires her congratulation upon the 
Event, as does also Brother and Sister Pelham. I have spent a 
couple of Hours this Even'g very agreably at Mr. Bromf [iel]d['s] 
chatting upon vario[us] points, Pollitick[s], etc. He desires me 
to tell you that he continues of the same principles in politicks, 
and she begs me to assure you that she has not in the least 
altered her Sentiments. They, with their very amiable Miss 
Sally and Mr. Harry, desire their kind Love etc. We all unite 
in prese'g the Compliments of the season to you and you[r] 
fellow traveller. 1 In my last I informed you that my Health 
was rather indiferent. I am happy now in inform'g you that 
my journey by God's Blessing has had the wished for good 
effect in perfectly restor'g it. It grow[s] late. I wish you a good 

May each gracious Wing from Heaven of those that minister 
to erring man Near Hovering Secure [?] thy slumbers with 
present [?] Sun [?] Of Britest Vision; whisper to thy Heart that 

Henry Pelham to Charles Startin 

Boston, Jany. 31, 1775. 
Dear Sir, 

My Fri[e]nd Mr. Russell going for your City affords me a 
convenie[n]t opertunity of acknowledging the rece't of you[r] 
agreable Letter of the 13 Inst, and of thank'g you for the care 
of the Letters I troubled you with. The affair of sitting has 
been mentioned to Mr. Clarke, and his answer is such as 
flatters me he will grattify the desires of his Friends. I shall 
take the first Opertunity to press the matter I hope to effect. 
You have doubtless before this heard of Mrs. Copley's being 

1 George Carter. 


288 Copley -Pe /ham Letters 177$ 

safe abed. I present you and Mrs. Startin Congratulations 
upon the birth of another Nephew, a fine Boy, Baptized by 
the Name of Clarke. We have just Rec'd the King's Speech. 
I inclose it with A[da]ms Commentary upon it. The Dye seems 
to be cast! How entirely must the spirit of Madness possess 
those who stake their Happyness their all again[s]t nothing 
upon the cast of a Dye. Our Sons x tho affect very much to 
redicule it, and say its only a thing of cou[r]se and what they 
expected. I also inclose you a pamphlet wrote by a young 
Gentleman, a Lieutenant in the Army here. 2 I believe it will 
please you as a sensible dispassionate and polite answer to 
another filled with invective attributed to Gen'l Lee. I was ren- 
dered very happy upon my return hom[e] to find myself much 
wanted, and to meet 8 Long Letters from my Brother Copley, 
giving a very entertaining account of his Journey from London 
to Mersailles and a perticular discription of all the Citys of 
note thro which he pass'd. Mrs. Copley has reed, one from him 
dated 28 Octr. at Rome Where he had just arri[v]ed. . . . 3 

Henry Pelham to Benjamin West 

Boston, N. E., Feby. 13, 1775. 


In a late Letter from Mr. Copley he wishes me to send some- 
thing to the Exhibition; but Not having time to paint a Picture 
expressly for the purpose, I had declined all thoughts of it 'till 
finding one of my Pictures in Minature which I had lately done 
was going to London, it occured to me to Request Mr. Ingra- 

1 Of Liberty. 

2 Strictures on " Friendly Address " Examined, by Henry Barry, lieutenant 
in the Fifty-second Regiment. 

5 In Armory, John Singleton Copley, 37, is printed one of October 26. 

1775 Copley -Pelham Letters 289 

ham in whose possession it is, and who favours me by being 
the bearer of thi[s] Letter, to permitt its going to the Exhibition, 
should you think it has merit sufficient to entitle it to a place 
in that collection, which if it has, and not be inconsistant with 
their Rules, I beg the favour of you to send it, or inform Mr. 
Ingraham who it must be given to for that purpose. 

The Friendship that subsists between you and my Brother 
Mr. Copley I hope will plead a sufficient excuse for the trouble 
I now impose upon you. By his More than fraternal Kindness 
I have been led into the path of Science and excited by the 
extensive and growing fame of two of my Countrymen in one 
of the most elegant Arts of polished Life am solicitous of merit- 
ing a share of publick Notice. Diffident of my abilities I have 
hitherto declined obtruding myself to the view of a diserning 
People distinguish'd for their Taste in the polite Arts, nor should 
now have adventured had I not been encouraged by my 
Brothers advice. 

Not longer to intrude upon your important time, I conclude 
wishing you may long exercise those talents which have so 
deservedly rendered your work Orniments to the Old and 
yourse[l]f an Honour to the new World. I am Sir with the 
greatest Esteem your most humb Servant, 

H. P. 

Henry Pelham to Copley 

Boston, Feby. 16, 1775. 
My dear Brother, 

I [take] the opertunity of Capt. Robson to amuse myself in 

scr[i]bling to my deare[s]t Frie[n]d a few random thoughts, 

some trifling anecdotes, and some serious facts, among the 

last I beg you would place those emotions of my love and 

290 Copley -Pelham Letters 1775 

Gratitud[e] for your kindness and fr[i]endly attention which I 
want words fully to express. I have just finish'd a high regale, 
the Reperusal of all your Instructive and affectionate Letters. 
I never read them, never think of them without the liveliest 
sence of my obligations to you for the unaffected and endearing 
marks of your Love and regard for my wellfare with which they 
are replete; I always feel myself Happy in recollecting the 
agreable Situation you are in, far removed from the din of civil 
discord and faction, uninterrupted by the tumult and cunfu- 
sion of licentiousness and anarchy, contemplating the works of 
the ingenious and great and cultivate'g the charming arts of 
Peace and Friendship. I would not have you suppose from 
this that we are altogethe[r] in a shock'g State ne[i]ther, for I 
really thin[k] we are in a better one than we were some time 
ago. Certain I am this town is incomparably more peaceab[le] 
than it was when you left it, and I flatter myself that the time 
is approaching when Reason will aga[i]n recover her empire 
over the turbalant Passons of an enthusiastic and misguided 
People, and that jarring and hatred, jealosies, distrust and 
mutual revili[n]gs, will give place to the long Cataloge of exiled 
Virtues; that Peace with her swe[e]t Voice will again hail this 
the Happy Land, once more the seat of Plenty Justice Security 
and Fre[e]dom. Your several Letters require no pellicular 
Remarks. I shall pass them with observing that your discrip- 
tion of you[r] journey is very entertain'g and the Civilities you 
mention having rec'd are very flatter'g to your Friends. 

I now propose giving you some accou[n]t of my Journey to 
Phlda. the motives for it, my Health, I have already mentioned. 
I purchasd a Horse and disoblegiant, and on the 18 of Septm'r, 
in Company with our Fr[ie]nd[s] Mr. Lee and Lady, Mr. and 
Mrs. Startin, set out upon the tour about two hours before day, 

1775 Copley -Pelharn Letters 291 

hastned by an expected Visit from the County [Country?] Mob, 
Mr. L. having offended them by adjoining the Court which 
they said was a carrying into execution the regulation Bill. 
We mett with noth[in]g remar[k]able except Very fine Weather 
which we had the whole journey, till we ar[r]ived at Springfield, 
here an unlucky Visit from a Ge[n]tleman, one of the new man- 
damus Councellor[s], who had resigned a few days before upon 
being most severely threatned and ill treated, affixed the name 
of tory upon us and was near springing a mine which would 
have entirely marr'd our journey. This Occurance, tho it much 
disturbed me, afforded me some amusement. I had often seen 
the proceedings of a Boston Mob, but never of a Country one. 
I will give you the perticulars, know'g from Experience] the 
pleasure arrising from a minute detail of the most trifling 
Occurrances our distant friend[s] meet with. We had not 
been long at the Tavern wher[e] we put up at for the night, 
when a party of four and t[w]enty who had been out that day 
shooting Squerels, mett there to divide their booty, which 
raised a quarrel among them, this with the plenty of Liquer 
they had made them noisy and Riotous. The landlord willing 
to have his hous[e] clear of this Confusion requested they 
would depa[r]t, acquainting them that he had travellers who 
wanted Rest, and with more zeal than prudence declared they 
should not have a drop more of drink. This made them out- 
ragious, and Coll. Worthington and Mr. Bliss, two Fri[e]nds 
of Government, coming out of our Room and passing th[r]o 
theirs, drew all this Resentment against us. They said He had 
a damn'd pack of Torys in his House and they would have us 
out. 1 Resistance on [our] pa[r]t incre[a]s[ed] the tumult on 

1 Erased: "and make us make an acknowledgment of our offences aga[i]n[sjt 
the Libertys of the People." 

292 Copley -Pelham Letters 1775 

theirs. They loaded and fired their musketts, for they were all 
armed, in the House and at the Windows. This you may well 
suppose created much noise and Confusion which continued 
near two hours. At length one more peaceably disposed than 
the Rest pe[r]swaded them to disperse for the night, and in the 
morn'g insist upon our mak'g an Acknowledgment of our 
offences, and recant our principles. This with the landlord's 
asking their pardon in a very humble manner, co[o]lled them 
down, so that we had our nights rest. In the morn'g early we 

set out leaving those Sons of to find recantations where 

they could. From Springfield to Newyork we met with nothing 
extrordina[r]y, now and then a small affront which use made 
us disregard. We were 13 days between Boston and York, 
which afforded us ample time for seeing the several of agreable 
Town[s] which ly upon Connecticut River. At Newyork I saw 
a number of clever houses, the Kings Statue pleased me much, 
round this I saw one of those Iron fences which you have dis- 
scribed to me. We tarried here 10 Days, during which I mett 
with much Civility from Mr. Curson and Mr. Seaton. I was 
very unlucky here, Major Bayard, Doctor Auchmuty, and two 
or three Gentlemen, being out of town to whom I had Letters. 
From York we had a most delightful Ride through the Jerseys 
which took us 4 days. The 14 of 0[c]tober bro't us to Phila. 
The regularity, the neatness and cleaness of this City, Its 
excellent and well regulated police, and the simple plainess of 
its Inhabitants], struck me very agreably. Here the Letters 
I had procured several Valua[ble] and Ingenious Acquaint- 
ances], from whom I reed many marks of politeness and atten- 
tion, for which I shall always think myself Obliged. Doctr. 
Morgan I found a polite sensible Friendly Man, a great Lover 
of and a judge of Painting, and a perticular Friend of yours. 

1775 Copley -Pelham Letters 293 

I would recommend your writing to him as he is a man of 
Consequence in the Literary World, a Fellow of the Royal 
Society. Mr. Mifflin shewed me much Civi[li]ty. I had another 
oppertun[ity] of viewing with pleasure their admirable Portrait^]. 
I was introducd to Governor Penn, where I saw and admired 
the several Copies of which you gave me a very just discription, 
when you was at New York. I was at Mr. Hamiltons, the Late 
Governor, who rec'd me very politely. With Him and Mr. 
Allen, who had been in Rome, I had two or three hours very 
entertaining and instructivje] Conversation on paint'g and the 
Arts. Mr. Allen perticularly amused me with an anectdote 
Respect'g my Picture which you sent to the Exhibition. 
When I have more Room I will give it to you. [Unfinished.] 

Henry Pelham to [Charles Reak and Samuel Okey] 

Boston, March 10, 1775. 

A very Long absence from home and a consequent Hurry of 
Buisness upon my return With the want of a Conveni[en]t 
Opertunity has hitherto prevented my noticeing to you the 
receipt of your polite favour. I beg you would attribute my 
omission to those Causes and not to Neglect or Inattention. 
My thanks are due to Mr. Reak for his expressions of Dis- 
apo[i]ntment at not seeing me when he was in Boston. I like- 
wise feel a real Regret in being out of the way when he did me 
the favour to call upon me. As you acqua[i]nt me only in 
General with your intentions of scraping some plates in 
Mezzotinto from Designs of Mr. Copley's and Mine : it is diffi- 
cult for me to determin[e] in what manner I can render you any 
assistance]. But this I can with truth assure you that I shall 

294 Copley -Pelham Letters 1775 

take a great pleasure in affording you any that is in my power 
and I beg you would freely communicate to me any plans in 
which my service will be acceptable to you. I thank you for a 
promise of a proof of Mr. S. Adams print. I take the Liberty of 
mentioning Doct. Winthrop as a Gentleman whose likeness in 
mezzotinto I hav[e] little doubt you would find worth your 
doing. He is well known at home and abroad as a Politician 
and a Philosopher, an emine[n]t decendant of the venerable 
Father of New England, and a Gentleman whose literary 
abilities have rendered his Name abroad an Honour to America 
and whose private Virtues have attracted the esteem of his 
numerous Friends at Home. Should you do this I would send 
you an exact drawing in Black and White taken from a Paint- 
ing of Mr. Copley's, which is a[n] elegant Picture and a very 
striking likeness and would recommend its being done the same 
size of Doctr Franklin's, to be a match for it. I should be glad 
to hear from you upon the subject, and Conclude by sub- 
scribing myself your most Humble Sert. 

Henry Pelh[a]m. 

P S. The Proof I deliv[er]ed to a Gentleman sometime ago 
who called for them in your Names. 

Copley to Henry Pelham 

Dear Brother, 

•. It is a long time since I have had the pleasure of wrighting to 
you ; the reason of this I hinted in a Letter to Your Sister, and 
at the same time promiss'd to be very perticular when a private 
conveyance offered for my letter to you, free of expence; this 
oppertunity now presents itself and I will fulfill my promises 
with the utmost pleasure. Mr. Izard will soon leave this place 

1775 Copley -Pelham Letters 295 

on his way to London, and by him I send this, indeed the ex- 
pence of postage would not have made me delay wrighting to 
you did not my letters to Your Sister, to whom I write very 
constant, furnish you with the most meterial things that con- 
cern me in my tour. I am happrehensive should I add anything 
further on this head you may think I am bantering you, as you 
have much more reason to apologise for yourself. I have not 
only sett you an example, as to the constant inteligence, but 
I leave no sircumstance however trivi[a]l unmenshoned and 
[unexplained, knowing by myself that it must affoard you 
pleasure, to be made acquainted with the smallest Incidents in 
the life of a near friend at a distance. I hope this hint will 
induce you to write more frequently and much more perticular; 
you should fill your paper; and improve every oppertunity to 
send me a letter wrote on large thin post paper, without a cover 
which double[s] the charge. 

I have now been in this City near four months in which time 
I have studyed and practiced with much application although 
when I tell you I have only composed the Assention; painted 
the portraits of Mr. and Mrs. Izard in one Picture, this last not 
finish[ed] by a fortnight, you will think I have done but little. 
howeve[r] you are to reflect that it takes a great deal of time to 
see the Works of Art in this place, also near one month spent 
in Naples. 

You will be glad to know in what manner an. Historical com- 
position is made, so I will give it to you, in that way I have 
found best myself to proceed. I have always, as you may 
remember, considered the Assention as one of the most Sublime 
Subjects in the Scripture. I considered how the Appostles 
would be affected at that Instant, weither they would be scat- 
tered over the Ground inattentive to the Action and converse- 

296 Copley -Pelham Letters 1775 

ing with one another, or weither they would croud together to 
hear the Charge to Peter, and when that was given weither 
they would not be asstonishd at their Masters rising from the 
Earth and full of the Godhead Assend up into Heaven, no one 
who reads the Account in the first Chapter of the Acts can be 
at a moments loss to decide that they would be so asstonish'd, 
and after Crouding together to hear what Christ said to St. 
Peter with vast attention in their countinances, they would 
(keeping their places) and their attention to the Assending 
Christ Absorbed in holy Adoration, worship him as he rose 
from the Earth, and so far from speaking to one another that 
not one of them would reflect that he had a companion with 
him. no thought could at that Instant intrude it self into their 
minds, already fully possessed with Holy wonder, some may 
naturally be supposed to fall on their knees : others with hands 
uplifted standing worship him. Some would look steadfastly 
on him: others would bow their heads and in deep adoration 
with Eyes fixt on the Ground worship him with hands spread 
or on the breast but all inattentive to one another, but two 
Angels stood by them; and spake to them, this would naturally 
ingage those that were next to them, and as it were awaked 
from a trans, turn with surprise to hear what they said to them. 
it would be just to observe that the Appostolick Carracter for- 
bids to make the expression of Asstonishment very great, it 
should be temperd with Love and contain Majesty of behavour 
acquired by many times being spectators of the Power of Christ 
exercised in Miracles of a Stupendious nature. This General 
Idea being considered, the next thing is for the Artist to Warm 
his Immagination by looking at some Works of Art, or Reading, 
or conversing; than with pen or pencil sketch no matter how 
incorrect his general Idea, and when he has got so far, if he can 

1775 Copley -Pelham Letters 297 

correct by his Ideas his Sketch, he should do it. but I found it 
necessary to keep in my Idea the effect of the Whole together, 
which I determined would be grand if managed in the way I 
here Sketch it. I determined to carry the figures in a circle 
which would suppose a place that Christ stood in. this I fixed 
before I had determined the disposition of a single figure, as I 
knew it would make a fine breadth of light and shadow, and 
give a Grand appearance to the Whole: and I am certain 
Raphael pursued a Method something like this, you see in his 
School of Athens in perticular that it has a kind of ground plan 
thus 1 only a little Diversified, but in general it give[s] this Idea. 
I have taken this kind of figure x supposing Christ in the 
Midst, you will find in the Cartoon of the Death of Annanias, 
if my memory is good, a figure of this sort x in that of Elimus, 
the Sorcerer, a figure not unlike that in that of the Appostle 
Paul Preaching this figure. 1 now I have no doubt Raphael 
formed this general Ground plan before he fixed the disposition 
of any of his figures, than place[d] them on this ground, and 
varyed here and there as he found it best to break any stiffness 
and formallity that would otherwise appear in the work, this 
I can say I found my advantage in fixing this Idea of the Whole. 
it lead me to the masses of Light and Shadow and allmost to 
the disposition of some of my principle Figures. I forgot to men- 
tion the Transfiguration, it is in this form, 1 I mean the Lower 
part of the Picture. When I had got thus far I sketched my 
figures, keeping the greatest simplicity with a great breadth of 
Light and shadow, that is I determined the Action of each figure 
and the manner of wraping the Drapery; than I took a Layman 
of about 3 feet high, and with a Table Cloath wet and rung out 

1 Copley has in these places drawn an outline, but not of sufficient moment 
to merit reproduction. 

298 Copley -Pelham Letters 1775 

I disposed my Drapery, and Sketched it with some consider- 
able degree of eligance, and when I was uncertain of the effect 
of any figure Or groop of figure[s] I drew them of the sise on a 
peace of Paper by themselves shaded them and traced them on 
the Paper on which my Drawing was to appear to the Publick, 
just in the way you have seen me proceed with Draperys, etc., 
in my portraits, when I had got all my out line correct and clean, 
for I had traced it all from other sketch[e]s, I began to wash in 
the Shades with bister, this took me about 3 Days and was a 
pleasant Work as I had a correct out line and the several peaces 
from which I traced that out line to Shade from. I found this 
Ideal Sketching at first dificult and had recourse to the Looking 
Glass for Actions and by determining the place of heads hands, 
etc., as well as the propriety of the Action, which should always 
be determined by feeling it yourself, you will soon dispose 
your Attitudes so near the thing that you may exicute your 
Picture from the life without varying from your Drawing much, 
as I will explain. When I had got my Sketch in the above state 
I determined to put it in Colours, so that if I should paint it I 
should have nothing to alter, so I covourd my Drawing squares 
and a Canvis of a Kitcat sise, and Drew all the outline, than 
procured a Model to sit for some heads, from the same Model 
I think I painted 5 heads varying the Colour of the hair, etc. ; 
tho was I to paint it large I should chuse a differant Model for 
each head; but in this it was not necessary to be so correct. 
From this model I Painted the heads, hands, feet the Draperys; 
tho I should chuse to dispose them for a large Picture again 
and use Cloath rather than linen on a Layman as large as life, 
yet what I have in my Drawing is abundantly eligant for the 
painting a small Picture from. I must just observe here that 
although the Sketch is Ideal, yet 2 or 3 of the figures I could 

1775 Copley -Pelham Letters 299 

not absolutely determin on without having the life. I frequently 
studied the works of Raphaiel, etc., and by that kept the fire of 
the Imagination alive and made it my object to produce a work 
that might stand by any others, sometimes a fortnigh[t] would 
pass before I could invent a single figure, and my whole Sketch 
was once drawn and shaded, when the alteration of one or two 
figures seemed necessary, on this I traced it all on another 
paper except those figures, and drew them on a paper by them- 
selves, shaded them, and than traced them with the rest, and 
shaded the whole as above. I have no doubt Raphael pursued 
this method; it appears so by his differant drawings. I hope 
you will be profited by this very perticular Account of my pro- 
ceedings in this my first composition. I should have been happy 
to have had such a plain account of the process when I was in 
America, and what may seem trifling to a Man who has not 
known the want of such information, I know to be of the last 
importance to one who has not had an oppertunity of knowing 
the manner the great Masters have pursued their Goddess with 
success. I hope you will procure Sir Josh: Renolds's Lectures; 
they are the best things that have yet appeared of the kind ; I 
am sorry I did not send them to you when I was in London. 
I will just observe I think Raphael's Cartoons his best composi- 
tions; those you have, and can procure his other works in 
Boston from Mr. Greenleaf . 

But now I have given you a minute detail of the manner of 
making this Composition you will be ready to ask, is it good for 
anything, and what is its merrit? To you I can open my Heart 
when it would be utterly imprudent to do it to an other, we 
must preserve appearances and although every man judges of 
his own Works, yet if they have merrit, and he judges justly of 
them, the world will severely sensure him should he let it be 

300 Copley -Pelham Letters 1775 

known he is not Ignorant of that merrit the very Ignorance of 
which would at once rob him of the merrit itself. But to you I 
will be open and undisguized. I believe it will support its 
merrit in any Cumpany whatever. Mr. Hamilton is lavish in 
its praises, and says he never saw a finer Composition in his life, 
and that he knows no one who can equil it; that it is a subject 
the most dificult I could have ingaged in, that there is no sub- 
ject but I can compose with less Dificulty. on Seeing Mr. 
Izard's Picture he observed, you are a perfect Master of Com- 
position and when he saw the Colourd Sketch with 2 or 3 heads 
painted, he say'd he never saw finer heads ; that if I produced 
such heads I could never want incoragement. this is very flat- 
tering, perticularly as it is the language of all who have seen 
those works. Sigr. Perinesi 1 and others will not allow my Col- 
our'd Sketch to be called a Sketch but a Picture, and a finished 
one, tho Coloured but once. You will want to know if I intend 
painting it large; but to this I must reply doubtfully (although 
Mr. Hamilton says it will establish my reputation) . Yet the time 
it will take me makes the Dificulty, and I could wish to accom- 
pany it with one of another kind, one of a Clasick subject, that 
of the Reconciliation of Achilles and Agamamnon, a very sub- 
lime Subject, if I could produce as good a composition of this 
subject and exicute them as well as I generally exicute my works, 
I should return to England with an Eclaut that would establish 
me in the most effectual manner, not only as a portrait but His- 
torical Painter, but how is it possable, from the latter end of 
March to acomplish such a Work? it would take me 6 Months. 
that would be the time I aught to be just entering England, be- 
sides I am in hopes that some time or other the Assention might 
be apply'd for for an alter peace to some Church, if so, it would 

1 Giovanni Battista Piranesi (1721-1779). 


1775 Copley -Pelham Letters 301 

be as large as life, and in that case I should be sorry to have 
painted it of a smaller sise, and to paint it as large as life would 
take a Can vis 24 feet by 1 8. so I cannot do that, unless it was be- 
spoke for such an use. but I will do my best in all matters and 
trust in providence for a blessing on my affairs. I was happy to 
find my Reputation in England so high. Govr. Hutchinson in- 
formed me I had none to gain in that place, but my utmost 
vigilence to make good what I have acquired and at least [to 
support what I have gained] 1 shall be made use of, and I hope 
in this to be bless'd as I have been by the goodness of God in 
all my important concerns through life, could any thing be more 
fortunate than the time of my leaveing Boston ? poor America ! 
I hope the best but I fear the worst, yet certain I am She will 
finially Imerge from he[r] present Callamity and become a 
Mighty Empire, and it is a pleasing reflection that I shall 
stand amongst the first of the Artists that shall have led that 
Country to the Knowledge and cultivation of the fine Arts, 
happy in the pleasing reflection that they will one Day shine 
with a luster not inferior to what they have done in Greece or 
Rome in my Native Country. 

I shall now proceed to give you some reflections on the Works 
of the Great Masters. I shall begin with Raphael as I think 
him the greatest of The Modern Painters, take his excellences 
altogether and they will out weigh those of any other master, 
yet I must joyn in the general oppinion that he has more faults 
than Dominicino. Raphael has studyed the life very carefully, 
his Transfiguration, after he had got the composition of it on 
the Canvis, he has painted with the same attention that I 
painted Mr. MifHins portrait and his Ladys. 2 in that determined 

1 The words in brackets have been erased. 

2 Samuel and Rebecca Edgel Mifflin. 


302 Copley -Pelham Letters 1775 

manner he has painted all the heads, hands, feet, Draperys, 
and background, with a plain simple body of Colours and great 
precision in his out line, and all parts of it from nature. I think 
his chief excellencys are, his composition, the manner in which 
he tells you a peace of History, and the gracefullness of his 
figures and force of expression, he leaves nothing unexpressed 
that is necessary to the Subject. I will give you two instances 
of this kind of expression : the first where Soloman, desides in 
the case of the Dead Child, the Story you know. Soloman 
orders the living Child to be divided, the Exicutioner hold[s] 
the Child and lifts the Sword to fulfill the Kings command, 
when the mother rushes forward to stop the blow with one hand 
extended, looks to the King, and with the other points to the 
other Woman, you see every part of the Story is expressed, 
and that in as simple a manner as possable. after this full and 
expressive manner of relating the Story what remains to be 
done is to give Carracter to the figures that compose the 
Picture, this consists chiefly in making that variety which we 
find in the life; and making the heads to think agreable to the 
subject that is before them and ingages their attention and 
agreable to their attitudes, this part is Ideal, tho the Variety 
is not. I will not contend with those that say a man may paint 
from his Ideas only, for I will admit it; I will admit that all 
men do; only I will observe that the memory of all men is not 
equilly retentive, one man shall see an object, and twelve 
months after shall have as perfect a knowledge of it as another 
that has seen the same object only a few Days ; but yet the man 
who would see an object with an intention to paint it in a few 
Days still paints as much from Idea as the one who retains a 
remembrance of it a year, for all our Ideas of things is no more 
than a remembrance of what we have seen, so that when the 

1775 Copley -Pelham Letters 303 

Artist has a model in his Appartment and Views it, than turns 
to his picture and marks whatever he wishes to express on his 
Picture, what is it but remembrance of what he has seen? at 
the same time I will allow the man whose memory is such as to 
retain what he has seen a year or two before as perfectly as I 
can one or two Seconds, is on a footing with me when he paints 
not having the life before him. But this I beleive no Man can 
do. hence we see all Ideal performances of but little merrit, 
and those who have made the great figure in the Arts are those 
that have shewn more jeloussy of the goodness of their memory 
and refreshed it by having the life by them, by which they 
secured to themselves that truth of Imitation (and veriety 
which in Nature is Infinite) that their Works appear a kind of 
Second nature that delights the Spectator. But I leave this 
Digression, and return to the Excellencys of Raphael, the 
Second instance in which Raphael has shewn his refined way 
of thinking is in his Cartoon of Paul and Barnabus. but as 
Webb 1 has menshoned this perticularly, I shall refer you to his 
discription of it. so very desireous was Raphael of making his 
story understood at first sight, that when he painted Joseph 
relating his Dreams to his bretheren, as there was nothing that 
could lead to the explination of the story, as he could only 
Paint a young lad talking to several Persons who stood round 
him, he has represented in the Sky the Dreams. The same 
where Joseph interprets the Dream of Pharoh, he has put 
against the Wall of the appartment two round tablets on which 
he has painted the Dreams, so that any one must instantly 
know the Story (if he is not quite stupid) as soon as he casts 
his eye upon it. this is a kind of merrit not confin'd to the gen- 

1 Daniel Webb (i7i9?-i798). The reference is to An Inquiry into the 
Beauties of Painting. 


304 Copley -Pelham Letters 1775 

ious of the Painter only, but open to the acquirement of all 
men of Sense; and a man who has not the least knowledge of 
the Art may, nevertheless, point out the best way of express- 
ing the Subject, or rather the means to make it understood. 
I wish I could convey to you a just Idea of Raphael's Painting, 
but I am at a loss how to do it unless I could recollect some one 
Picture that I could refer you to; but I cannot think of any one. 
I will refer you than [to] the Coppy at Smibert's of the Holy 
Family, which although a Coppy from Raphael, is notwith- 
standing very diferent from his Painting. I will explain to you 
in what it differs; the Original, which is at Florance, I have seen, 
and find it has nothing of the olive tint you see in the Copy, 
the read not so bricky in the faces, the whole Picture finished 
in a more rich and correct manner, you rememfber] the hands 
of the Virgin and of the St. John, they are very incorrect in the 
one you have seen, but in the original they are correctly 
finished and the whole Picture has the Softness and general 
hew of Crayons, with a Perlly tint throughout, thus I have 
indeavoured to give you such a discription of Raphael's works 
as may be useful to you ; but before I take leave of him I must 
just observe that by making use of a Model for the heads you 
will naturally vary your faces agreable to your Models, and 
though I would not make the heads like the model, that is, not 
such a likeness as I would make in a portrait, yet should they be 
like to the greatest degree I should not think it a matter to be 
objected to. you will take notice in the Transfiguration Raphael 
has painted warts on some of the faces by thus painting from 
the life. Chusing such Models as are most agreable to the sev- 
eral carracters you mean to paint, you will procure that 
variety in your Works that is so much admired in the first 
Works of Art; as to the expression you will find it effected 

1775 Copley -Pelham Letters 305 

by small deviations from tranquility, it is what I cannot 
discribe, but would wish you in the persuit of it, to endeavour 
to feel what you would express and mark what you feel in your 
Picture, it is an undiscribeable somthing for which th[e]re is 
no rule, you will be assisted in this by prints; tho they are very 
imperfect, yet you will find till you have some thing better than 
even the Laocoon you have will furnish somthing towards it. 
And here I must advise you to procure an anatomical figure 
and lern the mussels, so that you would be able to draw a toler- 
able figure with all the museles from your Knowledge of the 
parts. 1 But I must leave this Digression and Raphael: and 
proceed to Titiano, whose excellencys are very great at the 
same time of a different kind from those of Raphael. 

I immagine by reflecting on the Ideas I had imbibed from the 
Discription of writers before I had seen any of Titianos Works, 
that you may be utterly unacquainted with his manner of 
Painting, taking it for granted that my Ideas and yours being 
grounded on the same information must be nearly the same, 
those who have wrote on the subject seem always to suppose 
their Readers to have the Works of the Great Masters before 
them; hence they are very defective and convey little or no 
Idea, at least no just Idea, of their Works, my business has 
been to convey to you such an account of the Works of Art as 
will give you the best you can have till you see them with your 
own eyes. I neither Study Stile nor precision, nor have I time 
to be even correct; for my first thoughts as I set them Down 
you must have without any alteration, and if you meet fre- 
quent repetitions it is because I have omitted somthing I wish 

1 The Department of Prints and Drawings of the British Museum has an 
early sketch-book by Copley containing nine anatomical studies, in black and 
red crayons, signed and dated 1756. They are done with great care and the 
muscles are named. 

306 Copley -Pelham Letters 1775 

to convey to you, being much more solicitious to inform your 
Mind than write an Eligant treatise on the Art. at the same time 
it would give me much pleasure to form somthing correct and 
Eligant from these lose though[t]s, unconnected, though I 
think not undegested. for my great Affection for You and 
Solicitude on that Account has made me very carefull not to 
mislead you in any thing; and if I have not always been so 
Clear or explicit as was necessary let me know it and in what 
you wish to be informed, and I shall take a pleasure in gratifi- 
ing you. But to return. 

Before I saw the Works of Titiano, I [s]uposed them Painted 
in a Body of Oyl Colours with great precision, smooth, Glossy 
and Delicate, somthing like Enamil wrought up with care and 
great attention to the smallest parts, with a rich brilliantcy 
that would astonish at first sight, but I found them otherwise, 
the writers of his Life tell you he had three manners, his first 
being indiferant I shall take no notice of it, but remark on his 
second and third as they are boath very good. I shall begin 
with his second in order. He seems to me to have had his 
Cloatji first Passed over (with Whiting, White Lead, or Plaster 
of Paris, mixed with sise) with a Brush, and no other prepara- 
tion or Priming; perhaps not even pumissed: only the Cloath 
pretty even threadjed] and fine, this done he painted his 
Picture with a broad light and very little shadow, so that I 
think they somtimes Want foarce. his lights are Scarcely pre- 
dominant and where ever you see shade, it is only a little below 
the general tint, so that you see it flesh throughout the light 
and shade is what you see in thee Street, nothing black or 
heavy in the shade, nothing White or stairing in the lights, the 
flesh of a full tint rather rather brown or Read than Pale or 
Cold, at the same time his Pictures are generally rather Grave, 

1775 Copley -Pelham Letters 307 

Dark, and Warm than faint or Chalkey. with respect to light 
and shade you see the Prints of his Venus and Danea. they have 
little shade, the Danea has the most, over her face it is very 
warm and transparent, and all flesh, his tints very Clear and 
Perlly but never muddy or Gray. I can refer you no where for 
an example, but recollect you have been at Philadelphia and 
you have no doubt seen Mr. West's Coppy. tho that will give 
you the best Idea of it, yet I beleave was you to see them 
together you would think the Coppy less broken and varigated 
in the tints of Flesh than the original. I think it has more of the 
look of Putty or leather, and I am inclined to think Plain oyl 
Colours will not produce the effect of Titianos Colouring, 
there is somthing too Dauby in it. as soon as I can spare a few 
Days I shall try an experiment or two. I will tell you what I 
propose; first to prepare my Cloath as above, than Dead 
Colour my Picture, the Ground will imbibe the Oyl. When it is 
Dry Pass over it with some Gum Mastick Dissolved in Tur- 
pentine, which I shall let Dry, than finish my Picture with 
Glasing boath in the lights and shades. The Gum is to prevent 
the Dead Colour imbibeing the Oyle, so it will appear through 
the last Glasings with great Brilliancy, another method I shall 
try is to lay in the Dead Colours with Turpintine and than 
apply the Gum before the finishing: which should be by Glas- 
ings only, but when I have made the experiment I shall let you 
know its success. Titiano is no ways minute, but sacrifices all 
the small parts to the General effect, his hands and feet are 
hardly made out till you see them at a Distance. 

But I must here break off as I am ingaged to Drink Tea with 
Mr. Izard and he setts out earley in the morn'g. I wish every 
blessing to attend you, and be assured nothing that can con- 
trabute to your happyness that shall be in my power, but you 

308 Copley -Pelham Letters 1775 

may be assured of My Affectionate Love and Duty, give my 
Dear Mother and acc[e]pt my tenderest Love yourself, Giveing 
Love and compliments to all friends and take care of your 
health, let nothing Depress your Spirits and Beleave me most 
Affectionately Disposed to do everything for your happyness 
as for my own. I am, Dear Brother, Yours Most Affectionately, 

John Singleton Copley. 

Mr. Izard['s] Portrait will be a very fine one. 
Rome, 14. of March, 1775. 

Charles Reak and Samuel Okey to Henry Pelham 

Newport, March 16, 1775. 

Yours by Mr. Tyler came to hand last Night and I take the 
early opertunaty of the next Morning to answer your Obliging 
and Polite Letter and aquaint you that I receiv'd yours with 
great Pleasure as it may posibly bring on A Connection of 
Business both Beneficial and in some measure a little improv- 
ing these parts of the Polite Arts in this New World, wee shall 
publish in About a Month a Poster sized Plate of Mr. Sam 
Addams from A Picture I had of Mr. Mitchels Painting, wee 
have copied it well enouf and are not affraid of the Sucsess of 
it; but A plate done Properly shoud be from A good Picture. 
It was the best I cou'd get when last in Boston and I don't on 
any Account mean to disparage that Young Gent'n, or wish 
that this may go any farther than to you. I have A Letter now 
on my Desk Just Receiv'd from him wherein he kindly tels mee 
his Portrait of Mr. Hancock is at my service. And now for 
that Matter, the Moment wee have done Mr. Addams, Do'r 
Coopers from Mr. Copely will be in hand, when that is done, 

1775 Copley -Pelham Letters 309 

as it will be in about Two Months, and I am shure it will be 
much superior to Addams, Intirely owing to the superioraty of 
Mr. Copelys Pencil. If Mr. Hancock woud be so obliging on 
your aplycation as to let us have his faviorate Picture, it shall 
be taken the greatest Care of Imaginable, and restored in just 
the same state as Receiv'd, and shou'd be put in a Case and 
delivered to the Care of Mr. Peter Mumford our Post, wee 
have many subjects that Offer, but none that wee shoud wish 
to do sooner than that as it will be a proper Companion for Mr. 
Addams ; and as in his wee have been Obliged cheafly to consult 
Profit, so from the fine Picture of Mr. Hancock that I have already 
had the Pleasure to see wee shal consult Honour. Mr. Mumford 
informs mee he will get that Picture, but I shoud be happy in 
owing that Obligation to Mr. Pelham's Friendship. Do'r Win- 
throp as a gent'n of that distinguishing Merrit you represent 
might be a proper subject, and particularly] as A Companion 
to the Ingenious and Learned Dr. Franklin. I remember the 
size of the Plate as I may well do, as laying the Ground on it in 
London for that scraped by Fisher. 1 I think it sold for five 
Shillings Ster'g . Que[ry] whether these high Priced Prints may 
be agreable to the Generality, only shoud be glad if youd Con- 
sult a few of Do'r Winthrop Friends and let mee have there 
and your Opinion how many Impresions wee may probably 
expect to sell, at the first set of the drawing I dare say will do 
very well to execute from. I must stop Short as the Post is this 
Minute setting out, so no further at Present but to beg you '1 
accept our best respects, and that you will add to the favior 
of your last by writing to us again by the first opertunaty, 
which will greatly Oblige your Most hum'e Serts. 

Chas Reak and Sam Okey. 

1 Edward Fisher (1730-1785?). 

310 Copley -Pelham Letters 1775 

Sir, the Post went without this at last, so it retards this 
another Week, if Do. Winthrop woud take the Value of 
Quarter of a Hundred for the Use of his Friends; but in In- 
terim should be glad of Mr Hancocks Portrait. 

C. R. 

Henry Pelham to Copley, 

Boston, April 3d, 1775. 
My Dear Brother, 

Just meeting an Opertunity I cant omitt writing a few lines 
just to let you know that We are, thank God, in pretty good 
health. As my time is short and this will have a very circuitous 
Passage before it getts to Rome, I shall not be able to write 
you so long a letter as you might perhaps expect, or I could 
Wish, To assure you we have been for this long time past 
anxiously solicitous of Receiving a line from you. it seems, and 
indeed it is, almost an age sinc[e] we heard from you. the last 
intelligence was your letter to Our hon'd Mamma of the 5 of 
Nov'r. Indeed we console ourselves that there has been no 
opertunity except by the Pacquet, and I now beg that you 
would direct you[r] Correspondent in England to forward your 
Letters by the very first Opertunitys, weither the packet or 
otherwise, as we shall not at all value a few Shillings when it 
procures us the Happyness of a Letter from you. I am pleased 
when I can inform you that our hon'd Mamma, my dear Sister, 
and my dear little Cousins are well. My Mamma has had a 
very tolerable Winter. She desires me to present you with her 
kindest Love and Blessing and thanks for your letter to her. 
She would have wrote you a few lines, but as I thought it would 
worry her I diswaded her from it. so you must place the Omis- 
sion to my acc't, and I am assured of your excuse knowing your 
willingness to forego any pleasure reather than give her trouble. 

1775 Copley -Pelbam Letters 311 

Little did I think a month go that my next Letter would carry 
such unwelcome news as I have now to Communicate, but 
alas! how precarious are all sublunary injoyments, how uncer- 
tain is human Life ! with malencholy Regret I inform you that 
our very worthy Friends, the once amiable and engaging Mrs. 
Oliver, 1 Our onc[e] gay facetious and respectable Nei[gh]bour 
Mr. Chardon and Mr. Winslow, very late the man of Buis- 
ness, are now no more. Death regardless of Worth and Virtue, 
Youth and Gayety, with ruthless hand snaps the slender 
Th[r]ead of Life and Leavs the tender husband, the amiable 
and affectionate Wife, the Dutifull and the infant Children, to 
mou[r]n the[i]r fri[e]nds departure, and to feel the loss of there 
indearing Offices of Benevolence and Love, which with the 
hopes of a Happy immortallity smooth the rugged Path of Life 
and render more than tolerable that journey so thickly strowed 
with disapointment and Vexations. Let it be the consolation 
of our sorrows to Remember and Imitate their Virtues. Let 
us improve this Righteous providenc[e] of God in th[e]ir Re- 
moval to our profit, let it imprint on our minds the uncer- 
tanty of this world's best injoyments. Convinced that this is 
but a passage to Eternity, let us be with the hope and fortitude 
of Christians always prepared to meet that stroke however 
sudden which shall reunite Us to our departed Fr[i]ends, with 
them to enjoy the Endless Rewards of a Virtuous and good 
Life. A few perticulars of our Fri[e]nds' dec[e]ase you will 
doubtless expect. Judge Olivers Lady was seised with a Fit of 
the Palsey on the 17 of March. She continued sinking away till 
the 25th, when she died and was buried the 30 from My Sister's 
with all the Respect due to her Rank and amiable Virtues. Mr 
Chardon was taken not a month ago with a Mortification in his 

1 Mary, daughter of William Clarke. 

3i2 Copley -Pelham Letters 1775 

Bowels, of which he languish'd 4 Days. Mr. Joshua Winslow, 
Commodore Loring's Son-in-Law was abroad the 16 of Last 
Month, and on the 23d was an inhabitant of the silent Tomb. 1 

My Brother Pelham is now confined with a very severe fitt of 
the Gout with which he has been for some time past afflicted. 
My Sister Pelham I am fearfull is in a declineing Way. Your 
Enquiries after Snap he takes Very kind. He de[s]ires his duty 
to you. I with pleasure inform you that he had been ever 
sinc[e] you left us a very good Boy. 

You doubtless expect I should write you the present State of 
the political Contest, but this I must omitt for want of time 
and Room till my next, assuring you in the mean time that our 
Fr[i]ends here live very quietly, and ther[e] is but little danger 
I think of their not continuing so to do, let the dispute be as it 
will, in Boston we are too strong to meet with the lea[s]t dis- 
turbance. I am happy to inform you that I am very fully im- 
ployed, but People are very backwa[r]d in paying, there being 
now no law to Oblig[e] them to it. It would be too great a 
Tax upon you to enumerate all the Fr[i]ends who desire there 
Compliments to you, But I cant excuse myself from mention'g 
My Hon'd Mamma, Sister C, Brother and S. P., Judge O. 
Mr. Clar[k]e, Isaac, Miss Lucy, Mr. and Mrs. Bromfield and 
my amiabl[e] young fr[i]ends with them, as repeatedly desireing 
to have their k[i]nd love and Regards presented to you. I am 
proud of uniteing myself with so respectable a list of Friends in 
sincere[s]t good Wishes and Prayers for your Health and 
Happyness. I subscribe myself your very affectionate Brother 
and Humble Servant, 

H. P. 

1 A merchant of Boston, who married Hannah, daughter of Nathaniel 
Loring. See Massachusetts Gazette, March 23, 1775. 

1775 Copley -Pelham Letters 313 

Joshua Wentzoorth to Henry Pelham 

Portsmo., April 7th, 1775. 

Your favor of 14th March I rec'd 5th Inst, per post. Observe 
Mr. Copely's Bill for Mrs. Wentworth's portrait which, if com- 
pleat, shou'd with great pleasure discharge the demand, and 
as ready pay a like sum for mine. Mr. Copely, on my deter- 
mination, of hav'g those portraits taken, Engag'd with me no 
other's shou'd impeed the excecution of them. After Mrs 
Wentworth had set many days, and myself one, he agreed and 
finish'd a Portrait for a Mrs Babcock, wch exceedingly disa- 
pointed my Intentions, and my business cal'g me hither, was 
oblig'd to leave Boston, without a finish of either Portrait. 

I cannot determine when Mrs Wentworth will [be] in Boston; 
her present Curcumstances will not admit her Visit'g it for 
some months. 

I purpose to ride thither in May, if the hurry of Govement at 
home does not oblige the Inhabitants to abandon their Houses 
for a more agreeable retreat, from the Clamours of War. 

I shall wait on you when I go to Boston, in the Interim am, 

Sir, Your mt. obt. Servt. 

Josh. Wentworth. 1 

Henry Pelham to Charles Startin 

Boston, May 3d, 1775. 
Dear Sir, 

My Fr[i]end Mr Nichols with his Family returning to 
Philadelphia] Induces me to trouble you with a Line, the 

1 Joshua (1742-1809), son of Daniel and Elizabeth Wentworth, merchant, 
married Sally Peirce. 

314 Copley -Pelham Letters 1775 

Principle Purport of which is to request you to add to the many 
obligations I am already under by favouring me with Letters 
to some of your Friends in England. I feel a Regrett in being 
so troublesome, but know'g your willingness to Oblige I flatter 
myself I shall obtain you[r] Pardon. 

The very Malencholly Event which has lately happend here 
forces me with the multitude to abandon my Nativje] Land, 
and seek that bread at a Distanc[e], which by the Vicicetudes 
of Fortune I am denied at Home. Mrs. Copley with the chil- 
dren I expect will sail in one of the first Vessels for London, 
Where I purpose following in a few Weeks, and where I natter 
myself it will not be long before I have the pleasure of see'g you 
and Mrs. Startin. 1 

I must Refer you to Mr. Nichols for the Perticulars of the 
situation of this distress[ed] Town. It is impossable for me to 
describe the unhappy tran[s] actions of that fatal day and the 
consequent Misery to which it has reduced [the] Inhabitants 
[of] this once flourishing and happy Town. Consternation is 
pictured in every face, every Cheek grows Pale, every lip 
trembles at the Recital of the Horrid tale. 2 

Our very amiable Frie[n]d Miss Sally Bromfield and my self 
had a very providential Escape from being in the midst of the 
Battle. When I found[?] that there was a disturbance in the 
Country I took a Horse and Chaise determined to go to My 
Brothers at Newton and perswade them to come to Boston as a 

1 Erased: "Mr Copley in some of his late Letters desires his Love and best 
Wishes might be perticularly present'd to his Philadelphia Friends. I beg to unite 
with him in proper Regards to yourself and Mrs. Startin and I Conclude with 
Wishing you all Health and Peace. I am, Dear Sir, your much Obliged and most 
Humble Sert. 

"Henry Pelham." 

2 The affair of Lexington and Concord. 

1775 Copley -Pelham Letters 315 

place of Safety. I went to the ferry, where I was refused a 
passage, under pretence of the Winds being too high, tho a 
Chais[e] went over in the very boat befor[e]. anxious for my 
Frie[n]ds (as the Country was then in the utmost Confusion) 
I thought this a great Disapo[i]ntment, and was very angry 
with the Ferrymen, as I lost an hour, being obliged to go ove[r] 
the neck. This I so perticularly mention as it tu[r]nd out a very 
lucky Circumstanc[e]. Find'g my Brother unable to move, 
being confind with the gout, I directly turnd my attention to 
Miss Bromfield who was at Cambridg[e], where I immed[iat]ely 
went and took her into my Chaise. I went to Cambrid[g]e 
B[r]idg[e] and fou[n]d it taken up. deterrd by former unsuccess 
from attempting the ferry I went by the way of Water Town 
Bridge and safely reach'd Home. Mr. Harry Bromfield went 
the same afternoon to Cambridge to fetch his Sister Down, 
finding her just gone with me, he returned to the Ferry, when he 
fou[n]d the boats stopped by Order of the General, the Armies 
fast approach'g to Charl[e]stown, and that being a very unsafe 
place he but just escaped over Charlestow[n] Neck before the 
retreat'g Army enter'd it. He has Rem[aine]d 13 days in the 
Country unable to see his Frie[n]ds, or they him till to day, 
when he obtain'd a Pass from the Gen'l and retu[r]nd home. 
This I take a pleasure in Relating as a[m]ids[t] the Horrors of 
that of that dreadfull Day, I feel myself exceed'g happy in 
rescue'g my lov[e]ly Frie[n]d from such a Scene of Distress and 
Danger, and have from the fortunate Disapo[i]ntment at the 
Ferry lear[n]t much usefull Philosophy, not to make myself 
uneasy at what I cant avoid, and in all the gloomy Prospects 
of Life to think with Pope, Whatever is, is right. 

I am just begining a Minature Port[r]ait of Mr. Clarke which 
I shall send by the first Opertunity to Mrs. Startin. 

316 Copley -Pelham Letters 1775 

I conclude with sincer[e]ly Wish'g that Health and Peace 
may ever attend you and Mr[s] Startin. 

I am, Dear Sir, your much obliged and Very Hm St. 


Henry Pelham to Copley 1 

[May — , 1775.] 

The People in the Country have made it a Rule for a long 
time Past to brand every one with the Name of Tory and con- 
sider them as Inimical to the Liberties of America who are not 
will'g to go every length with them in their Scheems however 
mad or who show the least doubt of the justice and Humanity 
of all their measures, or even entertain an Idea that they may 
not produce those salutary effects they profess to have in View. 

This conduct has rendered My Brother P very uneasy. 

they have long looked askew at him; his being a Churchman is 
considered as a suspicious Circumstanc[e]. in short he has for 
some time meditated a Retreat from his present place of abode 
and has depended upon me for Intellegenc[e] of any movement in 
this town which might effect a threatned attack upon the tories. 

My Sister Copley and myself proposed going to Newton the 
very day of the battle but in the Morn'g finding a disturbance 
in the Country we alterd our plan and with your horse and 
Chaise I went alone to alarm my Brother and perswade him 
and my Sister to come to town as a place of safety. I went to 
the ferry. The ferrymen refused to carry me over, the Wind 
being high tho there was then a Chais[e] passing over. This I 
consider'd as a great disapo[i]ntment and scolded at the Ferry- 
men who I thot acting out of their line of Duty. I here lost an 

1 Possibly another draft or a part of the letter on p. 322, infra. 

i77S Copley -Pelham Letters 317 

hour, being obliged to Return thro the town and go over the 
Neck. This in the sequel will appear a very fortunate Circum- 
stance, as it detered [me] from attempting to return the same 
way. I found my brother unable to move being confined with 
the Gout. Anxious for my Fri[e]nds, as the Country was now 
in the utmost Confusion, my attention was drawn to our 
Amiable Fri[e]nd Miss Sally Bromfield, who was then at Cam- 
bridge. I went and took her into my Chaise. The people hav'g 
taken up Cambridge Bridge to stop the Troops in their Retreat, 
and fear'g another disapo'ntment at Charlestown, I thot it 
most prudent to Return home by the Way of Watertown, tho 
it was 13 Miles, which I happyly effected by Sunsett, after 
hav'g Rid post a Circuit of 30 Miles. Had we Returnd thro 
Charleston we should have been in the midst of the Battle and 
have remain'd a fortnight involuntary exiles from our Fri[e]nds 
who as it was were very uneasy for us. This is evident, Mr 
Harry B. having gone the same afternoon to fetch his Sister 
down but finding she had ju[s]t left her Uncles with me hastned 
immediatly back to the Ferry where he found the boats stopp'd 
by Order of the Gen'l. The Armies fast approach'g and that 
being a very unsafe place he had but just time to escape over 
Charleston Neck before the retreat'g army entered it. He 
was forced to Rem[a]in 13 days in the Country unable to see his 
Fr[i]ends before he could obtain a pass to Return home, amidst 
the Horrors of that fatal Day, I feel myself peculiarly happy in 
being instrumental in rescuing my very lovely Fri[e]nd from 
such a Scene of Distress and Danger. The other Circumstance 
was this: finding I should have no busness here, my self and 
frie[n]ds thought it advisable for me to go to Philada. I had 
agreed for my Passage and was pack'g up my things expecting 
to sail the next Mon'g, when in the Night the Capt. fear'g some 

318 Copley -Pelham Letters 1775 

detention went off and left all his Passengers behind. This has 
turn'd out very lucky, as advices have just arrived that New- 
york and Philad. are in almost as much trouble and Confusion 
as we are and there is an armed force going there. This with 
the other disapointm't at Charlestow[n] Ferry have fully taught 

me that present disapointment 

[You] will doubtless be surprised to find this transmitted to 
London by my dear Sister, who sails in Capt. Callahan 1 to- 
morrow with her little Family, the perticulars she will give you. 
the times are such as must preclude all thots of your return'g. 

Henry Pelham to John Singleton 

Boston, May 16, 1775. 
Dear and Hon'd Uncle, 

To give you a short account of the situation of your Friends 
here, and to remove from your minds and that of my other 
dear Relations in your part of the World, Aprenhensions which 
must arrise for our safety in this time of Distress and difficulty, 
is the motive for my addressing you now. It will be needless 
for me to give a detail of the Causes leading to the unhappy 
event, which has recently thrown us into the greatest Confu- 
sion, and has involved this Country in all the Horrors of a Civil 
War. You must be fully acquainted with [the] Contest which 
for some year[s] past has subsisted between this Continent and 
Great Britain. I shall therefore pass it without any Remark, 
saving that it has been productive of mutual je[a]lo[u]sy and 

1 Erased: "tomorrow or next. In a few days." Callahan, captain of the 
Minerva, did not sail until May 27, and then went from Marblehead. On 
April 27, the British general had given leave for all persons who should choose 
to do so to leave Boston with their effects, and large numbers seized the oppor- 
tunity. A year earlier, June 1, 1774, Governor Hutchinson had left America in 
the same vessel, then also commanded by Callahan. 

1775 Copley rPelham Letters 319 

mistrust, unnatural heartburn'g, hatred and Malice, among 
those whose Duty and interest it was to dwell together in 
Peace, mutually love'g and Cherishing each other. A Conduct 
which would be infinitely more agreable to the design of 
Providencje] in forming us Social Beings, and mak'g us depend- 
ant on those around us more consonant to the dictates of that 
boasted Reason which so eminently destinguishes Man from 
all the other Works of Creation, and unquestionably more 
agreable to the express Commands of that Prince of Peace, 
whose Holy Religion we all profess to make the Rule of our 
Lives and Conduct. But alas! The last ten years is but an 
additional Confirmation of that Mallencholly truth taught us 
by the experienc[e] of ages that neither the light of Natural 
Religion, the dictates of Reason, the positive Commands of 
Christianity, nor even a Regard to present Happyness are 
effectual to curb the licentious Ambition, the Pride and Averice 
of Man, or smoth those aspiraties of the Mind which too fre- 
quently break the ties of benevolence and Virtue, and render 
Man his own greatest Enemy. Whatever disagrement there 
may be respecting a parlimentary Right to tax us, or about 
American opposition, we must all agree in this that a Civill 
War is the most dreadfull Evill that can befall a People, as it is 
subversive of that friendly intercourse that can so greatly 
heighten our Joys, gives such a cha[r]m to our innocent pleas- 
ures], and aleviates the Sorrows of Life. 

Among other preperations of defence which the People of 
this provinc[e] have for some months past been very industri- 
ously making they had formed some Magazines of Provisions 
and Milatary Stores, one pellicula [r]ly at Concord 18 Miles 
from Boston. The Granodiers and light Infantry Companies 
belonging to the Kings Troop in this town, making about 600 

m^^_ ■ 

320 Copley -Pelham Letters 1775 

Men, were ordered to destroy this Magazine (they began their 
March from town about 12 o Clock in the night of the 18 of 
April), which after a small Skirmish they effected. By day- 
break there was a very general Rising in the Country, all were 
in motion, alarm Guns having been fired and expresses sent to 
every town. About 10 o Clock the 19 of April Gen'l G[age], 
having rec'd advice that the troops were attack'd as they were 
going to Concord, ordered out a Reinforcement of 4 Regiments 
under the command of L[ord] P[ercy], with 2 field Peices, the 
whole with the first party Makeing 1800 Men. This reinforce- 
ment joined the others just time eno to prevent their being 
entirely cut to peices, they having nearly expended all their 
amunition. By this time a great Number of People were 
assembled fully equipp'd, who lined the Woods and Houses 
along the Road thro which the troops mu[s]t pass in returning 
to Boston. A general Battle ensued, whi[c]h was supported by 
an almost incessant fire on both sides for 7 Hours, when the 
troops made good their retreat with the loss of 57 Killed, above 
100 Wounded, amongst whom were two Off[i]cers who have 
since died and severall Missing. It is impossable to ascertain 
the loss on the part of the Country People, they acknowledge 
the loss of 40 Killed on the spot, but this I apprehend must fall 
vastly short of the true number. A Fr[i]end of mine says he saw 
between 70 and 80, and the Gentlemen who were spectators of 
the Scene universally agree that there could not be less than 
150 or 200. they lost three of their Captans. Thus you have 
the most perticular account of this unhappy affair that I am 
capable of give'g you. Words are wanting to discribe the Misery 
this affair has produced among the Inhabitants of this Town. 
Thousands are reduced to absolute Poverty who before lived 
in Credit. Buisness of any kind is entirely Stop'd. The Town 

1775 Copley -Pe /bam Letters 321 

invested by 8000 or 10,000 Men, who prevent all supplies of 
fresh Provision from coming in, so that we are now reduced to 
have recource to the stores which those of us who were provi- 
dent foreseeing a political Storm had lain in. We find it dis- 
agreable living entirely upon salt Meat, it is especially so to 
my honord Mother, whose ill state of Health renders her less 
able to bear it. My Brother Jack has been near a year past 
making the Tour of France and Italy. My Sister Copley is 
just embarking with her little Family for London, where she 
expects soon to meet him. She is the bearer of this to England. 
As for myself I dont know what to say. this last Maneuvour 
has entierly stopp'd all my buisness, and annialated all my 
Property, the fruits of 4 or 5 years Labor. I find it impossable 
to collect any Monies that are due to me, so that I am forced 
to find out some other place where I may at least make a living, 
my present purposed plan is to remove to Great Britain where I 
shall be able to look about me, and where I shall have an 
Opertunity of consulting my Friends respecting my future 
pursuits. Should I be able to purswade my hon'd Mamma to 
undertake this Voyage, Which I sometimes flatter myself I 
shall, I would leave this place in 6 or 8 Weeks. With her love 
and sincer[e]st affections I beg leave to tender you and my 
Aunt Singleton my most dutifull Respects and beg your bless- 
ing. Be kind eno to present my duty to my Uncle and aunt 
Cooper, and Love to all my Cousins. I am, Dear Sir, with the 
sincer[e]st affection and Respect your most dutifull Nephew, 

H. P. 

PS. I should take it as a great kindness if you would favour 
me with a line as often as Conven[ien]t. Please to dir[e]ct to' the 
Car[e] of Mrs. Copley in London, who will forward them to me. 1 

1 This letter was sent to Anthony King, of Dublin, Pelham's cousin. 

322 Copley -Pelham Letters 1775 

Henry Pelham to Copley 

Boston, May 16, 1775. 
My Dear Brother, 

Before you rec. this you will doubtless have heard alarming 
Reports of a late most unhappy Event which has taken place 
here. I have hitherto declined giving you any account of the 
State of Politicks since you left us, thinking it a theme which 
could afford you no amusement. I now reluctantly find my 
self obliged to give you a detail of one of the most extraordinary 
and unhappy transactions which can possably disgrace the 
Records of Mankind. Alass! My dear Brother where shall I 
find Words sufficiently expressive of the Distractions and Dis- 
tresses of this once flourish'g and Happy People. The Disorders 
of which we were lately such anxious Spectators have produced 
those effects which every dispas[s]ionate Mind foresaw, and 
every humane and feeling Heart wished to avoid: My hand 
trembles while I inform you that [the] Sword of Civil War is now 
unsheathd. For some months past the People of this Province, 
impelled by the most surprizing Enthusi[as]m which ever 
seized the mind of Man, have been industriou[s]ly making every 
preperation for Carrying on a War and had formed some con- 
siderable Magazines. Gen'l Gage to embarrass them and 
Retard their Plans, determind to break up a Magazine of 
Provision[s] and Milatary Stores they had collected at Concord, 
18 Miles from Town. To effect this about 600 Men embarked 
from the Bottom of the Common in Longboats and landed at 
Phipps farm about 1 o Clock in the Morn'g of the 19 of April: 
from thence proceeded to Concord, where they destroy a 
quantity of Provision, a Number of Harness and some Guns. 
At 10 o Clock, 4 Regiments, making with the first Party 1800 

1775 Copley -Pelham Letters 323 

Men, with 2 Field Pieces, march'd as a Reinforcement under 
the Command of Lord Percy. This movement caused an uni- 
versal Tumult thro the Country. Alarm Guns were fired, 
Expresses sent to every town, and in a few Hours a Very large 
Body of People were assembled under Arms from all Parts, 
who lined the Woods, Roads, and Houses. A[n] obstinate and 
Bloody Battle was the consequencje], when an incessant fire 
and general Battle ensued and an incessant fire was supported 
on both sid[e]s for 7 Hours, till sunsett, during which time the 
Regulars made a Retreat which does Honor to the Bravest and 
best Disciplined troops that ever Europe Bred. The fatigues 
and conduct of this little Army, is not to be parrelleled in 
History. They marchd that day not less than 50 Miles, were 
constantly under Arms, part of them at least from 10 o Clock 
at Night till an hour after Sunsett the next Even'g, the whole 
of the time without any Refreshm[e]nt, attack'd by an Enemy 
they could not see, for they skulk'd behind trees, stone Walls, 
etc., and surroundjed] by not less than 10000 Men who most 
vigirou[s]ly assaulted them with fresh Men. In short consider- 
ing the Circumstances it was almost a Maricle that they were 
not entirely distroyjed]. When the battle ended they had not 
near a Charge a Man. The Kings troops had 57 Killed, above 
106 Wound[ed], among them 2 Officers, who are since dead 
and several missing. The Rebels loss is not assertained, as 
there has been scarce any communication between town and 
Country since. They aknowledge they had 40 of their People 
killed, but this must fall Vastly short of the true number. 
Doct. Spring of Watertown says he saw betwe[e]n 70 and 80. 
The Officers in general agree they could not loose less than 150 
or 200, among whom are 3 of the[i]r Captains. Thus I give 
You the perticulars of this most shock'g affair. I must now 


324 Copley -Pelham Letters 1775 

discribe the State of this town. It is intirely invested by an 
Army of about 8000 Provincials who prevent all supplys and 
Communication from the Country. The Gen'l is fortifying the 
Town in all Parts, has bui[l]t a Number of Battery[s] at the 
Neck, at the bottom of the Common, round the beach to 
Newboston, on fox Hill, Beacon Hill, and all along from your 
land entirely to Mr. Wm. Vassells, on Fort Hill and Cops Hill 
at Bartons Point. So that the threatned assault upon the town 
now gives us very little disturbance. The Ge[n]'] has entirely 
disarmed the Inhabitants and has permitted Numbers to move 
out with their Eff[e]cts. We have been obliged to live intirely 
upon salt provisions and what stores we have in the house, and 
I thi[n]k we are very fortunate, foreseeing a political Storm we 
had been for some time collecting provisions of all sorts and 
have just furnish'd eno to last our family 6 Months. Mr 
Clarke has done the same. It is inconceivable the Distress 
and Ruin this unnatural dispute has caused to this town and 
its inhabitants. Almost every shop and store is shut. No buis- 
ness of any kind going on. You will here wish to know how it is 
With me. I can only say that I am with the multitude ren- 
dered very unhappy; the little I had collected, entirely lost, the 
Cloaths upon my back and a few Dollers in my pocket are now 
the only property which I have the least Command of. What is 
due to me I cant get and have now an hundred guineas worth 
of business begun which will never afford me an hundred 

I cant but think myself very unfortunate thus to have lost so 
much of the best part of Life, to have my Bus[i]ness, upon 
which my happyness greatly depends, so abruptly cut short, 
all my bright prospects anialated, the little Property I had 
acquired rendered useless, myself doomed either to stay at 

1775 Copley -Pelham Letters 325 

home and starve, or leave my Country my Fri[e]nds, forced 
to give up those flattering expectations of domestic felicity 
which I once fon[d]ly hoped to realise: to seek that Bread 
among strangers which I am thus crually deprived of at 

This I long foresaw would be the case. The expectation of 
this distressing Scene was the cause of that illness which sent 
me to Philadelphia last fall: When I think of my present 
Situation, it requires all my Philosophy to keep up my spirits 
under this acumula[te]d Load of uneasiness. I can't help relat- 
ing two Circumstances, which amidst all my distress Afford 
me real pleasure and have tended greatly to Relieve my anxiety, 
and it has fully taught me that present disapo'[i]ntment may 
be productive of future good, and that we are indispensably 
obliged after we have conscientiously done what appears to us 
our Duty to leave the issue to that Almighty being, whose 
Fiat created and whose Providenc[e] Govern[s] the World : and 
weither Adversity depress or Prosperity chear us, we are equally 
bound humbly to adore his Wisdom and patiently submitt to 
his all righteous Dispensations. [Unfinished.] 

Henry Pelham to Charles Pelham 

Boston, June 5, 1775. 
Dear Brother, 

Your letter of the 31st ultimo I duly rece[i]vd, and am 
pleased that it was in my Power to transmitt what You there 
requested by my very worthy Namesake Mr. Henry Bromfield 
Junr. I should have sent it sooner but could get no safe Convey- 
ance, however hope it came in season to be serviceable. By 
him I likewise sent a letter I took out of the Post office for which 


326 Copley -Pelham Letters 1775 

paid 2/5, which with 1 1 Johan,and 15/ in Change is I think the 
sum of your account. Harry doub[t]less gave you more intel- 
legence respecting your Friends in this Town than I can in the 
Compass of a Letter, and I suppose inform'd you of my return 
to town the day I was last at your House : Sister Copley sailed 
Saturday sivnighft] with her little Family for England. She 
desired her kindest Love to you and My Sister Pelham, is very 
sor[r]y she could not make out to see you before she left the 
Place which was very sudden. I cant but say I am glad they are 
gone. I propose going there myself with my Mother, if I can 
prevail upon her to undertake the Voyage, which I am some- 
what fearful I shall not be able to do. if not, I will endeavour 
to get her Consent for my spending the Winter there, which all 
my other fri[e]nds strongly urge, as I shall have nothing to do 
at home, and have no doubt but I shall be able at least to bear 
my expences there. This is a plan I don't allow myself to think 
I shall not execute. I shall in that case beg it as a favour that 
you would give me an introductory Letter to our Aunt whom 
I shall make it a point to Visitt. But before I go can't you 
contrive for me having an interview at the Lines? I want it 
much and beg if possable it may be soon, if you can appo[i]nt 
a time I will get there, but let it bee soon in the Mon'g and give 
timly Notice. 

The inclosed Letter I am desired to forward you as soon as I 
can, and must be answerd as soon as possable. I have been for 
near a fortnight past much affected with a violent ague in my 
face, which I hope is now going off. I pray God to bless all my 
dear Friends at Newton, beg to be kindly Remembered to 
them an[d] am with affection and esteem dear Sir you[r] ever 
affe[c]tion[ate] Brother. 

328 Copley -Pelham Letters 1775 

Copley to his Mother 

Parma, June the 25, 1775. 
My ever Dear and Hon'd Mother, 

By this oppertunity I have the happiness to inform you of 
my safe arrival in this place. I left Rome the 4th Instant and 
had a very agreable Journey to this place, stoping at Florance 
4 Days, and two at Belogna in my way. I have been blessed 
with the most perfect health since I left Boston, and trust in 
that God who has preserved and blessed me for a continuance 
of his Mercy to me in the contin[u]ance of the injoyments of 
not only my own health, but that of my dear friends and all 
other blessings he has been pleased to bestow on me in his 
abundant goodness. The being seperated from friends I so 
tenderly love is exceedingly painfull to me, and my angsiety is 
greatly increased by the unhappy state of America. I pray 
God preserve and keep you all from the Miserys of War. by 
the last post I had a letter from Mr. Greenwood in London, and 
am exceedingly distressed to find there is no prospect of any 
thing less distressing than a Civil War sp[r]eading itself over 
that once happy Country, he writes me it has began already 
with the spiling of the blood of an hundred and fifty or two 
hundred persons. I hope it is not so distressing, but I cannot 
divest myself of the most ancious apprehentions for my 
Country and Friends. 

While I was in Rome I saw the English Papers twice a Week, 
but in this place I have not the least oppertunity of hearing but 
by letters from my friends which I am very ancious to receive. 
I have began my copy of the very fine Corregio, for which I have 
a commission from an English Nobleman. I have half Dead 
Colour'd my copy, tho I have been here only one Week. I hope 

1775 Copley -Pelbam Letters 329 

to be able with great diligence to finish it in about two months, 
when I shall hasten to England by the way of Flanders. You 
can have no Idea how easy it is to travil in this Country, and 
none of those dangers or dificultys attend it which are immag- 
ined by People that have not been in Europe, it is only passing 
from one Town to another, as from Boston to Roxbury, and 
the whole way houses, and People ready to do what ever you 
may want. Roberys are very rarely known to be perpitrated, 
and so much security from things of this kind that people travil 
much more by night than Day in the warm weither. it is not so 
in England. The great dificultys that attend traviling here is 
that the people will impose on one if it is possable for them to do 
it; for there is no regulations for the Inns, and they will make 
the most of their Gests. so that it is necessary to agree for every 
thing one wants on the Road, and in every place I find English- 
men to associate with, even in this place, which I think a little 
obscure place after being so long in Rome and other Great 
Citys, there is at this time two English persons, and one other 
who has resided so long in England that I must consider him as 
such. I don't recollect being in any place since I left London 
but what I met some English to associate with, which is very 
different from what I expected. I am now five hundred and 
twenty miles nearer London that I was at the extreeme part of 
my Tour, which was Pestum, an ancient City, about sixty miles 
beyand Naples, there is to be seen of this City the Walls, and 
the Vestiges of three or four Temples, and an Amphitheater, 
this is all that remains to be seen at this Day. the Ground for 
Ages has been plowed and so little has this place been known 
that it is not menshoned by any Auther, tho a place of as much 
curiossityas any I have seen, except Pompei andHerculaneam. 
from its antiquety and singular Stile of Architecture it derives 

330 Copley -Pe/ham Letters 1775 

its curiosity, it being older than Rome and it[s] Architecture 
that of the first dawning of that Science among the Greeks. I 
think the Walls of this City are about 4 or 5 and twenty feet 
thick, it lays on the Seacoast in a fine Bay, and the Ground 
is very level within the Walls, which are in circumf erance about 
four miles, this place I am glad to have seen, though I should 
not have extended my Tour so far, had not Mr. Izard invited 
me to accumpany him their from Naples, we performed this 
Tour, stayed at Pestum 3 hours, and got back to Naples in 
three Days. Mr. Izard has been very much my friend on this 
Tour, and from Naples to Rome he would pay all my expences, 
and has shewn the greatest desire possable to render me every 
service in his power. I received a letter from him by the last 
Post from London, where he and his Lady are safe arrived, he 
is a native of Carolina and his Lady of New York and of the 
De Lancy Family, and a very fine Woman. 1 I had no acquaint- 
ance with him in America, but at Florance he inquired for me 
and called to see me and I have found him a very Valuable 
Friend. Mr. Boylston 2 has been within a few weeks past at 
Leghorn after his return from Turkey. We exchanged three or 
four Letters, but he is now gone on to Paris, and has perfectly 
recouvered his health, he writes me he is impatient to get to 
England, being worn out with continual traviling, having 
traviled 14000 miles, and that chiefly by land. I dont wonder 
he is tired of traviling. I am happy to hear Brother Harry has 
recovered his health. I hope he will long injoy that Blessing 
with all others that are reasonable to expect. I hope he con- 
tinues to be imploy'd. I intend writing him by this oppertun- 
ity, but should be glad to hear oftener from him. I think he 

1 Alice, daughter of Peter de Lancey. 

2 Ward Nicholas Boylston (1749-1828). 

1775 Copley -Pelham Letters 331 

might write to me by every oppertunity and that he might 
write more on one sheat of Paper than he does. I set him a good 
example I am sure. I think there is nothing, when he has read 
one of my letters, he would wish to ask me, so perticular I am 
in my desires to gratify and instruct him. I wish he would 
consider that the smallest surcumstances are rendered inter- 
esting from the distance I am at and I wish to ask him a thou- 
sand questions. I am not sattisfyed with a few lines containing 
a few formal sentiments. I want [news] of everything about 
his works, the Farm, the Publick, etc., etc. In his last Letter 
he informed me he had painted a miniature and sent it to the 
Exibition, but as I did not find it in the Cattalogues I conclude 
it arrived too late. I shall wish to see somthing next year exib- 
ited by him. his process in Miniature is I beleive very right, 
only Mr. Humphreys tells me he uses no Shugar Candy in his 
colours; that he tints them at first exceeding faint, and so 
brings on their effect by degrees. I wish when I get back to 
England to see the Picture he sent, but for this he must 
send me a direction. I wish also to have a direction to write 
to My Uncle Singleton, and Aunt Cooper; also a Direction to 
the Gentleman that transacts his Aunts Pelham's Business, for 
my attention to this shall be immediately on my arrival in 

I think I shall be able to pay the expences of my Tour by 
what I shall have done in this Country, or near it; although it 
has not been in my power to do a couple of Pictures that [were] 
bespoke, one was a Madonna and Child by Guido in Rome, 
this there was no possability of geting leave to Copy, the other 
the Madonna at Florance by Raphael, the same that used to 
hang over my Chimney, this I could not stay to do without 
hazarding my place at Parma being taken by some other 

232 Copley -Pelham Letters 1775 

Artists, as there was several prepairing for that purpose, and 
it was too important an object to miss, the Copy, if done as I 
hope to do it, will be a very valuable thing and I shall be paid 
accordingly for it, not being limmited in price. I have procured 
the copy of Guido's Aurora for Mr. Palmer, it is in Waiter 
colours and will be in England by the time I get there, with my 
other things, the original is a very fine thing indeed and I 
doubt not you will be much pleased with the Copy when you 
see it. I have seen a letter from Rome by which find menshon 
is made of a Skirmish having been at Lexington, and that 
numbers were killed on boath sides. I am exceeding uneasy not 
knowing to what you may be exposed in a Country that is now 
become the seat of War. this is the evil I greatly dreaded while 
I was in America, sure I am the breach cannot now be healled, 
and that country will be torn in peices, first by the quarrel with 
Great Briton till it is a distinct Government, and than with Civil 
discord till time has settled it into some permanant form of 
Government, what that will be no Man Can tell, weither it 
will be a free or Dispotick is beyand the reach of human wisdom 
to deside. in the mean time we must pursue that which is our 
Duty and to Providence look up for a blessing on what we do. 
I hope you dont think I neglect you in not writing oftner to 
you, but I let no private oppertunity escape me without 
improveing it. I wish they were more frequent, by the Post 
I write very constantly to my Dear Wife, by which you have 
every thing meterial and I think it is pity to pay postage for 
Letters to more than one. I pray God keep and preserve you 
from every evil, and am, My Dear Madam, Your Most Affec- 
tionate and Dutyfull Son 

John Singleton Copley. 
Parma, the 1st of July, 1775. 

1775 Copley -Pelham Letters 333 

Copley to Henry Pelham 

Parma, the 25 of June, 1775. 
Dear Harry, 

i It is now a considerable time since I wrote you, not having a 
private conveyance of a Letter to you; but at this time an 
English Artist is going to London and I imbrace with the 
greatest pleasure every oppertunity of instructing you and 
testifying that sincere Love I bear you. I think I have given 
you the best Idea I am capable of in writing of the Works of 
the great Artists. I think I began with Vandyke's Works in 
England, than Rubens's at the Luximburg, Raphael's and 
Titiano's at Rome. But I think I have not yet fmish'd with 
Titiano. his last manner is that which I have dwelt upon. 
I shall now endeavour to convey to you his first and best man- 
ner, and shall keep in my eye his Venus at Florance, as I think 
it is the finest thing he has produced, it differs from his last 
manner in its being more finished, and in all parts having a 
greater degree of precision in boath Colour and Contour, you 
have seen the Print, and I presume Mr West's Copy. I shall 
indeavour to build on them my discription. in them you have 
the Light and Shadow, and outline, and disposition; so what 
remains for me to give is the colouring, and penciling, you 
doubtless thought Mr. West's Copy finely Coloured; but if I 
remember it right it has more of an InamiPd look than the 
original, indeed all Pictures compaired to Titianos have this 
look, that is more white, read, black, blew, etc. if you put your 
hand to the flesh of this Venus you will find it the same Colour, 
if you put your hand on any other you will find the Paint has 
more of the dauby, smooth or pasety look, blacker than the 
flesh, at the same time whiter, boath paler and reader. If you 

334 Copley -Pelham Letters 1775 

examin the knee and part of the thigh of the little Jesus in the 
Madonna's lap at Mr. Chardons, you will find that compaires 
very well with the flesh, if you put your hand to it, but yet it is 
not exactly Titian. I recommend to you to take some spirits of 
Turpentine and mix up a flesh tint and put it on a peace of 
linen cloath; than mix another with oyl of Poppy or nuts, and 
put that on the linen by the side of the other, and you will see a 
briliancy and Strength in that mixt with turpentine, and the 
other will look Dark, cold, and greasy, the same differance you 
find between those tints, you find between the Pictures of Titian 
and those of other masters. I must indeed allow that the Vene- 
cian Masters in general seem to have the same colouring that 
Titian has, only not carried to that perfection. I have formed 
in my mind from the most attentive consideration of Titiano, 
a process which I think will produce somthing like his Colour- 
ing, it is as Follows: Take a good Cloath, pass over it with 
Spanish'd White mix'd with size, so rubed into the Cloath that 
all the pores are filled, let it dry. than with your pencil draw 
your outline with Dark colour, this done, set your Pallet with 
Colours ground in oyl, as you get them from the Colour shop. 
They will be very stiff, dilute them with spirits of Turpentine, 
and paint your Picture with a good body in the lights and very 
thin in the shades, and in this way bring your Picture to as 
great a degree of perfection as you can. when you can do no 
more, pass over your Picture (which will be intirely sunk in) 
with mastick Varnish, let it dry and your Picture will appear 
very brilliant, and have an even gloss, this done, take retouch- 
ing Varnish and anoint the picture, not all over at once but by 
peace meal, for instance an head, hand, etc., or what ever you 
mean to improve, and finish your Picture by glaizeings with 
Colours first ground in oyl and than diluted with the retouching 

1775 Copley -Pelham Letters 335 

Varnish, and if necessary add a little oyl. by glaizeings I mean 
not only glaizeing in the Shadows, but Scumbling all over the 
lights with Virgin tints, makeing some parts reader, some 
lighter, some blewer, etc., and giving a greater breadth to some 
parts by making a number of minute tints harmonise by one 
general Scumble of fine flesh Colour, your Picture, when dry, 
Varnish with Mastick Varnish, or Spirit Varnish if it will bear 
it; but I should think without trying it, it would tear up the 
Colours. I think Titian has managed somthing in this way, 
and many of his shades are given only by the glaizeings. for 
instance the thighs of his Venus were laid in without the divi- 
tion between them being marked, and when he came to glaize, 
he has run over with a tint through which you see the flesh and 
marked this divition in this way. you must conceive that the 
flesh tints are preserved throughout every part, you must 
have a perfect Idea of what I mean. I think the method is very 
simple, and if you have a mind to try it, it wont cost you much 
time, for I would not have you spend much time in experiments. 
if you should do some little thing, I dont mean a finish'd Pic- 
ture, send it me and I shall give you my opinion on it. You are 
to remember after all that the eye and Judgment is to be ac- 
quired by diligence for the produceing fine things; without 
those no receipt will avail, the receipt is only to inable a man 
to effect what his Judgment informs him aught to be done. 
The receipt for the Varnishes are as follows : to make Mastick 
Varnish : Take of the whitest Gum Mastick 6 Ounces, Spirits of 
Turpentine 7 Ounces; put them into a bottle well corked, put the 
bottle into a Pot of Waiter over the fire, not leting the bottle 
touch the bottum of the Pot. Shake the bottle every quarter 
of an hour till the Gum is dissolved, let it stand by the fire and 
in the hot waiter till it is settled, and than it is fit for use. 

336 Copley -Pelham Letters 1775 

Retouching Varnish: Take of Gum Mastick 2 Ounces, 1 
Shugar of lead 1 Ounce, or some thing less, grind them very fine 
on a Clean stone; than Put Nut or Poppy Oyl as much as is 
sufficient to liquify them; put this into a vessel with a little 
Oyl over it to keep it from Drying, but let no waiter be put on 
it. this Varnish looks as it lays on the Pallet like Jelly. The 
same process that I have discribed above one Mr. Dean, a good 
Landscape Painter, pursues in his lanscapes, with this differ- 
ance only, that his Cloaths are primed with Oyl Colour and 
he dead colours with Oyl of Poppy; that is he Paints as you do, 
only when he has done as much as he can with a body of 
Colours he Varnishes with Mastick, and than after that is dry 
he anoints out his Picture with retouching Varnish with a 
brush, than with another dry one he drys his Picture as much 
as possable, and then Glaizes all parts of his Picture, even his 
Sky, with White and Ultramarine, his Colours ar[e] diluted 
with retoching Varnish. A method to purify Oyl : take 1 Pint 
of Nut or Poppy Oyl, one Pint of waiter; Put them together 
into a bottle or flask and put the flask into the Sun, and shake 
it four or five times a Day for a bout a fortnight, pound very 
fine some white Marble and put it into the flask; at the last 
shaking this will fine it. Sand will do, if you cannot easily get 

The Gum you may purify in the following manner: put it 
on a Paper, lay the Paper on a plate of Iron over a moderate 
heat till the Gum is soft; than press the Gum with your finger 
and thumb and the Clear will press out, leaving all the gross 
parts behind. 

Mr. Wests Receipt for retouching Varnish is differant from 

1 On the margin is written: "You will find it dificult to grind the Gum; it being 
apt to cake under the Muller. You had best Grind it by it self." 

1775 Copley -Pelham Letters 337 

the above, and is as follows: Take about one Ounce of Gum 
Mastick, Dissolve it in Spirits of Turpentine, and while it is 
warm add about a Table spoonfull of Nut or Poppy Oyl, and 
add about half a Table spoonfull of Spermicity to break the 
texture of the Gum. this you apply to your Picture with a 
brush, it will never change or leave any stain. The quantity of 
Turpentine should be so much that when the Gum is dissolved 
it will be of the consistancy of Honey, it may be about I 
Ounce of Gum to an Ounce of Spirits of Turpentine. Another 
Receipt: Take of Gum Mastick somthing more than a Table 
spoonfull, and put it into a Gill of Spirits of Turpentine, put 
also into it half as much Spermacity as Gum, and when dis- 
solved apply it to your Picture with a brush. A method to give 
richness to your Colours : Take of Gum Mastick as much as a 
Table spoon will hold, put it into a Gill of Poppy Oyl, warm it 
over the fire till the Gum dissolves, and than Mix it with your 
Colours. 1 

You will see all these receipts are very nearly the same, only 
Mr. West puts Spermiceity in his, which I think cannot be 
any advantage, if the Colours can be used without it, as I 
suppose they may, and are by other Artists, these are the 
Varnishes used among Painters, my spirit Varnish is unknown 
to them and I think if these Varnishes would bear the Spirit at 
last it would be very well. I have never yet try'd any of these, 
but as they are in such general use I think there is no Danger 
in useing them. Mr. West has sometimes put Copeall Varnish 
in his Colours, he mixes as much of it with Poppy Oyl as will 

1 There is a bracket opposite this paragraph with the words, " from Mr. West." 
On the margin is written: "You must observe than when you have put the re- 
touching Varnish on your Picture that you wipe it off as clean as you can with a 
little Cotton Wool, or Peice of Woolin Cloath." 

33 8 Copley -Pelham Letters 1775 

consist with the free use of the Pencil in applying the Colours 
to the Canvis. he says it gives great richness to the Colours. 
I find the Picture I am now Copying so remarkably rich in the 
tints and Clear at the same time, that I am convinced Corregio 
must have use'd Varnish or somthing of that sort in his Colours ; 
but weither it is best, if Gum is used, to dissolve it in Oyl, as 
Mr. West does, or Grind and mix it with the Oyl, as in my first 
method, I dont know, as I have not try'd either method. And 
the more I reflect on the effect of Gum being mixed with the 
Colours, the more I am incouraged to beleive it will have a 
tendancy to keep the Colours from changeing, and at first 
give them brilliancy, but I could like to finish then with Spirit 
Varnish, that is when my Picture was intirely done Varnish 
with it, and if the Spermicity is not used in the retouching 
Varnish, I think it would do very well, and Spermaceity is 
use'd by Mr. West only and not by other Artists. But your 
great object is to acquire thourough Mastery of the principals 
and exicution of Your Art, and these Delicasy's of Art must 
come in as ornaments to those. In about one week from this 
time you will receive my letters by Mr. Izard. I have there 
been perticular, But I must renew my injunctions to you to 
be diligent. I would have you get an Anatomy cal figure; it 
may be had at Smibert's and with a book learn the mussels 
with their uses and incertions. dont go below the external 
Mussels. The length of the bones you have in the Book of the 
Antique Statues publish'd with their measures. When you 
know the Mussels (by the way you must begin with the Bones 
before the external Mussels), You may sketch any figure from 
Idea well anough for an historical composition. I mean the 
first sketch, it is an amasing advantage in the pursuit of any 
Study to know one is right, and one-half is in a confidence that 

1775 Copley -Pelham Letters 339 

one can do what they wish. A man in this must have as much 
faith that he can do what he undertakes as a Christian must 
have in the truth of his religion. When you know the bones 
and Mussels, which you will very soon, you will have acquired 
one very necessary thing, and if you should than (as I would 
have you) sketch any Historical Subject, the first thing you 
will do will be to fix on the disposition of your figures, and if 
you should find yourself at a loss for the appearance of any of 
the figures as you may in Certan attitudes, so that you cannot 
sketch them near anough, and as you cannot have recou[r]se 
to the life except that you may try the Attitude before a Glass, 
you have some good Accademy figures that will help you in 
this, but observe by this I dont mean to draw you from your 
portraits, for that is the most advantageous at least at present, 
only I don't think a Man a perfect Artist who on occation can- 
not Paint History, and who knows but you may have a talent 
in history like Raphael till you try; and if you have, your for- 
tune is secure in this Life, but not to dwell on this proceed as I 
have directed, and when you have master'd what I have men- 
shoned, send me a sketch, you have as good or a better layman 
than any I have seen since I left America for your Draperys. 
the best Drapery for history is Cloath, flaniel or Linnen, Wet 
and rung out. Mind always to get a breadth of Light and 
Shadow as one great thing assential in Art. And dont be dis- 
couraged if you should make two or three sketches and they 
dont please; for Mr. West told me he beleived he had made 
fifty at least for his return of Regulus ; and Mr. Hamilton l has 
had a sketch in Colours on his easel ever since I came to Rome, 
and how much longer I know not, and every now and than 
altering some part of it, and had not done it when I left Rome. 
1 Gavin Hamilton (1730-1797). 

34-o Copley -Pelham Letters 1775 

it is the Parting of Hector and his wife, but when you have got 
your general Idea fixed and so that you wish to shade, I mean 
with any degree of accuracy, I recommend as in my last letter 
that you do this figure by figure. When I was at Modena I saw 
an original Drawing of the figure in the Transfiguration that 
points up to the Mount shaded, cut off by the out line of the 
parts of the other figures. I was pleased because confirmed in 
this method of proceeding, but portrait painting I shall pursue, 
unless tempted to some things in history by any that may wish 
to imploy me in that way. Mr. Hamilton observed just before 
I left Rome that I was better establish'd than Mr. West, 
because he could not paint such portraits as those of Mr Izard 
and Lady, and portraits are always in demand. I am happy 
in the reflection that you have made a progress I think equil to 
most of your Age that are in Europe, and certain I am if you 
apply with Vigour you will succeed very well. I have no doubt 
you will greatly profit by what I write you, and I shall be happy 
to see somthing of yours better than any thing you had done 
when I was in Boston. You are to remember that the works of 
the great Masters are but Pictures, and when a man can go 
but a very little beyond his cotemporarys he becomes a great 
Man. the differance between Raphael, Titiano, Angelo and 
the common run of moderately good Artists, is not so great 
as one would Imagin from the Praises bestow'd on those Great 
men. but they are the first Artists and they merit the Most 
elaborate Praises from the World. The Picture of a Naked 
Venus and Cupid at Smibert's is Copy'd from one of Titiano's 
in the possession of the Great Duke of Tuskany, which hangs 
over the Celebrated Titian Venus, but is by no means equil to 
it. the little head of St. John that hangs by the side of the 
window in your little Painting Room is copyed from a St. 

1775 Copley -Pelham Letters 341 

John in an holy Family by Titiano in the same appartment, 
and in its general effect just what Titianos is. perhaps it may 
have been an original sketch by Titian for that Picture. I 
know you are happy in this acqui[si]tion and you may wonder 
in my account of Titian's works I had not refered to this ; but 
I don't know weither it is like Titian in the smaller beautys of 
Painting, tho in the Whole, as well as I remember, it is very 
just, if at Philadelphia you saw in Mr. Aliens house A Picture 
containing three figures very Dark, one of them playing on a 
harpsicord with the head much turned to one Shoulder, you 
will be glad to know it is a Copy of Georgione. one observa- 
tion more on Titian and I think I have left nothing unexplaind 
to the utmost of my power, it is this, that his shades are light 
on his flesh, tho other parts of his Picture have very Dark 
masses, but I am not sure if in a body of Oyl Colours the Shade 
were made light as his it would not look faint, as you see in 
Crayons the shades are much fainter or lighter than in Oyl, 
yet they look foarceable anough. for Titian's Pictures have 
somthing of the look of strong tinted Crayon Pictures, that 
kind of Dry look yet not meally. but as I think a Picture 
would look painted as above discribed, for it would be intirely 
sunk in as Dead as Crayons and the Varnishing over this 
would by no means destroy this appearance, some that have 
indeavoured to imitate Titian have painted first in Waiter 
Colours, than Glaized with Oyl. Mr. West has done this, and 
produced somthing like Titian ; but I conceived by puting Oyl 
on, the Picture becomes Oyl Painting, which my process does 
not from the Varnish laying over this Dry Colour, which pre- 
vents the Oyl entering in to the Colours, and of consiquence 
the under Colours cannot change. And if the Varnish should, 
you will always see those bright Colours through the Varnish. 

342 Copley-Pelham Letters 1775 

but one tiyal will determin the point, at least it would with me 
who have seen Titian's Pictures. I shall Try an head the first 
oppertunity I can get for that purpose, but I shall not perplex 
myself with striveing to investigate the manner of any Painter, 
only in one or two experiments that wont cost me many hours. 
Indeed Sr. Jos: Renolds, Mr. West, and many others, say I 
should be very rong to alter my manner, indeed it is the same 
with that of the Roman School in which they have produced 
the finest Pictures in the World. Before I leave Rome I should 
give you my remarks on Michael Angelo's Works, but I shall 
go a little out of that regular way of proceeding and Take up 
Corregio first, as I am before him, and strive to inform you of 
his excellencys In the best manner possable. but I must sus- 
pend this till another oppertunity, and hope you will excuse the 
inaccurac[i]es in this Letter, for I have no time to write it over 
on other Paper, and I only aim- to be understood, if I am my 
aim is answered. I should have sent you the receipts for 
Varnishes sooner, but it was my intention to have try'd them 
first myself; but I have not been able to do it. Some Persons 
make their Varnish much Stronger of the Gum, and make no 
differance between retouching Varnish and Other, they put 3 
Ounces of Gum to one Ounce of Spirits of Turpentine, and 
when they would paint over a head the second time or third, 
with a brush rub this Varnish over the head and paint on it. 
Mr. Hamilton uses none for retouch[ing] his Pictures but a little 
Oyl as I used to do. On the whole I think the first Varnishes 
I have menshoned seem to me to have the advantage, and 
they are what I shall try first, and shall let you know my 
oppinion of them on the tryal, and which if you should do any 
thing you would be very perticular in your remarks on it. But 
I must bid you Adieu for the present, remember me to all 

l 77S Copley -Pelham Letters 343 

friends and beleive me with sincere Love your Affectionate 

John Singleton Copley. 

Parma, the 2d of July, 1775. 

This Day will dead Colour all my Picture of St. Jerome. 

Copley to Henry Pelham 

[Parma, July 15, 1775.] * 
Dear Harry, 

The deplorable state of Boston is such that I dont know 

what you may be called to in so critical a conjunctor. it may 

be (for my fears suggest many terrable things) that you are 

called to Arm yourself. But if you should be, it is my injuntion 

that You do not comply with such a requi[si]tion if this does 

not come too late which I pray God it may not. I trust an 

injuntion from me will have its Weit intirely. my reasons when 

I am happy to see you I will give you, and if y[ou] find it a 

requi[si]tion that is submitted to by all Orders of People you 

need not be backward to give my desire as a reason, let it have 

its full weit, and if you Love me in the least, let the desire be 

from whom it may comply not. I have this exceedingly at 

heart and trust you will implicitly oblige me in this way. I 

conjure you to do as I desire, for God Sake, dont think this a 

1 This note was sent to Pelham in Boston enclosed in Mrs. Copley's letter of 
September 18, 1775. Upon the margin, Mrs. Copley wrote: " P.S. this letter is 
dated the 15 of July." Copley's letter of the same date to Mrs. Copley, from 
Parma, is printed in Amory's Life of John Singleton Copley, 60-61. On July 22, 
I77S, Copley again wrote Mrs. Copley: — 

"I would here renew my instructions to Harry not to suffer himself, for any 
person, or on any account whatever, to take part in the present dispute. I doubt 
not he will comply with my wishes; my reasons are very important." lb., 63. The 
note to Pelham above bears the postmarks, "Lu[glio] 29; Inglitterre; 1/ — ." 

344 Copley -Pelham Letters 1775 

Triffling thing, my reasons are very important, you Must 
follow my directions and be neuter at all events, if I could say 
more to bind you I would, but I know this is sufficient, and I 
depend upon you. Adieu, my Dear Brother, Adieu, may God 
preserve y[ou]. All Duty to our Dear Mother. 

J. S. Copley. 

[Addressed :] To Mr. Henry Pelham To the Care of Mr. Thos 
Bromfield Mercht at the New England Coffee House, London 
To be forwarded to Boston by the first oppertunity. 

Henry Pelham to Susanna Copley l 

Boston, July 23, 1775. 
My dear Madam, 

I should ill deserve that friendship and Regards with which 

you have hitherto honour'd me and which I am ambitious, ever 

to possess, was I longer to omitt congratulating your departure 

from this land of Ruin and Distress, and expressing my hopes 

that long ere this you are happyly arrived at a more friendly 

and peacefull shore, where I sincerely pray you may long enjoy 

every blessing that can fall to the lot of Human Nature. You 

had scarc[e]ly left us before we began to experience all the 

inconveniences attending A seige, and behold the desolations 

ever consequential upon a War. As you have doubtless had the 

perticulars of the destruction of property at Noddle Isle, of the 

Govenou[r]s proclimation declaring Adams and Hancock with 

their Abetters and aiders traitors and Rebels, of the suspension 

of all Civil Law and Courts, and the establishment of the 

1 This draft was written in red ink on absorbent paper, with corrections in 
black ink. The letter actually sent was dated July 26. See Mrs. Copley to Pelham, 
September 18, 1775. 

1775 Copley -Pelham Letters 34.5 

Martial Law and the important Battle and Victory at Charles- 
town and distruction of that Town, of all which I had with my 
Telescope a very perfect, but very malencholly View, I shall 
forbear reciting an account which cannot fail of renewing Sen- 
sations which would be painful to a mind as yours susceptable 
of the finest feelings of Humanity Benevolence and Compassion. 
Its retrospect for a few Years back compared With the present 
Contest cant but be a matter of uncommon surprize to the 
most inattentive Observer. Within the few years which indul- 
gent Providence has permitted to rool over my head, I well 
remember the Inhabitants of this Town and adjacent Country 
put into the greatest consternation and uneasiness upon a 
vague report of the approach of a small Army of French, and 
this at a time too when they had added to their own Strength 
the Victorious Arms of the most powerfull Nation in Europe 
Drawn in their Defence. Now we see this very Country arming 
themselves and unsupported by any foreign Power ungener- 
ously Waging War against their great Benefactors, and en- 
deavouring to Ruin that State to whom they owe their being, 
Whose Justice and Gennerosity has fostered them to the[i]r late 
flourishing and Happy Condition, and whose arms has protected 
them in the uninterupted Enjoyment of all the blessings of Peace. 
We are at present invested by an army of about 14000 Men, 
whose almost Continual Firing of Shot has in a gr[ea]t degree 
reconciled us to Noise of Cannon; and we are daily spectators 
of the Operations of War. since the last Vessel sailed from this 
500 Men in whale boats attacked and, I am sorry to say it, 
within sight of the British Flag, carried of from long Island just 
below the Castle 13 Men, who had fled to this Town from the 
Country and Miss Lydia Ward, Doct'r Perkin's Neice, who 
was there for her Health, they have not since been hea[r]d off. 


346 Copley -Pelham Letters 1775 

likewise a Number of sheep and cattle, and returned the next 
day and burnt all the buildings with a Quantity of Hay. A few 
days ago they distroyed the light House at Noonday, with in a 
quarter of a Mile of a Man of War. 1 

I with pleasure inform you that your Friends here are as 
happy if not more so than could be expected considering the 
narrow limmitts to which we are confined, and our being en- 
tirely cutt off from all supplies, except what our Friends in 
Europe will let us have. 

I was in hopes I should have had the Happyness of seeing you 
in England this fall, but now give over all thoughts of it, as 
I cant at present prevail upon My honoured Mother to 
undertake the Voyage, and should be very unneasy at leaving 
her during this scene of Confusion. Your Son is a fine boy in 
goo[d] Health. My buisness is entir[e]ly ceased. I have not 
now a single day's buisness. But to fill up time I have begun a 
Survey of Charlestown, for which I have permission from 
Gen'l Gage and Gen'l Howe, who were polite eno to grant me 
a general Pass directed to all Officers commanding Guards for 
going to and returning from Charlestown. Gen'l How[el, to 
assist me in the labori[o]us part of Measuring, has kindly put a 
Sarjant and his 2 Men under my Comm[an]d. This Plan when 
finished will give a good Idea 3 of the late battle and I propose 
sending Home a Coppy to be engraved, together with a View 
of it as it appears in its present Ruins, with the encampment on 
the Hills behind it. I have often passed Doct Warren's Grave. 
I felt a disagreab[le] Sensation, thus to see a Townsman an old 
Acquaintance led by unbounded Ambition to an untimely 

1 See Mass. Hist. Soc. Proceedings, xiv. 290. 

2 Possibly "two", or "ten"; but probably "two" changed to "his." 

3 Possibly "view." 


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1775 Copky-Pelham Letters 347 

death and thus early to realise that Ruin which a lust of Power 
and Dominion has brought upon himself and partly through his 
means upon this unhappy Country. I would wish to forget his 
principles to Lament his Fate. I almost forgot to tell you that 
Mr. T. Mifflin of Philadela is aid de Camp to Gen'l Lee, and 
that the Continental Congress have taken the entire direction 
of the War, have erected themselves into an Independant body, 
are addressed by the title of Excellenceys and call themselfs 
the states General of the united american provinces, and this 
Army the grand Confederate Army. They have appointed Mr. 
Washington of Virginia Lieutenant Gen'l, and Ward, Putnam, 
and Lee Major Gen'ls. they are all now at Cambridge. They 
have been very industrious in constructing fortifications all 
round this Town, and it is said as far back as Worcester. What 
the Result of this Contest will be God only knows. I have not 
heard a Word of Brother Pelham since you left us. I wonder 
much at not having a single line from Brother Copley since one 
dated the 26th of last Sept., now near a twelve month. Mrs. 
Cordis, Capt. Ruggles' Neice and a near Neighbour at Chun, 1 
whom you have some knowledge off, obligeingly promises to 
deliver you this. My hon'd Mamma desires her kindest Love 
and Blessing to you, My dear Brother and my little amiable 
and lov[e]ly Friends. Accept my Love and best Wishes which 
ever atte[nd] you and them, and beleive [me] sincerely Dear 
Madam your very affectionate Brother and Humbl[e] Servant. 


P.S we are extremly anxious to hear from you, mu[s]t beg of 
you to write often. I much wish to know where My brother is. 

1 Charlestown ? Probably Rebecca Russell, wife of Joseph Cordis, of Charles- 
town is intended. 

348 Copley -Pelham Letters 1775 

Copley to Henry Pelham 

Parma, the 6 of Augst., 1775. 
My dear Brother, 

My principal design in writing to you at this time is to give 
you my oppinion and advice relitive to your present unhappy 
situation, which although you have had in other Letters, for I 
have wrote to you two or thre[e] times lately on the subject, 
yet not in so full and possitive a manner as I now think it best 
to do. The flame of Civil War is now broke out in America, 
and I have not the least doubt it will rage with a Violence equil 
to what it has ever done in any other Country at any time. 
You are sensable also by this time of the determin'd Resolu- 
tions of Government to persevere in Vigorous measures, and 
what will keep them firm in this determination, is that they 
Act as (at least) 4-nfths of the people would have them, they 
so Resent the outrage offered to them in the destruction of the 
Tea. you must think I aught to have many friends and thanks 
for the pains I took to prevent so violent and rash a peice of 
conduct. I was sure it would produce the consiquences that 
have followed and are only the faint beginings of More fatal 
and terrable evils than have yet taken place. You must also 
know I think that the people have gone too far to retract and 
that they will adopt the proverb, which says, when the Sword 
of Rebellion is Drawn the Sheath should be thrown away; and 
the Americans have it in their power to baffle all that England 
can do against them. I dont mean to ward off the evils attend- 
ant on Civil War, but so far as never to be subdued, so that 
Ocians of blood will be shed to humble a people which they 
never will subdue, and the Americans from the Id[ea] that 
England would not act against them have tempted its Power 


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1775 Copley -Pelham Letters 349 

to the extreem and drfawn] all its weight [of] rage upon them, 
and after they have with various success deludged the Country 
in Blood the Issue will be that the Americans will be a free 
independant people, this may be the result of a Struggle of 
many years. Thus I have Stated what appears to me to be the 
natural course of the present contest, and in its course the 
different Towns will have at different times to incounter all the 
miserys of War, Sword, famin, and perhaps pestalence, as that 
is generally an attendant on War and so is famin. I now would 
ask our Dear Mother by you, weither a month's Voyage is by 
any means an evil to be compaired to the evils above men- 
shoned ? if not, why she will hisitate one moment. I am sur- 
prized she did not come with Your Sister, by your Letter you 
seemed determined, but I write this lest my Dear Mother 
should still deliberate, you are to consider if things should 
come to that extremity that would fix her determination, it 
may be out of her power than to leave the place. I shall be very 
glad to find you have imbarked, but if it should be otherways, 
I think you must prevail with our Mother to come; but when 
this reaches you it will be late, perhaps Octr., whereas the 
latter end of May or the begining of June is the time to have 
short and smooth passages, at the same time, however, it may 
be that even a January passage would be more eligiable than 
to stay in Boston, this you will Judge best of yourself, you 
can have no Idea of my Anxiety for you while you remain in 
that place. I therefore request you will bring Our hond. Mother, 

and beleive me Yours Affect'y 

J. S. Copley. 

Give my Affectionate love and Duty to all friends, perticu- 
larly My Dear Mother and let me expect to see her in England 
as soon as pos sable. 

35° Copley -Pelham Letters 1775 

Johnson to Henry Pelham 


1 have seen Mr. Robertson the Engeneer, who Consents to 
show you his draughts of ours and the enemys Works. If you'll 
be so good to perfect the draught you are makeing of this town 
and the enverons and insert these in it, before the Admiral 
Sails, youl oblige me by letting me have the draught. 

If you call at Capt Robertson's tomorrow morning early 
youl find him at home, he lives in the Street where Mr. 
Hallowell the Commissioner dwells, 1 ten or twelve houses nearer 
Concert hall 2 on the other side of the Street. I am, Sir, your 
obt. Servt. 

James[?] Johnson. 

[Addressed :] To Mr. Pelham New Boston. 

Henry Pelham to Copley 

Boston, August 19, 1774 [1775]. 
My Dear Brother, 

It was my intention to have wrote you a long Letter to have 

accompanyed a plan which I have almost this moment finished, 

proposing to have exhibited to the Publick as perfect an Idea 

as was possable upon Paper of the late most important and 

glorious action, which I was an anxious Spectator of, and to 

which under God I attribute my present capacity for writing, 

and I hope will be our future security. 

x - Benjamin Hallowell occupied land on Hanover Street which was sold 
under the confiscation act and later became the property of the Hanover 
Street Church. 

2 Concert Hall was at the corner of Hanover and Queen (Court) Street. 

1775 Copley -Pelham Letters 351 

I was disapointed in my expectations, this morning upon 
waiting on Gen'l Gage, he acquainted me that it would not be 
altogether proper to publish a plan of Charlestown in its present 
state, as it would furnish those without with a knowledge of the 
fortification[s] erected there and in a polite manner desired I 
would postpone the sending it at present. Mrs. Copley desired 
we would write word when we met with fresh Meat. You will 
form some Idea of our present disagreable Situation when I tell 
you that last Monday, I eat at Gen'l Howe's Table at Charles- 
town Camp, the only bit of fresh Meat I have tasted for very 
near four Months past. And then not with a good Conscience, 
considering the many Persons who in sickness are wanting that 
and most of the Convenency[s] of Life. The usual pleas now 
made by those who beg a little Bacon or Saltnsh is that its for a 
sick person. 

Mr. Clarke says he has inclosed you Copies of some late 
intercepted Letters, by them you will find what those who stile 
themselves patriots are after, and where there Schems will drive 
us. Independency [is] what alone will content those who have 
insinuated themselves into the good Opinion of (generally 
speaking) a well meaning but credulous people. Upon the sup- 
position that this Country was totally independent on the 
Parent State, in the Name of Common Sence what one advan- 
tage could accrue ? Should we be free from Taxes ? We know 
we could not support a goverment for ten times the expence. 
Should we be Safer from forreign insults ? Reason tells us that 
we should be exposed to every Inconven[ien]ce that a defence- 
less and impoverish'd People ever experienced. Would our 
internal Peace and Happyness be greater? Here alass ! We may 
look back to those Days of Felicity and Peace which we enjoyed 
under the fostering Care and indulgent Protection of Britain, 

352 Copley -Pelham Letters 1775 

and contemplate ourselves as having once been the happiest 
people in the Empire; and on this View I am sure every un- 
prejudiced Person will execrate those distinctive Schems, and 
that unbounded Ambition whi[c]h from the pinacle of Ease 
has plunged us into the depths of Distress and Ruin. Judge 
Sewall, 1 who kindly takes the Care of this, just setting out on 
his Voyage obliges me to conclude abruptly acquaint'g you 
that we are all as Well as the times will permitt. with wishing 
My dear Sister and family ever[y] possable felicity, I am, my 
dearest Brother, your 


P. S. I write this in your house in the Common where the 
Company unite with me in good Wishes. Our hon'd Mam[ma] 
desires her kind Love to you all. I must beg when you write 
me, to be carefull what you say, as all letterjs] that come into 
the[i]r hands are prise. I beleive there is one or more of your 
Letters at Cambridge. I almost hope ther[e] is, as I should be 
grieved to find you had not wrote to me. when you write send 
your letters [di]rectly to this Place. 

Copley to Henry Pelham 

Parma, Augst 22d., 1775. 
My Dear Brother, 

I take this oppertunity to write to you, although I dont know 
weither you are still in America or on your Voyage to England. 
if you are in Boston I am sensable you must want every conso- 
lation that can be affoard'd you in so unhappy a situation, this 
induces me to address you at this time, that you may have the 
small comfort my letters can affoard you, which is all that is 

1 Jonathan Sewall, Attorney-General of Massachusetts. 

1775 Copley -Pelharn Letters 353 

in my power while you remain in that unhappy place. I really 
hope to hear of your safe arrival in England with our Dear 
Mother. I cannot but be very thankfull to that beneficient 
being for all his mercy to me through life, but in a very pellicu- 
lar maner for the course of my affairs (which has removed me 
from that place of distress just at the time it did), being so 
overuled as to have preserved me from much distress anxiety 
and dificulty ; and I trust that, although I may by this unhappy 
struggle be reduced to a state of poverty, I shall have my 
health and meet with that incouragement in England which 
will enable me to provide for my family, and in a decent man- 
ner bring these Dear Children up which God has blessed me 
with. I am just now on the point of finishing my Tour, which 
I should have found it very dificult to have taken if I had stayd 
in America longer than I did, and if I had left it sooner, it 
would have been doing more violence boath to myself and Dear 
Wife to have fix'd in England, but now there is no choice left; 
and my business is so near accomplish'd that my family could 
not have done better than to have come to England when they 
did. how short a way do we penetrate into the secrets of Futu- 
rity! did you think when I left Boston such a sceene would 
have taken Place? that I was leaving so much distress? and 
that my choice was so undoubtedly the most eligiable? and 
what ere long I should have been obliged to have adopted? 
and than it would have been to a much greater disadvantage. 
I now have the hope that my happiness will be made still more 
compleat by meeting you and my dear mother in England. I 
shall (if it pleases God to spare my life) be there in Octr., as I 
am near done in this place, and shall make the best of my way 
there as soon as I have finished my Copy of the Corregio, 
which I am about at this time. 

354 Copley -Pelham Letters 1775 

Here you will wish (if your troubles do not ingage your 
thoughts to other things that more nearly concern life) to have 
a very perticular Account of this Picture; but as I expect to see 
you when I get to London, I shall suspend my remarks on it 
till I see you; or if my expectations are not fulfilled, than I will 
send them to you in wrighting, with my process in making the 
Copy and an account of the Copy, in the mean time, let not 
your Spirits be the least dejected, for as we cannot perceive 
what is before us, weither it is good or evil, so we aught to 
resolve all into an intire submission to the dispensations of 
providence, after we have done all in our own power, this we 
should be carefull to do, and by pursuing our duty we shall 
always feel an happiness within ourselves that the World cannot 
rob us of. We even should not entertain a doubt of the good- 
ness of God to us, even to the blessing us in this life with what is 
good and comfortable, you are now young and a sufferer with 
the multitude; but now let me ask you if you are so great a 
sufferer as I am? yet I am not dejected in the least, and was 
not my impatience to get to England greater than I can express, 
and my anxiety for you and my other friends in America very 
distressing to me, I say was it not for these considerations, I 
could say my spirits were never better than at this time, yet I 
have lost perhaps my all, as you have; but I have a family, you 
are single; you are much younger too. these are things that 
throws the balance much in your favour, very much in your 
favour, aught you than to be over ancious ? in your last Letter 
by your Sister from two Incidents you drew a very just conclu- 
tion, and I would have you never lose sight of it. you may say 
perhaps that my prospects in England gives me an advantage 
above you, but dont think that, for if I am successfull there you 
will be a sharer of it; and I assure you your own Works have as 

1775 Copley -Pelham Letters 355 

much merrit in them as most of the Artists of your Standing, 
and much more than three quarters of them, even those who 
have Study 'd in Italy don't in general produce better things 
than you are capable of produceing. go on with your Studys, 
and let those fight that chuse to fight, at all events do somthing 
for the exibition the next year, send it to me. if it is what I 
could wish, it shall have a place; if not, I will not expose it. not 
that I doubt of your abillity to [do] it well, but I would have 
somthing that should make some figure, that should be singled 
out among the others, and should prefer delaying a year or two 
rather than be undistinguishd in the Crowd; and it generally 
happens that those are overloo[ke]d that have not somthing to 
distinguish them more than the bare merrit of the exicution. 
beauty for instance, if it is singular, it will with good exicution 
draw the attention of the publick. that I was singularly happy 
in in my first exibition. if I can think of any thing within your 
reach, I mean as to a model, I will menshon it in my next, and 
wish you to do somthing, if you still stay in America; but I 
shall be greatly disappointed if you do not prevail with our 
dear Mother to leave it. 

I propose going from this to Venice and through the Tirole, 
Germany, and Flanders, which is the shortest way to England 
and a different Rout from that I took in coming to Italy. I 
shall not return toParris as I intended, When I gave my pellicu- 
lar rout in a former Letter to your Sister, because that would 
be going out of my Way. do continue to send me the perticulars 
of the proceedings from America. I am uneasy for our Brother 
Pelham and Family. I am also apprehensive that in the Winter, 
if the Frost should be severe and the Harbour froze, that the 
Town of Boston will be exposed to an attack; and if it should 
be taken all that have remained in the town will be consider'd 

35 6 Copley -Pelham Letters 1775 

as enimys to the Country and ill treated or exposed to great 
distress; for I think the King's ships [are] what at present 
secures the town from assalt; but when they are lockd up in 
Ice, the Provincials may find means to set them on fire, and will 
surely do it, if it is a possable thing, which I think it is. And 
than how will it be possable for the army to defend a Town, 
exposed as that will be from every side to be penetrated ? I pray 
God to keep and preserve you all from any additional callam- 
itys; but I have a thousand fears continually crouding into my 
mind, give my most effectionate Love and Duty to my Dear 
Mother, to My Father, Brothers, Sisters, Uncles, Aunts, and 
all Friends, and beleive me, Dear Harry, your most Affection- 
ate Brother, 

John Singleton Copley. 

A Plan of Charlestown 

A Plan of Charlestown in New England, with part of Boston &c. 
exhibiting the Redoubt stormed June 1775, with the Works, since 
erected by his Majestys Troops. Surveyed and Drawn with the 
General's permission by Henry Pelham. 

August, 1775. 

Proposed Dedication 

To the Honorable Major General Howe — 

Animated by whose Conduct and Valour the national Ardour 
and Bravery of two thousand British Officers and Soldiers, 
after having been obstructed in their march by a Number of 
Rail Fences and flanked by a hot fire from dwelling Houses, 
gained a Victory On the Heights of Charles-Town, June 17, 
1775, over the Enthusiasm of above four Thousand Rebels who 
were entrenched in a strong Rjedoubjt 1 Mounted with Cannon, 

1 The letters in brackets have been erased. 

1775 Copley -Pelham Letters 357 

defended by an extensive Breast Work and concealed behind 
a close prepared Hedge supported with Cannon also; 
This View of the Scene of Action is respectfully inscribed by 
his most Obedient 

Humble Servant. 1 

Mrs. Copley to Henry Pelham 

Islington, September [t]he 18, 1775. 
Dear Brother, 

I have Long been looking out for an oppertunity to forward 
Letters I have receive'd from your Brother and my Dear 
Husband. I am out of the way of knowing when the Transports 
Sail. I was much disapointed to find Mr. Huges had saild for 
Boston, that I mist the oppertunity of letting my Friends hear 
from me, as I had letters wrote and did not know of the Vessel 
Sailing, you will see Mr. Copley's great anxieaty to prevail on 
our Mama to leave America. I was much disapointed to find 
by your kind Letter of the 26 of July, that you had giveen over 
all thoughts of comeing to England this fall. I have been look- 
ing out for you every arival till My Papa's Letter of the 18 of 
July, which inform'd me your Mama could not detirmin to 
come, you can have no Idea of My distress for my Friends in 
Boston, the accounts we continuly have are so distressing, 
that I am supprised that our Mama or any that can leave 
America should hesitate one moment about it. could I add any 
Arguments to Mr. Copley more persuasive I should not be 
wanting, but would beg lea[ve] to tell our Mama through you 

1 This plan was afterwards embodied in a large map of Boston and the 
surrounding country, well known for its execution. It was published in Lon- 
don, June 2, 1777, and, doubtless for political reasons, was dedicated to Lord 
George Germain. 

358 Copley -Pelham Letters 1775 

that I should be happy to have in my power to contribute to 
her comfort, for I think we are so made for each outher that 
we cannot be happy when we have reason to think our Friends 
are exposed to distress, my distance is great, but my Thoughts 
are most continuly in the circle of my Friends. I think how 
happy should I be to be able to administer any Balm to heal the 
wou[n]ds of there distress, but hope you and the rest of them 
will indeavour to keep up your Spirits, for the greater our 
trials are the greater cause have we to exert all our resolution 
and fortitude. I have often thought with pleasure on some 
Sermons Mr. Parker preached not long before I left Boston, 
from these words: The Lord Raineth. the great uncertainty 
where my Friends would be has prevented my writing to them 
so frequently as I should outher wise have don. for I should be 
loath to have my Letters read in Congress, for I should not 
expect so much cander as I hope for from my Friends. I am 
daly hopeing to hear of my Papa's ditermination to leave 
Boston, and Brother and Sister Bromfield. a report has pre- 
vail'd here for some time that the Troops are to remove from 
Boston to some outher place; but there is no depending uppon 
common report, we hear Captain Robertson is arived in the 
Downs in 24 Days from Boston, and that Mrs. Gage is come 
with him. I am in continual expecttation of hearing from my 
Friends, and please my Self I shall hear of there ditermination 
to Leave America, as it appears as if the troubles would daly 
increase, the last accounts I have from Mr. Copley is the 5 of 
this Month, he tells me he expects to be in England in Octor. 
you will find you[r] Letters where [were] wrote on the same 
Sheet with mine. Some of them where by private hands so that 
they have arive'd about the same time, in His last he says he 
expects to Meet you and his Mama here when he arives. 

1775 Copley -Pelham Letters 359 

Scence I have been in England I have been in Mr. Bromfields 
Family, where I have Meet with the greatest frindship, and 
should have been very happy, was it not for my great uneasy- 
ness for my absent Friends, as to England you must not expect 
from me any accou[nt] of it at present, for my thoughts are so 
intent uppon America that at times I can scarcely realize my 
Self to be out of it. I have not had the least inclination to 
Vissit any of the publick places of Entertainment, you will 
think me much wanting in taste, but I expect a double pleasure 
in seeing what may fall to my lot, when Mr. Copley returns. 
Mr. and Mrs. West's Servilitys called me to return a Visit to 
them. I was much entertained with his works, which are very 
great and must have cost him much Study and labor. I shall 
omit giveing you any particuler account, as I hope before long 
you will have an oppertunity of Viewing them your Self, the 
Americans Muster very thick in England. Mr. Vassall and 
Family, and Mr. Thomas Brattel, Mr. Geair, 1 arive'd here last 
week; and we hear Captain Foldger is to bring a Hundred 
passengers, but cannot learn who they are. I shall be happy to 
have my Friends amongst the Number. I hope to find our 
Mama and you have altered your resolution. 

[Sept.] 21 Scence writeing the above, I have receiv'd your 
Letter of the 19 of Aut: to Mr. Copley, with one from my Papa 
and Sister Lucy, every account increases my distress. I pray 
Heaven to prepair me for all events. I am much disapointed to 
find my Friends had not ditermind to leave a Country which is 
involved in the greatest Miserys, but think before this they 
must have ditermind to leave it. I have not the least Thought 
that this Letter will meet you or any of my Friends in Boston. 
I pray God to direct you to those Measures which will be for 

1 Geyer. 

360 Copley -Pelham Letters 1775 

your Safty. I am very anxious for my poor Babe, but am 
happy it is under the care of those who will do the best for it. 
I desire to be resind to the all wise will of the great disposeer of 
all things, neither to dispise his chastenings, nor to faint when 
I am rebuke'd of him. 

Through the goodness of God there has been a plentifull 
Hearvest in England, and every kind of thing that can be sent, 
will be, to the releaf of those who are sufering in a Land of 
plenty for want of the comforts of Life. 

Should this meet you and any of my Friends with you, please 

to remember me to them with tender Affection, and let them 

know that my self and Children are well. Should I find they 

remain in America, which I much hope they will not, I shall 

write to them soon, pray present my Duty to our Mama, and 

except of my best wishes for your Happyness, and beleave me 

to be your Affectinate Sister 

Susanna Copley. 

P S the inclosed letters are all I have received from Mr. 
Copley scence my arival. he mentions haveing Sent a large 
packet by Mr. Izard, but I have not seen it. 

Henry Pelham to Copley 

Boston, Octr. 10, 1775. 
My dear Brother, 

The Secretary's politeness affords me an Oppertunity of 
writing a few Lines, which I hope will meet you happyly situated 
agreable to your most sanguine Wishes once more in London. 
Every Day affords fresh instances and adds distressing con- 
firmation of the inconstancy of Fortune, of the uncertainty of 
Life, and the Vanity of all worldly prospects. The variagated 
Callamities with which this life is checkered, forces the mind 

1775 Copley -Pelham Letters 361 

to look forward to another and teaches us to adore that 
Almighty Being, whose unbounded Goodness assures us of an 
happy Immortallity, being the certain Reward of a Life of 
integrity and Virtue. The distressing Circumstances of this 
Country; The perticular Situation I am now in, The Abscence 
of many very worthy and dear Friends, and the diminution by 
Death of the very few that remaind, make me feel very unhappy. 
The recent and unexpected Death of Miss Lucy Clarke, is what 
I much deplore, as she was a very valuable and worthy Friend, 
whose conversation I always found as sensible, as her Behaviour 
was polite and Friendly: I most sincerely condole with you and 
Mrs. Copley upon this Event. Her real worth, Benevolence 
and Piety, as they attracted the Respect and Esteem of her 
Friends while Living, will ever endear her Memory to them 
now Dead. I have lost another very agreable Acquaintance in 
young Lady Pepperell, who died this Morng of a Bilious Fever, 
after a severe illness of 3 Weeks. 1 I find myself extreemly per- 
plexed. I am entirely at a loss to know what to Do. The Total 
Stoppage of Buisness forbids ny remaining here, and how to 
leave the place I dont know. My hon'd Mother not inclining 
to undertake a Voyage and to leave her in so very disagreable a 
Situation would make me very uneasy. I now much want your 
advice, but the Distance precludes me that advantage. I am 
unfortunate in having but few friends here who are sufficiently 
informed to give me that advice which would regulate my 
Motions. It is now a twelve month since I have done any 
Buisness worth nameing. What Money I had oweing to me I 
cant get a farthing off, and what Buisness I had in hand the 
Cruelty of the times has rendered unprofitable. 

1 Elizabeth, daughter of Isaac Royall. Stark, Loyalists of Massachusetts, 208, 
states that she died on the passage to London. 

362 Copley -Pelham Letters 1775 

It requires the full exertion of all my Philosophy, to support 
my Spirits under the many Disapointments I have experienced 
for near two Years past. I then fondly flattered myself (from 
my Buisness which at that time began to increase) that I 
should be enabled at some future Period, to avow with Repu- 
tation and Propriety, a tender attachment for one of the most 
lovely and amiable of my Female Friends. An Honorable and 
sincere Affection for female Virtue and Accomplishments is 
what never can justly raise a Blush in any Face. Sure I am 
you'll think it need not in mine, when I mention Miss Sally 
Bromfield as the Object of my highest Esteem and Regard. 1 

As it was ever my intention to act agreable to the strictest 
Rules of Justice and Honour, I have hitherto kept this a Secret 
in my own Breast, thinking it totally unbecoming a generous 
Mind, under such circumstances as mine, to disturb a Lady's 
repose by soliciting a Return of that Regard and attention 
which my present situation forbids me to expect. To a Broth- 
er's sympathiszing Friendship do I now first trust this Secret 
of my Soul. I should not now have done it had I not wanted 
that advice which your good Judgement and knowledge of the 
World so well quallifies you to give, and the many and Contin- 
ued Marks I have experienced of your kindness and disinter- 
ested Friendship, prompts me to ask. The Confusions which 
commenced upon the fatal Era of the Tea's arrival, at once 
blasted all my fondest hopes. I at once saw all my prospects 
vanish, and then first felt the corroding Anguish of Disapoint- 
ment. 2 My Sperits sunk and I found myself obliged to take a 

1 Sarah Bromfield (1757-183 1) married Eliphalet Pearson in 1786. She 
was daughter of Henry and Margaret (Fayerweather) Bromfield. 

2 First draft: "Foreseeing that if one spark of British Spir[i]t Still an[i]mated 
the Councills of the Nation she would resent the Outrage and insult offer'd her 
Laws and Commerce, my Spir[i]ts sunk, etc." 

1775 Copley -Pelham Letters 363 

journey to recover my health, which a constant Succession of 
new Scenes, with a change of Air and Exercise by the blessing 
of Heaven, in a few months effected. Soon after my Return 
from Philadelphia, increasing Buisness, again flattered my 
ardent Wishes. But Alass! a few Weeks soon cut short my 
glimmering prospect and entirely dissipated every remaining 
Hope. Those events which I long foresaw have taken place 
and Civil War with all its Horrors, Now blasts every tender 
Connection, every Social Tie upon which the happyness of 
mankind so materially depends. We are now unhappyly a 
float in one common Ruin 1 and have only left us the Mortifying 
Remembrance, of those halcyon days of ease and peace, which 
we now in vain, wish to reinjoy. From this State of my mind you 
will be the better enabled to direct my future destination. I 
propose remaining here this Winter in hopes you will favour me 
with your early advice, as that delivered with freedom, will 
greatly determine my Conduct. I congratulate you and Mrs. 
Copley, upon her safe arrival with my dear little Fri[e]nds in 
London, My hon'd Mamma joins me in this and in tender 
Regards and good Wishes for you my Sister and the little 
Family. I cant conclude without expressing my uneasiness at 
your long Silence, when I returned from the southward near a 
year ago I rec'd 8 Letters which had arrived during my absence; 
since which I have not had a line from you. I speak sincerely 
when I say this long Silence hurts me much. Your affectionate 
Conduct forbids my thinking it any want of Regard. Upon the 
strictest Review I cant find the cause originateing in myself, 
Nor yet can I attribute it to the accidental loss of Letters, as 8 
in six Months and none in twelve hold no possable proportion. 

1 First draft: "The Ambition of some and the intemperate and misguided Zeal 
of others has most unhappyly overwhelm'd us in one common Ruin." 


364 Copley -Pelham Letters 1775 

You will do me a kindness if you would explain the Cause. I am, 
my Dear Friend, your most affectionate Brother and humble 


Henry Pelham to Copley 

Boston, Jany. 27, 1776. 
My dear Brother, 

One or two Vessels have slipped away without my writeing 
to you. sorry I am that in reassuming the Pen after so long an 
Omission, I am called upon to condole with you and my dear 
Sister upon the death of your little Son, who died the 19th 
Instant of a consumption with which he has been declining for 
some months past. As Mrs. Bromfield has very lately given 
my Sister an Account of the Progress of his disorder till within 
a few days of his death I shall omitt it. Being confmd with a 
Cold I had not seen him for several days, till Nurse sent to 
aquaint me he was very ill and that she thought he could not 
live, upon my going down I found him very near his end, lying 
seemingly insensable with every symptom of an approaching 
dissolution which in a few Hours took place. Soul and Body 
perhaps never parted with less pain than those of my amiable 
and lovely little Friend's. Not a groan or a Struggle discom- 
posed his innocent and chearfull face. His remains were de- 
posited in Mr. Clarke's tomb. The funeral was from Mr. 
Bromfield's. Mr. Parker 1 read the burial Service. Thus early 
has our little Friend paid the great Debt of Nature and left the 
Vice and Miseries of this life for the unchan[g]able joys and 
Happyness of blessd Eternity. Tho' Affection may call forth 
a tear yet Reason and Humanity forbid our mour[n]ing his 
departure. When we take a Retrospective View of past Life 

1 Samuel Parker, of Trinitv Church. „ 

177 6 Copley -Pelham Letters 365 

and recollect the innumerable troubles and Disapointments, 
The Cares and Anxieties which have tarnishd our happyest 
Hours; when we see the distress and Danger in which the great- 
est part of our fellow mortals are involved, and reflect upon the 
various ills attendant upon the happyest in this Mortal State, 
We cant view Death without his Horrors. But when we turn 
our eyes to the bright scenes which lie beyond the grave, the 
unclouded and serene Happyness, the virtuous and good there, 
find Death instead of appearing the King of Terrors to them 
will assum[e] the milder aspect of a Messenger of Peace and 

I should do injustice was I not to mention the great care and 
faithfulness with which nurse discharged her Duty by the 
infant. Her whole attention and time was devoted to its com- 
fort and welfare: and she appeared to have a real affection for 
her charge. 

I have before incidentally mentioned the receipt of your very 
agreable favour of March the 14, 1775, tho it was above Nine 
Months before it came to hand. I found it in the post Office : 
Somebody had Curiosity eno' to open it. This is a liberty now 
very frequently taken: However they had manners eno' to 
seal it again, which I thank them for: I mention this to give 
you a caution both as to the subject on which you write and 
to the manner in which you send your Letters. You are to 
recollect that I now live under a military goverm[e]nt, where the 
will of the commander in Chief is the Law and the good of the 
service is the rule of Action: The Army was perhaps never 
governed by a better sett of general Officers than the present, 
weither we consider them as Soldiers, as Men, or as Gentlemen. 
Genel. Howe's and Lord Percy's Character as Soldiers are 
establishd by their Bravery and good Conduct since they have 

366 Copley -Pelham Letters 1776 

been in America. Their generosity and Virtues in private Life 
are universally known and acknowledged: But I am sorry to 
say the secrescy that attends military operations affords 
innumerable Opertunities to the Envious, the Revengefull, the 
mischeviously wicked, to blast, undiscoverd and unknown, the 
Characters and Reputation of those who are infinitely better 
Subjects and better Men than themselves, several Instances 
of this kind have lately taken place. I have hitherto avoided 
every cause of Blame, on the contrary, am considered as what 
I really am, a faithfull and loyal Subject to the most amiable 
and Injured of soveriegns, and am hon'd with the Civilities 
and Notice of some of the first Characters in America, yet I have 
had and possably may now have Enemies who would improve 
even an innocent peice of prudential advice to my disadvantage. 
I could therefore wish you to exclude all political Observations 
from your Letters, and leave me to scrable thro this turbulent 
and Dangerous Contest as well as I can. For you[r] Observa- 
tions, tho intended for my Benefit, may eventually prove 
detrimental, the Events of war being precarious, and it being 
entirely uncertain into whose hands your letters may fall, both 
sides now opening all they meet with : The men of war are the 
safest Conveyances, the transport and provision Vessells too 
frequently becoming prize to the privatiers which have for 
some time and still Continue to infest these Seas : I have been 
more perticular and lengthey on this head, as it will reach your 
hands unexamined, Sir Wm. Pepperell taking the care of it: I 
am much grieved at the disagreable diference that subsists 
between you and him, for I must consider him as a very amiable 
and Worthy man. I wish something might take place to remove 
it, as I think it founded intirely on Missapprehension and Mis- 
take : As to News we seldom have any. We still continue in the 

1776 Copley -Pelham Letters 367 

same State as when Mr. Clarke left us. 1 Both side[s] strengthing 
their Works, and preventing the other from receiv'g supplies. 
Pork and peas, and little eno of that, still continues to be our 
Diet: a baked Rice pudding without butter milk or Eggs, or 
a little salt fish without Butter, we think luxurious living. 
Lamenting our most disagreable Situation is the only themfe] 
of our discourse. Contriving ways and means to gett a pound 
of Butter, a quart of peas to eat, or 3 or 4 rotten boards the 
ruins of some old barn to burn, our only buisness; and the 
recollection of our having some friends at a Distance from this 
scene of Anarchy and Confusion almost our only Happyness. 
Our hond. Mamma gives her kind Love and Blessing to you 
my Sister and the Lovely little ones : she is in great trouble on 
the death of her little grandson, desires sincerely to condole 
with you on the Event, her Health is nearly the same as when 
you saw her, rather injured by the very poor living we have. 
She, as well as myself, are rendered very happy upon hearing 
of you or my Sister, if you knew what joy it gives us I am cer- 
tain no opertunity would escape unimproved. I intended to 
have observed upon some parts of your very improv'g Letter, 
but defer it till my next, having already I fear tired your 
patienc[e], tho I have not yet done. You desire me to be very 
perticular. I will so, without observing order or Method. My 
next perhaps will be accompanied with a plan of Boston and 
Charlestown which I have been surveying with the Country for 
three or four miles round this town in this plan I lay down all 
the works which are erec[t]ed to confine the Troops and Torrys 
to the narrow limitts we now range in: I dont think if I had 
Liberty I could find the way to Cambridge, tho I am so well 

1 The Clarke family arrived in London, December 24, 1774, twenty-one 
days from Boston. 

368 Copley -Pe/bam Letters 1776 

aqua[i]nted with the Road, not a Hillock 6 feet High but 
What is entrench'd, not a pass where a man could go but what 
is defended by Cannon; fences pulled down, houses removed, 
Woods grubed up, Fields cut into trenches and molded into 
Ramparts, are but a part of the Changes the country has gone 
thro. Nor has Boston been free from the Effects of War. An 
hundred places you might be brought to and you not know 
where you were. I doubt if you would know the town at 
all. Charlestown I am sure you would not. there not a Tree, 
not an house, not even so much as a stick of wood as large 
as your hand remains. The very Hills seem to have altered 
ther form. In Boston almost all the fences: a great Num- 
ber of Wooden Houses, perhaps 150, have been pull'd down 
to serve for fewel. in this ruin you[r] Estate has escaped, 
no Injury being done it; Dr. Byles', Dr. Cooper's, Dr. 
Ma[t]hew's Meeting Houses turned into Barracks. Dr. Sew- 
ells' into a Riding School, Fanuel Hall into a Theatre. The 
old North pulled down and burnt. Every rising fortified, in 
short nothing but an actual sight of the town can give an Idea 
of its situation. My Brother Pelham and family I have not 
hea[r]d any thing of for 8 Months, nor dont know with[e]r they 
are dead or alive: Mr. and Mrs. Bromfield are well. I there 
frequently] spend some of my agreable Hours: Betzey is well; 
she and little Ned were lately inoculated; they are both recov- 
ered, he was finely pepered off with it: In the natural Way it 
has been very fatal 1 in 3 dying, by innoculati[o]n in gener[a]l 
it was very favourable. By a letter Mr. Bromfield has lately 
rec'd from Harry I was made very happy to find that himself 
with Miss Nabby 1 and my very amiable and lovely f r[i]end were 
well. Miss Sally spend[s] the Winter at Andover; Nabby at 

1 Abigail Bromfield (1753-1791) married Daniel Denison Rogers. 

1776 Copley -Pelham Letters 369 

Salem. I have amused myself for some hours past with viewing 
4 fine prints I bought yesterday at Vendue. 3 of them please 
me very much, they are the portraits of Lady Middleton, half 
length, after Sir P. Lely; the Dutches of Ancaster, whole length, 
after Hudson; and Lady Campbell, the duke of Argyle's 
Daughter, whole leng[th], after Ramsay, all three good impres- 
sion[s] from McArdells plates. 1 There is a Report in Town that 
the Rebels have mett with a consider'ble defeat at Quebeck, 
that their general Montgomery with 200 of his Men are killed, 
and that Coll. Arnold with 300 more are prisoners. This report 
seem[s] generally believ[e]d. We hope soon to hear of you[r] 
and Mr. Clarkes arrival in E. be kind eno to present My 
Mamas and my respectfull Compli[ments] to him. my kindest 
Love and good wi[s]hes attend you, my Sister, and the young 
family. I wish you to remember that in Boston you have a 
sincerely affectionate Brother, who thanks you for all your 
favours and is your very hum. Sert. 

H. P. 

Henry Pelham to [Henry Bromfield, Jr.] 

Boston, Feb. 4, [1776.] 

the 2 design of this is to invite you to meet me at the lines on 
Tuesdfay] the 20th. Some things of a domestick kind I wish a 
Conference] upon. The Friends[h]ip that Subsists between us 
I hope will be a stimulus in your part as it will be on mine to let 
nothing but unavoidable accidents disapo[i]nt the pleasure I 
anticipate, in this Interview. Should you be prevented on that 
day come the Tuesday Following: I wish you would come down 
with my Brother Pelham I have wrote to him desiring it, but 

1 James MacArdell (i729?-i765). 

2 Erased: "I have the generals leave to meet." 

370 Copley -Pelham Letters 1776 

for fear my Letter should not come to his hands I beg you to 
write him a line as soon as you receive this acquainting him 
with its contents, and my earnest desire to see him. 

Your Fr[i]ends are all will. Give my kind Love to the 
Ladys and believe me to be with sincere affection my Dear 
Fr[i]end, your very hum sert. 

Henry Pelham. 

Henry Bromfield, Jr. to Henry Pelham 

My Dear Friend, 

Your Letter of 27th Decem'r I did not receive till my Return 
from Eastward abo't a Fortnight past: I believe I need not 
assure you it mett with a most cordial Reception. The Sensa- 
tions it produced are not easy to be described; let your own 
Feelings declare them. 

It serv'd to recall to my Imagination the pleasing past; when 
surrounded by the sweet Circle of Peace, blest with the Smiles 
of Lenient Heaven, we enjoy'd the Social Converse of Rela- 
tions, Connections and Friends, which temper'd the Business 
of the Day, and while it tended to our mutual Comfort and 
Pleasure, rendered even the Fatigues of it agreable. How happy 
then our Lot. None could be more so. But, Alas ! How chang'd 
is the Scene. The Reflection on our past Happiness serves but 
to make the Sense of our present Deprivation the more painful. 
Hapless Boston I often see at a Distance, but am at a Loss to 
call a Neighbour and take a friendly Walk. How different was 
our Situation at our last Meeting from what we can each recol- 
lect, on that very Spot, where, engag'd in friendly Intercourse, 
our Feet have often Stray'd. 

1776 Copley -Pelham Letters 371 

Our Interview was very short, and from the Contents of 
your last Letter, which came to Hand since, I have Reason to 
think you did not communicate all you intended. I shall apply 
for Leave to accompany the next Flag, in Hopes of meeting 
my Father. Shall be happy to meet you again before you 

The Motive you are pleas'd to ascribe to me is really flatter- 
ing, which I will overlook, considering it was dictated by the 
Partiality of a Friend. Mr. Babcock's Acco't with the Order on 
him I left sometime ago with Mr. Webb of Wethersfield; 
whether he has reed the Money he has not yet acquainted me, 
but I expect to hear from him Soon. The Letter you mention 
as inclos'd I have not Seen. The Post Master assures me it 
is forwarded to New Haven. 

I have desir'd my Father to pay you £10.12.8 Lawf. My., 
being the Amo't of Sale of your Horse and Carriage. I wish it 
was more, but is the most I could obtain. Letters from my 
Uncle in London, as late as 2d Novr. mention Mrs. Copley 
being still with him; that her little Family had pass'd thro' the 
small pox; and they were all well. From his Saying nothing of 
Mr. Copley I conclude he was not arriv'd there. The Ladies 
are well and beg their Compliments. Please to make mine to 
such as enquire after me, and should I be disapointed of the 
Happiness of Seeing my Father, present my Duty to him and 
my Mother. O ! How moving is it to be so near and yet debarr'd 
so great a Pleasure. Surely this Separation of Friends is to be 
deplor'd as the greatest Misery of these most distressing Times. 
Favor them with as much of your Company as your Conven- 
ience will admit of: it was always priz'd, and I know will be 
particularly now. 

I trust a Separation of our Persons will never tend to lessen 

37 2 Copley -Pelham Letters 1776 

our mutual Regard, and assure you, that whatever my Situa- 
tion be, 

I am most Sincerely and affectionately your's 

Henry Bromfield, Jun. 

Andover, Feby. 25th, 1776. 

Dr. Henry Caner 1 to Copley 

[No date.] 
Dear Sir, 

I am surprized that what Rubens says of Da Vinci's peice 
should incline you to think of that in my Possession as incom- 
patible with his Description. I confess it has further con- 
firm'd me in the opinion that it can be no other than the Pro- 
duction of that great Master. If it be allow'd that Rubens and 
Webb are describing the same Peice, I do not see how this Con- 
clusion can be avoided, since Rubens's description is fairly 
reconcileable, and Webb's is undeniably particular. In the 
present Peice our Saviour is in the midst, as free and unencum- 
ber'd as the truth of the history will admit; His attitude is 
grave; his Arms quite free, one of them easily extended, the 
other hand lightly resting upon the Shoulder of the beloved 
Disciple. The Apostles have suitable places assigned them, and 
appear agitated agreeable to the Occasion. 

I fancy if you and I were to consult the Peice together once 

more with Rubens's and Webb's Description before us, we 

should not only concurr in Opinion, but pronounce in favour of 

this Peice as the Production of da Vinci. I am, Sir, Your most 

humble Servant, 

H. Caner. 

Friday 10 o'Clock. 

1 Dr. Caner was rector of King's Chapel, 1 747-1 776. 

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Copley -Pelham Letters 373 

Copley to Henry Pelham 

[No date.] 
Dear Harry, 

the weither being very damp and I have somthing of a 

Cold so thought proper to stay at home to Day should be 

glad to know how our Mamma is and Snap is. I am engaged 

to paint Mr. Taylors 1 Face tomorrow at 9 o'Clock therefore 

beg you will set my Pallet in the morn'g accordingly pray 

give my Affectionate Duty to our Hon'd Mamma, and accept 

my Love 

J. S. Copley. 

Sunday Even'g. 

1 See page 77, supra. 

374 Copley -Pelham Letters 1783 



% 1^ ; 










Abbot, Samuel, 107. 
Adams, Abigail, 185 n.; portrait, 374. 
Adams, John, 122 n.\ portrait, 374. 
Adams, Samuel, 107, 210, 264 n., 288, 344; 

portrait, 294, 308. 
Ainslie, Thomas, portrait, 23, 30. 
Algarotti, Francesco, Count, 51. 
Allen, William, 163, 272, 293, 341. 
Amory, John, 107. 

Anderson, James, on Free-Masons, 185. 
Andrews, Benjamin, portrait, 197. 
Antonio, 177. 

Apthorp, Charles Ward, 128. 
Apthorp, Trecothick and, 88. 
Apthorp, snow, 30. 
Arms, coat of, 89. 
Arnold, Benedict, 369. 
Association, Continental Congress, 274. 
Auchmuty, Samuel, 166, 198, 292. 
Austen, Henry, 180. 
Avery, John, 107. 

Babcock, Adam, 267, 371; letter, 281. 
Babcock, Mrs., 313. 

Baker, , 13 «.; death, 15, 16. 

Balch, , 125. 

Balston, Nathaniel, 107. 

Bambridge, , 208. 

Bannister, John, 146. 

Bannister, Samuel, 131 «. 

Bannister, Thomas, 131, 178, 184. 

Barbados, 38. 

Barber, Nathaniel, 95. 

Barber, Wilkes, 95, 98. 

Barnard, John, 85, 86. 

Barrell, Joseph, 162. 

Barrett, John, 107. 

Barrett, Mrs., 168 n. 

Barrett, Miss, 167. 

Barrow, , 1 14. 

Barry, Henry, 288 n. 

Bayard, , 126, 129, 134, 292. 

Bernard, Francis, Jr., 96. 

Billings, Mrs., 183. 

Bingham, William, 206. 

Bliss, Moses, 291. 

Bossley, , 278. 

Boston, fire, 1760, 23; smallpox, 29, 276, 
368; stamp office, 36; massacre plate, 83; 
powder house, 106; disturbances, 201, 211, 
218, 232, 267, 288, 290, 312, 344; besieged, 
324, 365; map, 350, 367. 

Botetourt, Baron, 96. 

Bours, John, 281. 

Bowdoin, James, letter, 185. 

Bowen, Jabez, 281. 

Bowes, Nicholas, 107. 

Box, John, 29, 107. 

"Boy with the Squirrel," 35, 37, 48, 50, 59; 
Reynolds on, 41; West, 43. 

Boydell, John, 82. 

Boylston, Nicholas, 107, 136, 149. 

Boylston, Mrs. Thomas, 213 n., 215. 

Boylston, Ward Nicholas, 330. 

Brattle Street Church, Copley's designs, 
185, 186. 

Brattle, Thomas, 107, 186, 359. 

Brimmer, Herman, 107. 

Brimmer, Martin, 107. 

Britannia, 6. 

Bromfield, Abigail, 368. 

Bromfield, Hannah (Clarke), 115 n. 

Bromfield, Henry, Sr., 115, 362 n. 

Bromfield, Henry, Jr., 315, 317, 325, 358, 
368, 369; letter, 370. 

Bromfield, Margaret (Fayerweather), 362 n. 

Bromfield, Sarah, 314, 317, 362, 368. 

Bromfield, Thomas, 115, 140, 344, 359, 371. 

Bruce, R. G., 34, 35, 37, 44, 48, 49, 68; let- 
ters, 41, 55, 58. 

Buccleugh, Duchess of, 6 n. 

Bulfinch, Thomas, 149. 

Bunker Hill, 345. 

Burbeck, , 263. 

Butler, , 183. 

Byers, James, 204, 205. 




- IS- 

Calef, Robert, 193. 

Callahan, Captain, 318. 

Campbell, Lord William, 178. 

Caner, Henry, 372. 

Cardross, Lord, 42. 

Carolina Matilda, of Denmark, 183. 

Carson, William, 187. 

Carter, George, Copley's companion in Italy, 
227, 252, 253, 287. 

Chardon, Peter, 93, 334. 

Chardon, , 311. 

Charles II, Van Dyck and, 171. 

Charlestown, Mass., burning of, 345; sur- 
vey, 346, 35 !» 356. 

Charlotte, Queen, 283. 

Charnock, Mary, 81 n. 

Checkley, John, 125, 147. 

Christian VII, of Denmark, 183. 

Church, Benjamin, 107, 202. 

Church, Mrs., 131. 

Clarke, Hannah, 115 n. 

Clarke, Jonathan, 141, 162, 226, 227, 237; 
letter, 190; signature, 193. 

Clarke, Lucy, 361. 

Clarke, Mary, 3 II n. 

Clarke, Richard, 88, 92 «., 107, 351; perse- 
cution, 202, 213; portrait, 279, 287, 315; 
goes to England, 367. 

Clarke, Sarah, 140. 

Clarke, Susannah (Farnum), 92 n. 

Clarke, William, 311 n. 

Cleverly, Stephen, 107. 

Compton, Henry, 20. 

Compton, John, 20. 

Compton, Thomas, 18, 20. 

Concert Hall, Boston, 350. 

Concord, affair of, 314, 319, 322. 

Congress, Continental, 230, 270, 274, 347. 

Conway, Lady Henrietta, 9 n., 13. 

Cooper, Ann (Singleton), 198, 217, 272. 

Cooper, Myles, portrait, 70, 73, 74, 75, 264, 

Copley, Clarke, birth, 285, 287; death, 364. 

Copley, Elizabeth Clarke, 99, 271. 

Copley, John Singleton, 107, 163, 271; art 
in America, 26, 65; desires mezzotinter, 
31; loss of crayon drawings, 34; Fellow 
of Society of Artists, 45, 63; on West, 49, 
106, 226; marriage, 92, 93; Peak's plate, 
100; New York visit, 112, 116, 127, 136, 
173, 184; house on Mount Vernon, 122, 

130, 148, 151, 155, 177; on Philadelphia, 
163; Brattle Street Church, 185; visit to 
Europe, 198; in England, 223; on painting, 
240, 244, 250, 295, 333; in France, 242; 
in Italy, 292; copies Correggio, 328; on 
Boston troubles, 343; American rebellion, 

Portraits: J. Adams, 374; Ainslie, 23; An- 
drews, 197; Babcock, 313; Barber, 95, 98; 
Carson, 287; Cooper, 70, 308; Devereux, 
154, 182; Flucker, 223; Gage, 77, 94, 117, 
174, 192, 197; Gibbes, 187; Gray, 187; 
Green, 230; Greenwood, 81, 98, 116, 182; 
Hollis, 75, 79; Holyoke, 189; Hooper, 
199, 200, 247; Hubbard, 27, 213 «.; Hut- 
chinson, 242; Izard, 295; Jackson, 35; 
Leigh, 27; Livius, 60, 61; McEvers, 141; 
Mackintosh, 284; H. Pelham, 35; Rich- 
ards, 128; Rogers, 67; Royall, 284; Sewall, 
31, 32; Small, 77; Taylor, 373; Traille, 
28; Webb, 219; Wentworth, 85, 87, 313; 
Winthrop, 294; New York list, 114; pic- 
ture of a girl, S3, 56, 59. 
Letters: 31, 32, 35, 47, 49, 50, 63, 64, 65, 66, 
69, 71, 76, 97, 105, 112, 116, 120, 132, 136, 
141, 144, 151, 159, 163, 165, 171, 173, 175, 
179, 211, 213, 217, 223, 225, 234, 238, 242, 
247, 253, 256, 261, 294, 328, 333, 343, 

348, 352, 373; 
Copley, John Singleton, Jr., 271. 
Copley, Mary, 271. 
Copley, Mary (Singleton), 16 n. 
Copley, Richard, 16 n. 
Copley, Susannah Farnum (Clarke), 92 «.; 

letters, 357; leaves America, 314, 318, 

Cordis, Joseph, 347 n. 
Cordis, Rebecca (Russell), 347 n. 
Coustoux, the elder, 249. 
Crayons, Swiss, 26; use of, 51, 67. 
Critics, art, 58. 
Cunningham, Nathaniel, 13 1 n. 

Curson, , 268, 292. 

Cushing, John, 176. 
Cushing, Thomas, 107. 

Dartmouth, Lord, 228. 
Dashwood, Samuel, 107. 
Daveson, Captain, 37. 
Davis, Benjamin, 212. 
Davis, Solomon, 107. 
Davis, William, 107. 



Dawson, Mrs., 125, 130, 171. 

Dean, , 336. 

DeLancey, Alice, 330 «. 
DeLancey, Peter, 330 n. 
Deloraine, Elizabeth Scott, lady, 6 «., 12. 
Deming, John, 107. 
Denmark, scandal in, 183. 
Denny, William, 202. 
Derby, John, 140. 

Devereux, Mrs. [see Mary Greenwood], por- 
trait, 105, 154, 182 n. 
Dick, Sir John, 205. 
Dickinson, John, reported death, 80. 

Dipper, , 91. 

Dodge, Johanna, 29. 
Doggett, Samuel, 107. 
Ducarel, Andrew Colter, 22. 

Du Fresnoy, , 170. 

Dumaresque, Philip, 5 «., 77> I0 7- 

Edes, Benjamin, 107. 
Eliot, Andrew, note, 79. 
Eliot, Samuel, 107. 
Erving, John, 107, 238. 

Fairweather, Thomas, 27. 
Fayerweather, Margaret, 362 n. 
Fayerweather, Samuel, on Leigh's picture, 

Feke, , 264 n. 

Fence, English, 234. 
Fenno's pasture, 142. 
Fenwick, Elizabeth, 6 n. 
Fenwick, John, 6 n. 
Fernald, Captain, 61. 
Fisher, Edward, 309. 

Flagg, , 169, 173. 

Flucker, Thomas, 36, 107; portrait, 223. 

Folger, -, 359. 

Fones, Captain, 6 n. 

Fores, Captain, 6. 

Franklin, Benjamin, 104, 294, 309. 

Fraser, Sir Alexander, 7 «. 

Fraser, Carey, fn. 

Gage, Margaret (Kemble), 114, 358; por- 
trait, 117, 174, 192, 197. 

Gage, Thomas, Viscount, 94, 228, 236, 239. 

Gage, Thomas, 163, 320, 322, 346, 351; por- 
trait, 77, 94. 

Gaine, , 264 n. 

Gardiner, Silvester, 107. 

Germain, Lord George, 357 n. 

Gerrish, Hannah Cooper, 100 n. 

Gerrish, Miss, 38. 

Geyer, Frederick William, 359. 

Gill, John, 107. 

Glover, Nathaniel, 107, 179. 

Goff, , 133, 146. 

Goldthwait, Major, 112, 133, 138, 176. 

Gooch, or Gough, , 156, 160. 

Gore, John, 107, 146, 173. 

Gough, or Gooch, , 156, 160. 

Grant, Peter, 206, 208. 

Gray, Thomas, 186, 187. 

Gray, Mrs., 187. 

Green, Edward, 125, 228 «., 229, 267. 

Green, John, 96, 162, 165, 171. 

Green, Joseph, 107, 125. 

Green, Mary (Storer), 125, 229 n. 

Greene, Benjamin, 107. 

Greene, David, 107. 

Greene, Elizabeth Clarke (Copley), -99. 

Greene, Gardiner, 99. 

Greene, Rufus, 107. 

Greenleaf, Oliver, 107. 

Greenleaf, Stephen, 107, 299. 

Greenwood, John, 88 n., 105, 328; portrait 
of Prince, 19; letter, 81; picture agent, 82. 

Greenwood, Mary (Charnock), [Mrs. Dev- 
ereux?], 81 «., 98, 116. 

Grosvenor, Richard, Earl, 237. 

Guy, Mrs., , 9, 13. 

Hale, Roger, 35, 48 n., 55, 69, 191. 

Hall, Elihu, 233, 268. 

Hallowell, Benjamin, 36, 350. 

Hamilton, Gavin, 300, 339, 342. 

Hamilton, James, 272, 293. 

Hamilton, Sir William, 204. 

Hancock, John, 107, 124, 153, 186, 212, 264, 
267, 344; letter, 180; lottery, 184; dun- 
ning, 232; portrait, 308. 

Harmonside, , 120 «., 123. 

Hatch, Nathaniel, 238. 

Hayley, George, 95. 

Hayman, Francis, 59. 

Heard, , 265. 

Henderson, , 38, 202. 

Henshaw, William, 107. 

Higgins, Elizabeth (Pelham), 108 n. 

Higgins, William, 108 n. 

Hillhouse, , 3. 

Hiscox, Thomas, 264 n. 

3 8o 


Hobby, , 91, 93. 

Holliday, Edward, 107. 

Hollis, Thomas, portrait, 75, 79. 

Holyoke, Edward, 189 n.; Hollis portrait, 

75; portrait, 189. 
Holyoke, Margaret, 189 n. 
Honeyman, James, 264 n. 
Hooper, Robert, 247. 
Hooper, Sarah (Woodbridge), 200. 
Hooper, Stephen, portrait, 199, 200, 247. 
Hopkins, Stephen, 275 n. 
Horn, Count de, 283 n. 
Howard, Martin, 36. 
Howe, Sir William, 346, 351, 365; dedication 

of map, 356. 
Hubbard, Daniel, 107. 
Hubbard, Thankfull, 27. 
Hubbard, Thomas, 107, 213 n.\ death of 

wife, 213 «., 215. 

Huges, -, 357. 

Huline, Captain, 60 n. 

Humphreys, , 331. 

Hurd, John, 84, 87. 

Hust, , 114. 

Hutchinson, Elizabeth, 118 n. 
Hutchinson, Shrimpton, West to, 118, 154; 

to Copley, 143. 
Hutchinson, Thomas, 36, 87, 237, 301, 318; 

portrait, 242. 
Hutchinson, William, 118 «., 163. 
Hyde, Lady Mary, 9 n. 
Hyde, , 219. 

Independency, 351. 

Ingraham, , 288. 

Inman, , 146. 

Izard, Alice (de Lancey), 330 n. 
Izard, Ralph, 294, 330, 360; portrait, 295, 
300, 307. 

Jackson, Joseph, 35. 

Jacobson, , 36. 

Jamaica, Morgan's visit, 209. 
Jamineau, Isaac, 206, 209. 

Jarvis, Dr. , 97 «., 98, 116. 

Jenkins, Robert, 19. 
John Galley, 60 n. 
Johnson, James (?), 350. 
Johnson, Samuel, 46 n. 
Johnston, Thomas, 88 n. 
Johnston, William, letter, 88. 
Johnston, Miss, 114. 

Johonnot, Francis, 107. 

Johonnot, Gabriel, 202. 

Jones, Richard, 180. 

Jones, Doctor, 278. 

Joy, , mare, 117, 121, 128; house, 

124, 130, 137, 147, 156, 169; illness, 149, 


Joyce, , 218. 

Juliana Maria, of Denmark, 183. 

Kauffmann, Angelica, 206; portrait, 269 «., 

277, 282. 
Kauffmann, Johann Josef, 283 n. 
Kaye, Joseph, 22. 

Kelberg, , 60. 

Kemble, Stephen, 112, 113. 
Kemp, John Taber, 1 14. 

Kennedy, , 58. 

King, Anthony, 216, 270, 321 n. 
King, remonstrance to, 157. 
Kley, , 217. 

Lands, American, 182. 

Laughton, , 149. 

Laurens, Henry, 27 n. 

Layman, 339. 

League and covenant, 1774, 233. 

Lechmere, Richard, 123. 

Lee, Charles, 288, 347. 

Lee, Joseph, 153, 213, 215, 266, 276, 277, 

280; persecution of, 291. 
Leigh, Sir Egerton, 27 n. 
Leigh, Peter, portrait, 27. 
Leonard, Thomas, 107. 
Letter, a lost, 79, 80. 
Lexington, affair of, 314, 319, 322, 33a. 
Liddle, Harry, 91. 
Lighthouse, destruction of, 346. 
Lime trees, 126, 157. 
Liotard, Jean Etienne, 26. 
Livius, George, letter, 60, 61. 

Logan, , 19. 

Long Island, descent on, 345. 
Loring, Hannah, 312 n. 
Loring, Joshua, 45, 120, 123. 
Loring, Nathaniel, 312 n. 
Lottery, 180. 

Lovell, , 131. 

Low, , 268. 

Lowrey, Margaret, 3 «., 
Lowrey, Richard, 80. 
Lowrey, , 15. 

80 n. 




Loyal Association, 46 n. 

Mount Pleasant, 131 n. 

Loyd, , 117. 

Mumford, Peter, 28, 265, 309. 
Murray, Samuel, 134. 

j - ,uc y> » iz 4> I 3°- 

Lynde, Benjamin, 176. 

Myers, , 58. 

MacArdell, James, 369. 

Nelson, John, 84 n., 88. 

McElwain, Peggy, 120, 125, 169; letter to, 

New England Coffee House, London, 



Newell, Joseph, 186. 

McEvers, Charles, 1 14 n. 

New Haven, town meeting, 281. 

McEvers, James, 128. 

Newport, R. I., slave trade, 275. 

McEvers, John, 1 14 n. 

Newton, Francis Milner, 46, 63. 

Mcintosh, Elizabeth, 29 n. 

New York, Copley in, 117; political 


Mackintosh, , portrait, 284. 

rest, 274. 

Mallett, Jonathan, 114. 

Nichols, , 313. 

Mann, Sir Horace, 205. 

Noddle's Island, 344. 

Martin, Josiah, 128, 134. 

Mascarene, Jean Paul, 189 n. 

Ogilvie, John, 114. 

Mascarene, John, 189 n. 

Oil, boiling of, 89. 

Mascarene, Margaret (Holyoke), 189. 

Okey, Samuel, 264, 293, 308. 

Mather, Cotton, print of, 5. 

Oliver, Mary (Clarke), 311. 

Matthews, Albert, 134 n. 

Orange tree, Boston, 28. 

Maturin, Gabriel, 114. 

Otis, James, fee, 122, 126, 129, 133, 138, 


Melville, Thomas, 43 n. 

152; health, 155, 167. 

Melville, Mrs., 43, 57. 

Meriam, , 1 10. 

Paddock, Adino, 107. 

Paine, Robert Treat, 135, 151, 152, 

Messenger, , 4> 5>> position, 7. 

r 55> 

Mezzotints, prices, 55. 

159, 167, 169, 176. 

TV /Tl »y«0 -r M 1 

Palmer, Edward, 216. 

iviiers, , 1^0, 134* 

Mifflin, Rebecca Edgel, 301 n. 

Palmer, Thomas, 190, 192, 202, 332. 

Mifflin, Samuel, 301 n. 

Paris, description of, 254. 

Mifflin, Thomas, 205, 224, 272, 293, 347. 

Parker, , 89. 

Miller, William, 35. 

Parker, Samuel, 358, 364. 

Miller, , 156, 160. 

Parsons, , 24. 

Miller, Captain, 84. 

Partridge, Samuel, 107. 

Minerva, 318. 

Peale, Charles Willson, Pitt mezzotint, 


Mitchell, J., 264 n., 308. 

101, 103. 

Mitton, John, 22. 

Pearson, Eliphalet, 362 n. 

Moffat, John, 107. 

Pearson, Sarah (Bromfield), 362 n. 

Moffat, Thomas, 36. 

Pearson, Captain, 89. 

Moffat, , 34. 

Peirce, Sally, 313 n. 

Molineaux, William, 107, 202, 269. 

Pelham, Charles, 4, 7, 12, 17, 38, 216, 


Monmouth, Duchess of, 7. 

312, 369; letters, 19, 80, 99, 107; marriage, 

Monmouth, Duke of, 7 n. 

48; fears of persecution, 316. 

Montgomery, Richard, 369. 

Pelham, Charles, Jr., 81. 

Montresor, John, 114, 165, 175. 

Pelham, Elizabeth, 100 n., 108, no. 

Montresor, , 180. 

Pelham, Hannah Cooper Gerrish, 100 n. 

Mordaunt, Charles, Earl of Peterborough, 

Pelham, Helen, 81. 


Pelham, Helena, 4, 16, 220, 237 «., 


Morgan, John, 268, 277, 292; letters, 205- 

gifts, 7, 9, 12, 15; letters, 9, 12, 14 

, 16, 

209, 282. 

23; bequest, 20; portrait, 24. 

Morris, Mrs. Roger, 114. 

Pelham, Henry, 29, 38, 69; Bruce, on 

> 57; 

Mortier, Abraham, 114. 

Boston massacre, 83, 84, 86; in Philadel- 



phia, 266; frame, 280; miniature for ex- 
hibition, 288, 331; to go to England, 321, 
326, 346, 357; plan of Bunker Hill, 327; 
survey of Charlestown, 346, 351, 356; 
Boston and environs, 350, 357 n., 367. 
Portraits: Clarke, 279, 287; Hooper, 200, 
201, 247; Spring, 109. Letters: 79, 83, 85, 
86, 96, no, 115, 120, 123, 126, 131, 134, 
138, 145, 150, 154, 161, 167, 169, 177, 183, 
198, 199, 200, 220, 228, 265, 269, 272, 273, 
277, 278, 284, 287, 288, 289, 293, 310, 313, 
316, 318, 322, 325, 344, 350, 360, 364, 369. 
* Pelham, Lydia Robinson, 100 n. 

Pelham, Margaret (Lowrey), 3 n. 

Pelham, Martha, 9. 

Pelham, Mary, 100 n. 

Pelham, Mary (Singleton, Copley), 16 n., 68, 
216; will not leave Boston, 346, 349, 357. 

Pelham, Mary (Tyler), 4 n., 48. 

Pelham, Penelope, 10, 12; gifts, 14. 

Pelham, Penelope, 100 n. 

Pelham, Peter, Sr., letters, 3, 6, 11, 14, 16, 
18; needs, 18; will of, 20; portrait, 24. 

Pelham, Peter, Jr., second marriage, 3; 
signature, 5; plate of Prince, 19; bequest 
to, 20. 

Pelham, Peter [3d], 5, 17, 24; in Carolina, 
6, 10, 12, 15, 271; family, 24. 

Pelham, Peter, of Barbados, 37. 

Pelham, Peter, 148; birth, 121. 

Pelham, Thomas, 12, 15, 80, 96, 99. 

Pelham, Thomas, Jr., 99, 100 n. 

Pelham, William, 11; death, 24. 

Penn, John, 272, 293. 

Pepperell, Elizabeth (Royall), 124, 361. 

Pepperell, Sir William, 4 n. 

Pepperell, William, 124 n., 366. 

Percy, Lord, 320, 323, 365. 

Perkins, James, 107. 

Perkins, Dr., 266, 345. 

Pether, William, 52. 

Philadelphia, visit to, 163, 292; politics, 276. 

Phillips, Frederick, 1 14. 

Phillips, William, 107. 

Phillips, , 19. 

Piazza, 131, 134, 136, 147, 162, 169, 175. 

Pierpont, Robert, 107. 

Piles, Roger de, 170. 

Piranesi, Giovanni Battista, 300. 

Pitcher, Moses, 156. 

Pitt, William, Earl of Chatham, Peale's 
mezzotint, 106, 101, 103. 

Pitts, James, 186. 

Pope's night, Boston, 201. 

Portraits, labels on, 278. 

Powder, house, Boston, petition, 106; action, 

122, 124, 172. 
Powell, Elizabeth, 283 n. 
Powell, J., 49, 50, 56; artists' materials, 37. 
Powell, Samuel, 208. 
Pratt, Matthew, 174. 

Pratt, , 131. 

Price, Ezekiel, 107. 
Prince, Samuel, 107. 
Prince, Thomas, 19 n. 

Prout, , 38. 

Putnam, Israel, 347. 

Putnam, James, 122, 126, 129, 134, 138, 144, 

150, 159, 167, 169, 176. 

Quincy, Edmund, 107, 176. 
Quincy, Josiah, 135, 155, 159, 174- 
Quincy, Samuel, 135, 176. 

Raphael Sanzio, Copley on, 301. 

Rea, Daniel, Jr., 84. 

Read, Charles, 293 ; letters, 264, 308. 

Rello, , n, 12. 

Remington, John, 124 n. 

Revere, Paul, 107, 265 ; Boston massacre 

plate, 83. 
Reynolds, Sir Joshua, 170 n., 239; on "Boy 

with a Squirrel," 41; picture of girl, 53,56; 

on Copley, 233, 342; lectures, 241, 299. 
Rice, export permitted, 274. 
Rich, Sir Thomas, 239. 
Richards, Charles Lloyd, 128. 
Richardson, James, 107. 

Robertson, , 350. 

Robertson, Captain, 358. 

Robinson, John, 36; assault on Otis, 122 «., 

Robinson, Lydia, 100 «. 

Robson, , 223, 286, 289. 

Rogers, Abigail (Bromfield), 368 n. 
Rogers, Daniel Denison, 368 n. 
Rogers, Timothy, 67, 70, 72. 
Rooke, Harry, 237 n. 

Rowand, , 19. 

Royall, Elizabeth, 29 n., 124 n. 
Royall, Elizabeth (Mcintosh), 29 n. 
Royall, Isaac, 29; portrait, 284. 
Royall, Mary, 29 n.\ portrait, 284. 
Ruggles, , 347. 



Russell, Joseph, 96. 
Russell, Nathaniel, 193, 287. 
Russell, Rebecca, 347. 
Rutherford, , 203. 

Salisbury, Samuel, 107. 

Schilling, G. W., picture, 76. 

Scollay, John, 42, 57. 

Scott, Ann, 6 n. 

Scott, Elizabeth (Fenwick), 6 n. 

Scott, Francis, 7 n. 

Scott, George, 40. 

Scott, Henry, Earl of Deloraine, 6 n. 

Scott, Lady Isabella, 5. 

Scott, James, Duke of Monmouth, 6 n. 

Scott, James, letter, 46. 

Scott, John, 107. 

Scott, Captain, 87, 227. 

Seton, William, 268, 292. 

Sewall, Jonathan, 352. 

Sewall, Joseph, portrait, 31, 32, 52. 

Sewall Street, Boston, 238. 

Sheaffe, William, 178. 

Shepherd, , 38. 

Sherbrook, Miles, 114, 128. 
Sherburne, Joseph, 107, 133. 
Sidley, Mrs., 240. 

Sigourney, , 129, 133, 138. 

Simons, , 5, 8, 10. 

Simpson, Jonathan, 107. 

Singleton, Ann, 217 n. 

Singleton, John, 16 «., 197, 217 n., 269; 

letter, 215. 
Singleton, Mary, 16 «., 217 n. 
Slade, Denison Rogers, 217 n. 
Slave trade, in Association, 275. 
Small, Alexander, 222. 
Small, John, letters, 77, 93, 221; portrait, 

77; bill, 84. 
Smibert, John, 304, 340. 
Smith, Edward R., 71 n. 
Smith, Isaac, 186. 
Smith, Isaac, Jr., 185. 
Smith, Paschal N., 70, 73, 84, 93, 117, 123, 

126, 132, 155, 169. 
Smith, Mrs., 282. 
Snap, 142, 147, 256, 312. 

Snelling, , 199. 

Soley, John, 107. 

Solly, Edward, 9 n. 

Sons of Liberty, Boston, 201. 

Sparhawk, William Pepperell, 124 n. 

Spierring, Colonel, 26. 

Spriggs, , 158. 

Spring, Marshall, 323. 

Spring, Samuel, portrait, 109. 

Springfield, Mass., mob outbreak, 291. 

Stamps, 1765, 36, 217. 

Stanbridge, Henry, 107. 

Startin, Charles, 140, 145, 177, 224, 266, 

270; letter, 276. 
Startin, Sarah (Clarke), 140 w.;signature, 277. 
Stauffer, David M., 264 n. 

Stephens, , 180. 

Stillman, , 205, 278. 

Storer, Ebenezer, 186. 
Storer, Mary, 125, 229 «. 
Story, William, 36. 
Strange, Sir Robert, 58. 
Struensee, Johan Frederick, 183. 
Stuart, Gilbert, receipt, 374. 
Sweetser, John, Jr., 107. 
Syme, Mrs., 161. 
Symms, Captain, 82, 105. 


- 77, 373- 
Tea importations, 87, 202, 211. 

Temple, , Il8y 143. 

Thames, 140. 

Thayer, Ebenezer, 124 n. 

Thomas, Isaiah, 177 n. 

Thomas, P., 247. 

Timmins, John, 107. 

Tiso, John, 20. 

Titian, Copley on, 164, 305, 333. 

Tradesmen's Protest, Boston, 203. 

Traille, Peter, 36, 57; portrait, 28; letter, 34. 

Trecothick and Apthorp, 88. 

Troutbeck, John, 71. 

Trowbridge, , 133. 

Turk's Head tavern, 45. 
Tyler, Mary, 4 n., 48. 

Tyler, , 308. 

Tyng, , 185. 

Van Dyck, Anthony, paintings by, 164, 170; 

in England, 171. 
Varnishes, 335, 342. 
Vassall, William, 107, 324, 359. 
Verplanck, , 175. 


-, 16. 
Walcott, William, 231. 
Walley, Abiel, 96. 



Walpole, Horatio, 170, 277, 278. 

simile letter, 195; on Italian painters, 

Walter, William, 166, 285. 

196; Copley on, 226; London residence, 

Ward, Artemas, 347. 

227 «., 236; varnish, 336. 

Ward, Lydia, 345. 

Wheatley, Phyllis, 96. 

Ward, Samuel, 275 n. 

Wheatly, , 235. 

Warren, Joseph, 202, 212, 264 n., 


Whitefield, George, 96. 

Washington, George, 347. 

Whitmore, Edward, burial, 25. 

Waterman, Nathaniel, 107. 

Wilkes, John, 98, 157; letter, 95. 

Watson, George, 218. 

Williams, Thomas, 22. 

Webb, Daniel, 303. 

Winslow, Hannah (Loring), 312 n. 

Webb, Joseph, 219, 371. 

Winslow, John, 107. 

Webb, Samuel Blachley, 219 n. 

Winslow, Joshua, 311, 312. 

Wentworth, Daniel, 313 n. 

iVtrtrr T rn 

winter, , 15^* 

Wentworth, Elizabeth, 313 «. 

Winthrop, John, 38, 294, 309. 

Wentworth, John, 84, 87. 

Woodbridge, Sarah, 200 n. 

Wentworth, Joshua, 313. 

Woodside, Captain, 3, 4. 

Wentworth, Sally (Peirce), 313 n. 

Woodward, , 172. 

West, Benjamin, 41, 43, 143, 163 

, 359 

; let- 

Woollett, William, 226 n. 

ters, 43, 52, 72, 116, 118, 194, 1 



Worthington, John, 213, 215, 291. 

with a Squirrel," 43; on historical 


Wright, Joseph, 44. 

tures, 54; plans Copley's visit 

, 72, 


Wright, Patience, 44 w. 

190, 194; Greenwood on, 82; 

an colors, 

118; on Copley, 119, 182, 235, 



Yates, , 141. 

(3flbc RitoertfitJe ptzte 



U. S. A.